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Revolutionary War Journals 
of Henry Dearborn 

Revolutionary War 

Journals of 



Edited from the Original Manuscripts by 
Lloyd A. Brown and Howard H. Peckham 

With a Biographical Essay by 
Hermon Dunlap Smith 

The Caxton Club, Chicago 


Copyright 1939, by The Caxton Club, Chicago 

973. ^ '-**■ > 



SHORTLY after attending the meeting of The Caxton Club 
at which Mr. Hermon D. Smith read his paper on Gen- 
eral Dearborn, Mr. John T. McCutcheon published a 
cartoon in the Chicago Tribune, which, to a considerable extent, 
was illustrative of his own experience. It depicted several Chi- 
cago businessmen as pupils in a school room replying to a ques- 
tion put to them by the teacher: ' ' Gentlemen, you have all heard 
of father Dearborn. What is your conception of himV ' One pupil 
replies: "An old cartoon character with chin whiskers and a 
cigar, standing for Chicago." Another says: "He was one of 
our early settlers. He was named after Fort Dearborn, or the 
other way around. ' ' And another: ' • He ran a big department 
store near Fort Dearborn in the first ward. 

These replies express with little exaggeration the opinions 
held by many substantial and even history conscious Chicagoans 
in regard to their ' ' patron saint. ' ' A few, like Mr. McCutcheon, 
discovered the real General Dearborn through hearing Mr. Smith's 
paper, which includes quotations from Dearborn s journals of 
the Revolutionary War, as well as his important and appar- 
ently hitherto unpublished letter giving orders for the erection 
of the Fort. 

Because of its long association with Chicago, The Caxton Club 
feels that it is especially appropriate that it should present 
General Dearborn and his writings to the city with which his 
name is so closely identified. It is accordingly publishing this 

vi Foreword 

book which contains, in addition to Mr. Smith 's paper, the com- 
plete Revolutionary War journals, including the journal of the 
Yorktown campaign, which has never been published. In order 
to provide the historical setting necessary for the fullest under- 
standing and appreciation of the journals, The Caxton Club se- 
cured as editors of the journals two distinguished Revolutionary 
scholars, Lloyd A. Brown and Howard H. Peckham of the 
William L. Clements Library. The Club believes the book to be 
an important contribution to American historical scholarship . 
Publication of the present volume is in keeping with the tra- 
ditions of the Club, for its earliest publications were in the field 
of American history — translations of three accounts ofLaSalWs 
voyages and discoveries. These were followed by Mrs. John H. 
Kin&e's Wau-Bun; Wake 'fie Id's History of the Black Hawk 
War; The Development of Chicago, 1674-1914, Shown 
in a Series of Contemporary Original Narratives; Charle- 
voix 1 s Journal of a Voyage to North America; John Steele s 
Across the Plains in 1850; Jesse Apple gate s A Day with 
the Cow Column; Jesse A. Apple gate's Recollections of 
My Boyhood; and The Journal of Paul Du Ru, [February 
1 to May 8, 1700], Missionary Priest of Louisiana. 

Theodore W. Koch 

President, The Caxton Club 

*^HD <&* 







Biographical Essay 


Journal I. The Quebec Expedition 


Journal II. The Burgoyne Campaign 


Journal III. 

Operations in the Middle Colonies 115 

Journal IV. Sullivan's Indian Expedition 155 

Journal V. The Yorktown Campaign 195 

Journal VI. Peace Negotiations 2-zy 

Works Consulted 139 

Index 149 


*^HD J&* 

List of Plates 

Portrait, Henry Dearborn Frontispiece 

The Portsmouth Letter 32. 

Map of Quebec 66 

Battle of Monmouth 12.6 

Dearborns Journal 7.0^ 

Map of the Entrance of Chesapeake Bay 2.18 




HENRY DEARBORN served as an officer in the 
American Revolution from April, 177 j, until the 
reduction of the New Hampshire line on March 1, 
1783 . He fought at Bunker Hill and marched on the expedition 
to Quebec. He was active in the Burgoyne campaign, and fol- 
lowing the surrender joined Washington at Valley Forge. He 
attacked with the advance division at Monmouth and after- 
ward did garrison duty in Connecticut . In 1779 he marched 
on the expedition under Sullivan against the Indians, then 
rejoined Washington and later took part in the Yorktown cam- 
paign. Dearborn kept a journal during the entire war, with 
the exception of a six months' period in 1782 when he was 
engaged in a special mission that took him away from the army . 
The six parts published in this volume constitute one of the 
very few complete, eye-witness accounts now extant of the Ameri- 
can side of the Revolution. 

Their value to historians is enhanced by the advantages for 
observation enjoyed by an officer of Dearborn s rank. First as a 
captain, then as a major, and finally as a lieutenant- colonel 
in the Continental forces, he was in a position to learn the 
movements and objectives of the army , of which a private or 
noncommissioned officer would not be informed. He was able 
therefore to view the tactics of his own company or regiment in 
their relation to the general strategy. Moreover, Dearborn did 
not attain a rank which would have kept him off the field and 


xii Introduction 

out of direct contact with his men. Even after he was appointed 
deputy quartermaster general in July, 178 1, he continued to 
move with the main army. 

The entries in Dearborn s journal vary widely in length and 
importance, but in nearly every instance they are impersonal 
and objective. He rarely philosophizes, and he wastes little 
space in damning the enemy. Never does he even imply any 
wavering of loyalty to the cause of the patriots, nor does he show 
any slackening of faith in the principles for which he was 
fighting. Commenting on the death of several popular officers 
after the first battle of Freeman s Farm, Dearborn observed: 
' ' the Loss of those Brave men are very greatly Lamented in the 
Army, But as it was a Debt that they & Every one owe their 
Country I Behave they Paid it with Ch ere fullness." His re- 
spect for his commander-in-chief is apparent to the most casual 
reader, and it seems to have been reciprocated by Washington. 
Likewise, he never criticises his immediate superiors. The only 
hint of his dissatisfaction with a campaign is revealed in an 
entry made in August, 1777: "Gates takes Command of the 
Northern army this Day which I think ivill But a New Face 
upon our affairs." This opinion would pass unnoticed among 
the loud complaints raised against Schuyler at that time. 

Personally brave, Dearborn was evidently an able leader of 
men. Frequent assignments to command special corps of picked 
riflemen attest his ability, although he apparently remained 
oblivious to the honor implied by these special duties. More 
than once he was sent out to reconnoiter the enemy, to assault a 
position or turn the opposing flank during battle. In the attack 
on Quebec, while his company was caught between the barriers 
in the driving snow and semi- darkness, he coolly exchanged 
abusive remarks with the defenders, and while facing a brisk 
fire urged his men to reprime their wet muskets and attempt a 
volley. Again, at Monmouth, Colonel Cilley and Dearborn 
were ordered to attack the British right wing, which was then 

Introduction xiii 

passing through an orchard. Casually Dearborn relates the ad- 
vance of his men, their taking down two rail fences under heavy 
fire, and their approaching within four rods of the British be- 
fore "we then gave them a very heavy fire." In consequence of 
this temperament and style of writing, one feels that his com- 
ments on what he experienced may be relied upon as sincere and 
usually accurate. 

Five of Dearborn s journals have been published before, 
though not annotated nor within one cover. The remaining jour- 
nal, covering the important period from October, iyyp, to 
December, 1781, has never before been printed. In this volume 
the complete series of journals is published for the first time, 
with annotations and a biographical sketch of the author. The 
division into parts, although based on the six notebooks used 
by Dearborn, is to some extent topical. 

The first journal covers forty folio pages in manuscript, and 
dates from September 10, 177 j to July 16, 1776. It is the only 
one not in Dearborn s handwriting, although corrected in a 
score of places by the author. Dearborn s original manuscript 
has not been located. This copy was made in a fine flowing hand, 
sprinkled with excess punctuation. It was purchased by the 
Boston Public Library at the sale in 1878 of the library of John 
W. Thornton, executor of the will of Henry A. S. Dearborn, 
the son of Henry Dearborn. It was first published in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, second series, 
volume II Qi88j-86^). The editor, Judge Mellen Chamberlain, 
added no historical footnotes, but did indicate the corrections 
made in Dearborn s hand. The journal was reprinted from the 
above Proceedings in the Magazine of History, volume 
XXXIV Qig28), number 3, extra number 13 j . Kenneth Roberts 
published it again in his March to Quebec (New York, 
1938), with a few notes. 

The second journal dates from July 2;, 1776, to December 4, 
1777, and fills fifteen folio pages, numbered in continuation of 

xiv Introduction 

the first journal ', with which it is bound. It, too, is owned by 
the Boston Public Library and was purchased with the first. 
Judge Chamberlain published it, ivithout notes, in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, second 
series, volume III (188 6-8 j). 

Journal number three is contained in a notebook of 144 octavo 
pages. The first five pages, comprising copies of Congressional 
resolves relating to the army, and the last seventy pages, con- 
taining accounts, receipts, and songs, are not printed here. The 
actual diary is 69 pages long, covering the period from Decem- 
ber j, 1777, to June 16, 1779. It was printed in the above 
Proceedings, with an error in the final date of the heading. 
The manuscript belongs to the Boston Public Library. 

The fourth journal is in the possession of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society through the gift of Charles P. Gre enough, 
who had owned it for many years. He may have obtained it from 
John S. Fogg, who is reported to have had it in 1879. Mr. Fogg 
probably acquired it at the Thornton sale in 1878. The journal 
covers eighty octavo pages and dates from June 17 to October 2;, 
1779. While it was in the hands of Mr. Greenough, it was pub- 
lished in /^Journals of the Military Expedition of Major 
General John Sullivan against the Six Nations of Indians 
. . . edited by Frederick Cook in 1887. There the journal was 
annotated with seven footnotes credited to General John S. Clark. 

The unpublished fifth journal, covers the war from October 
28, 1779, to December 10, 1781. The original manuscript , in 
the possession of the New York Public Library, fills 99 octavo 
pages. It was acquired as part of the Dr. Thomas Addis 
Emmet Collection in 1896. Dr. Emmet purchased the diary at 
the Thornton sale in 1878. Henry A. S. Dearborn made a copy 
of journals three, four and five, the manuscript of which is also 
in the New York Public Library. 

The last journal is eighteen octavo pages long, with a few 
additional pages of oaths, accounts, and memoranda of little 

Introduction xv 

importance. The manuscript is in the Boston Public Library 
with the first three Dearborn journals, and was printed with- 
out notes in the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society with journals two and three. Its entries date from June 
20, 1782, to June 18, 1783, bringing to a close Dearborn s 
military service of eight years. 

The journals were transcribed and are here printed exactly as 
Dearborn wrote them, insofar as is possible with type. His 
punctuation, spelling, and abbreviations have been scrupu- 
lously observed; but to help the reader, sentences that run to- 
gether have been separated by extra space in the absence of 
periods. Omitted words and letters, the lack of which was con- 
fusing, have been supplied in brackets. Liberty was taken to 
indent the date of each new entry, whereas Dearborn usually 
set the date in the margin. 

In annotating the journals, the persons and places men- 
tioned by the author were identified, his accounts of battles as he 
saw them were clarified by summaries of the engagements as a 
whole, and the rumors he set down were corrected or amplified. 
In general Mr. Brown identified place names, and Mr. Peck- 
ham the persons referred to by Dearborn. Since place names 
often were located only after consulting several maps, both 
printed and manuscript, in the map collection of the William 
L. Clements Library, sources have not been cited for these notes. 
Biographical sketches were inserted the first time a person was 
mentioned. The introductions to each journal were designed to 
supply briefly the background of the campaign or operation in 
which Dearborn was engaged. 

The biographical essay is not intended to be a complete ac- 
count of Dearborn s life, and purposely passes rapidly over 
certain episodes, such as the War of 18 12 campaigns, which, 
it was felt, would not be of interest to the general reader. Tor 
a more inclusive biographical sketch of Dearborn, the reader is re- 
ferred to volume V of the Dictionary of American Biography, 

xvi Introduction 

and for a full account of Fort Dearborn, to M. M. Quaife 's, 
Chicago and the Old Northwest. 

No work of this kind could be published without the interest 
and cooperation of many persons. We are glad to acknowledge 
our gratitude to the several institutions and individuals that 
have extended courtesies to us. First of all, we wish to thank 
the Boston Public Library, the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, and the New York Public Library for their permission 
to publish the journals in their possession; The National 
Archives for permission to print an unpublished Dearborn 
letter; and the Maine Historical Society for permission to re- 
produce the portrait of Dearborn. We are grateful also for in- 
formation obtained from the American Antiquarian Society, 
the Chicago Historical Society, Harvard University Library, 
the University of Chicago Library, Yale University Library, 
and the Newberry Library. 

Several persons have freely given us the benefit of their expert 
knowledge: Randolph G. Adams, director of the William L. 
Clements Library; R. W. G. Vail, librarian of the American 
Antiquarian Society; Allyn Forbes, librarian of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society; Victor H. Paltsits of the New York 
Public Library; Alexander C. Flick of the New York State 
Library; Hugh P. Graham of the Co hoes Department of His- 
tory; Henry V. Gre enough of Boston; Carroll A. Wilson of 
New York; Marjory Gane Harkness of Wonalancet, New 
Hampshire; and Kathleen Scott of Waldoboro, Maine. 

Lloyd A. Brown 
Howard H. Peckham 
Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Ann Arbor, October i, 1939 

Revolutionary War Journals 
of Henry Dearborn 

^HD &* 

General Henry Dearborn 


TO CHICAGO ANS, the name of Dearborn signifies 
a fort, a street, or the cartoonists' "Father Dear- 
born", but to very few would it suggest a real 
person. A letter signed "H. Dearborn" would seem to 
most of them as improbable as one signed "J. Bull" 
or "Uncle Sam." It is therefore not surprising that the 
curiosity of a Chicagoan should be aroused by finding the 
following letter. 

"Portsm th , Monday 
% after n: o'clock P. M — 
"My dear Sarah 

This is the first minuit that I have been able to write a line today. 
We set off at 6 o'clock tomorrow morning for Portland, where the 
President intends to arrive before night. M rs- W. & Julia are at Port- 
land & will come back with me. I hope to see you on Saturday. 

Your affectionate, 

H. Dearborn" 

The letter is addressed to Mrs. Sarah B. Dearborn, Bos- 
ton, and is postmarked Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
July 15, — no year shown. 

This is indeed a sketchy document from which to 
create a portrait of its writer, but its gaps, such as the 
omission of the year, and the mention of the "Presi- 
dent," "Julia," and "Mrs. W.," are a challenge to 
further investigation. The search for the information 


4 Biographical Essay 

needed to explain these references produced a vivid pic- 
ture of a colorful personality. 

■* # * 

The first Dearborn to settle in America was Godfrey 
Dearborn, who came to the Massachusetts colony about 
1639. Henry Dearborn was the twelfth child of the ninth 
child of Godfrey's grandson, — a prolific family, by mod- 
ern standards, but exceeded by one of his uncles, who had 
seventeen children. Born in 175 1 at North Hampton, in 
the extreme southeastern corner of New Hampshire, 
Henry grew up as a strong, athletic boy — a champion 
wrestler. After a course of medical instruction under Dr. 
Hall Jackson of Portsmouth, he took up the practice of 
medicine in nearby Nottingham. At twenty-four, when 
in his third year of practice, news of the battle of Lexing- 
ton reached him, on April xo, 1775. ^ e an< ^ sixt Y of his 
fellow-townsmen, with squirrel guns on shoulders, at 
once set off on foot for Cambridge, arriving there the 
next morning at sunrise, having marched fifty-five miles 
in less than twenty-four hours. Finding there was no im- 
mediate need for their services, they soon returned home, 
but before long young Dr. Dearborn had become Cap- 
tain Dearborn of the first New Hampshire regiment, un- 
der command of Colonel John Stark, formerly of Rogers' 
Rangers, and later the hero of the Battle of Bennington. 
Dearborn's popularity enabled him to enlist his own 
company, which marched southward in time to take an 
important part in the Battle of Bunker Hill. 


Dearborn's participation in the Battle of Bunker Hill 
was responsible for his being involved in a curious con- 
troversy with unfortunate political ramifications, more 
than forty years later. There is a general agreement as to 

General Henry Dearborn 5 

the disposition of the troops at the battle, but there is 
widespread disagreement in regard to the parts played by 
the various American officers — a confusion to which 
Dearborn contributed in no small degree by the publica- 
tion of an account of the battle in 18 18. To give very 
briefly the accepted facts regarding the battle: on the 
night of June 16, 1775, the American forces had fortified 
Breed's Hill, which commanded the northern portion of 
Boston and is connected with theneighboringBunkerHill 
by a ridge extending about 700 yards. On the following 
afternoon, June 17, 1775, General Howe's veteran British 
regulars attempted three times to storm the hill, which 
was held by a motley handful of undisciplined volun- 
teers barricaded behind a hastily constructed redoubt 
and a post-and-rail fence. Among the defenders of the 
fence was Captain Dearborn, who was on Colonel Stark's 
right wing. Of these men, Dearborn later said, "Not an 
officer or soldier of the continental troops engaged was 
in uniform, but were in the plain and ordinary dress of 
citizens; nor was there an officer on horseback." 1 Only 
when their ammunition was exhausted did the American 
troops retreat towards Bunker Hill. The significance of the 
battle lies largely in the stubborn resistance of the provin- 
cials, who, by driving the British regulars back in dis- 
order two times, showed the colonies that there was hope 
of ultimate victory in their struggle for independence. 

The effectiveness of the American troops is largely at- 
tributable to their coolness in holding their fire until the 
British were almost upon them. As expressed in General 
Wilkinson's account of the battle, "Colonel Stark's men 
were directed to reserve their fire until they could see the 
enemy's half-gaiters. " x From this it would seem that the 

1. Dearborn, An Account of The Battle of Bunker Hill, p. 14. 
z. Coffin, comp., History of the Battle of Breed's Hill, p. 12.. 

6 Biographical Essay 

often quoted order, "Don't fire until you can see the 
white of their eyes," was more nearly, "Don't fire un- 
til you can see the white of their gaiters." 

Unfortunately, the last shot of Bunker Hill was not 
fired on the battle field. In fact, some of General Dear- 
born's ammunition was set off posthumously. In 1843 
there was published an attack on General Israel Put- 
nam's military reputation, under the intriguing title, 
"The Veil Removed." The author of this remarkable 
work states, "The controversy respecting the conduct of 
General Putnam at the Battle of Bunker Hill appears to 
have originated principally from an article on that bat- 
tle written by the late General Dearborn and published 
in 1818." 3 In this article Dearborn describes General Put- 
nam of Connecticut as occupying a safe position on Bun- 
ker Hill, "on the declivity towards Charleston neck," 
while the New Hampshire and Massachusetts troops 
were holding the post-and-rail fence on Breed's Hill 
against the fierce British attack. When, with ammuni- 
tion exhausted, the retreating Continentals arrived at 
the summit of Bunker Hill, Dearborn writes, ' ' We found 
General Putnam with nearly as many men as had been 
engaged in the battle; notwithstanding which no meas- 
ures had been taken for reinforcing us, nor was there a 
shot fired to cover our retreat, or any movement made to 
check the advance of the enemy to this height, but on 
the contrary, General Putnam rode off, with a number of 
spades and pickaxes in his hands and the troops that had 
remained with him inactive, during the whole of the ac- 
tion, although within a few hundred yards of the bat- 
tle ground, and no obstacle to impede their movement 
but musket balls." 4 

3. Fellows, The Veil Removed , p. 113. 

4. Dearborn, op. cit. t p. 9. 

General Henry Dearborn 7 

This reputedly ignoble conduct of General Putnam is 
confirmed by various eyewitnesses, including one who 
reports the following conversation with Colonel Pres- 
cott, who was at the redoubt. Said Prescott, when, upon 
retreating to Bunker Hill, he met Putnam armed with a 
spade, ' ' Why did you not support me General, with your 
men, as I had reason to expect, according to agreement?" 
Putnam answered, ' ' I could not drive the dogs up. ' ' Pres- 
cott pointedly said to him, ' ' If you could not drive them 
up, you might have led them up." 5 

But contradicting eye witnesses, and the muse of poesy 
as well, have rallied to Putnam's defence. "An Historic 
Poem in Four Cantos," entitled, "The Battle of Bunker 
Hill, or The Temple of Liberty" reports quite a different 
conversation between Prescott and Putnam. — 

Prescott to Putnam as he clears the steep: 
"Thy swift return makes new pulsations leap. 
"Revered art thou — the chosen of the field — 
"This day is thine to be in history sealed. 
"How glows my breast to see our minds as one, 
"Centred as rays collected from the sun . . ." 6 

The same poet places Putnam, not safely on Bunker 
Hill, but by the post-and-rail fence on Breed's Hill, with 
his sword poised aloft, as a signal to the minutemen to 
withhold their fire as the British draw closer and closer. — 

Still Putnam keeps his sword suspended high — 
They now so close, he looks them in the eye! — 
They caught the rising vengeance of his soul, 
Which shock'd them, as keen lightning from the pole. 
They paused — so terrible the veteran's ire, 
His glance appear'd an arrow tipp'd with fire. 
His sword the instant like a meteor fell! — 
A shriek of agony convulsed the hill V 

5. Fellows, op. cit., p. 13Z. 

6. Emmons, The Battle of Bunker Hill, p. 55. 

7. Ibid., p. 82.. 

8 Biographical Essay 

And like Satan in "Paradise Lost/' he proves even 
more magnificent in defeat. — 

Putnam yet lingering on the rear the last, 
Back on the foe a stern defiance cast. 
His countenance appear'd like Jupiter's, when he 
Summon 'd the gods to reverence his decree. 

The hero leads th' immortals o'er the plain, 
At whom the vessels pour'd their wrath in vain. 
The Eagle, though retreating, waves her plumes 
In radiant light and victory assumes. 
Soon on a neighboring steep the flag is seen, 
Touch 'd with a ray of setting sun serene. 

While round the glorious Height a rainbow curl'd — 
A sign — that Liberty would bless the world. 8 

The opposing views of the Putnam controversy were 
well expressed by Colonel Francis J. Parker, who wrote, 
"If one party were to be believed, General Putnam was 
the Alpha and Omega of the battle and always command- 
ing, but if the other side were to be credited, he was 
never there at all, except that late in the day he was 
skulking behind the great hill, presiding over the army 
of terrified bummers, who occupied that important 
position." 9 

We have no reason to doubt that Dearborn's statement 
represented his honest recollections, although undoubt- 
edly dimmed by the passage of 43 years. A contemporary 
compiler said of his account of the battle, ' ' When Gen- 
eral Dearborn, who always acted without fear or re- 
proach, adds his opinion, . . . there seems to be no suffi- 
cient reason why he should not be fully credited." 10 But 
Putnam had a strong popular following, and when Dear- 
born was nominated for Governor of the Commonwealth 

8. Ibid., p. ix6. 

9. Parker, Could General Putnam Command at Bunker Kill! p . i. 

10. Coffin, comp., op. cit., p. 35. 

General Henry Dearborn 9 

of Massachusetts, the popularity of Putnam was brought 
to bear against his election, and contributed to his de- 
feat. 11 The modern historian, however, has long since 
dismissed the attack on Putnam as "a strange and not 
very creditable outgrowth of political animosities." 12 " 


To return to the adventures of young Captain Dear- 
born in the Revolutionary War. Shortly after the Battle 
of Bunker Hill, on September 10, 1775, he joined the 
forces which were preparing to march to Quebec un- 
der the leadership of Colonel Benedict Arnold. Other 
participants in the Canadian campaign were two young 
soldiers who were to cast a shadow across his later life, 
— Colonel Arnold's personal aide, Aaron Burr, and 
Burr's subsequent confederate, James Wilkinson, who 
did not join Arnold till spring, but who, like Dearborn, 
had given up the practice of medicine to fight for liberty. 
Dearborn's journal gives a vivid picture of the terrible 
hardships of the desperate march through the wilderness. 
For thirty days in the early Canadian winter, he was 
overcome by fever in a rude cabin with no medicine but 
a "Tea of Piggen plumb Roots, and Spruce" and no at- 
tendants, except for two boys. He rejoined his company, 
which had supposed him dead, just in time to take part 
in the disastrous attack on Quebec on December 31, 1775 . 
The attack was commenced before daylight on that 
morning, and Dearborn's troops, which were detached 
from the main body, lost their way in the snow and 
darkness. Dearborn says in his journal, that in coming 
upon some soldiers in the early dawn, "I was at a Stand 
to know whether They were our men, or the enemy, as 

11. Fellows, The Veil Removed, p. 140. 

ix. French, The First Year of the American Revolution, p. Z2.8. 

io Biographical Essay 

they were dress'd like us, I was Just about to Hail them, 
when one of them hail'd me, he asked who I was . . I 
answer'd a friend; he asked me who I was a friend to, I 
answer'd to liberty, he then reply'd God-damn you, and 
then rais'd himself partly above the Pickets, I Clapt up 
my Piece which was Charged with a ball and Ten Buck 
shott Certainly to give him his due, But to my great 
mortification my Gun did not go off, I new prim'd her, 
and flushed and Try'd her again, but neither I, nor one in 
Ten of my men could get off our Guns they being so ex- 
ceeding wet . . . we Now found ourselves surrounded by 
Six to one, I now finding no possibility of getting away, 
my Company were divided, and our arms being in such 
bad order, I thought it best to Surrender after being 
promised good quarters and Tender usuage ... I with my 
other officiers, ware Carry'd to the main, guard-House 
. . . where we had a good Dinner, and aplenty of several 
sorts of wine." 

Unfortunately, such good treatment could not last for 
long. Dearborn was held in close confinement for several 
months, and was frequently taunted with the threat 
that in the spring he would be sent to England and 
hanged as a rebel. On May 16, 1776 he was extremely for- 
tunate in arranging to return home on parole, as most of 
his companions were confined till the close of the war. 
After a long sea voyage, during which he was ' ' treated 
with the usual contumely and hauteur of English offi- 
cers," 13 he finally reached Portsmouth on July 16. 

In the following spring, he was relieved of his parole 
through an exchange of prisoners, and, having been ap- 
pointed a Major of the Third New Hampshire Regiment, 
set out for Ticonderoga early in May. Throughout the 
balance of the war he turned up at nearly every important 

13. Massachusetts election! ... p. 4. 

General Henry Dearborn ii 

engagement. On September 19, 1777, he wrote of the 
first Battle of Saratoga, "The Enimy Brought almost 
their whole force against us, together with 8 Peices of 
Artilery. But we who had something more at Stake than 
fighting for six Pence P r Day kept our ground til Night, 
Closed the scene, & then Both Parties Retired ... on 
this Day has Been fought one of the Greatest Battles 
that Ever was fought in Amarrica, & I Trust we have 
Convincd the British Butchers that the Cowardly yan- 
kees Can & when their is a Call for it, will, fight." 

On October 17, 1777, he records the surrender at Sara- 
toga, "this Day the Great M? Burguoyn with his whole 
Army Surrendered themselves as Prisoners of war with 
all their Publick Stores, & after Grounding their armes 
march. d of[f] for New England, the greatest Conquest 
Ever known." By a most interesting coincidence, one of 
the British prisoners taken with Burgoyne was John 
Whistler (grandfather of James McNeill Whistler), who, 
after later joining the American army, was the first com- 
mandant of Fort Dearborn. 

Hastening from Saratoga by a spectacular forced march 
to Albany, Dearborn's regiment next went on to join 
Washington. He records in his journal, under date of 
December 18, 1777, "this is Thanksgiving Day thro the 
whole Continent of America — but god knows We have 
very Little to keep it with this being the third Day we 
have been without flouer or bread — & are Living on a 
high uncultivated hill, in huts & tents Laying on the 
Cold Ground, upon the whole I think all we have to be 
thankful for is that we are alive & not in the Grave with 
many of our friends — we had for thanksgiving breakfast 
some Exceeding Poor beef which has been boil.d & Now 
warm.d in an old short handled frying Pan in which we 
ware Obliged to Eat it haveing No other Platter ..." 

ix Biographical Essay 

After a short leave at home, he rejoined General Wash- 
ington at Valley Forge early in 1778. He distinguished 
himself and his regiment by a gallant charge at the Bat- 
tle of Monmouth, for which he received the commenda- 
tion of General Washington. In 1779, he served in Sulli- 
van's expedition against the Indians in western New 
York; in 1780 he was with the Army of New Jersey; and 
in 178 1 at the siege of Yorktown and the surrender of 
Cornwallis. On June 18, 1783, at the age of thirty-two, 
Henry Dearborn, now a Colonel, was honorably dis- 
charged after eight years of war service remarkable for 
its activity and ubiquity. 

As would be expected, a campaign of this duration was 
replete with contrast. On February 2.x, 1779, for example, 
we find the following entry. "We had an Elligant Ball 
at which was a Learge numbar of very fine Ladies." 
But by April 14th of the same year the scene had changed. 
He records, "Arivd at Peeks kill found our brigade 
Quartered in Huts in the Highlands where we have no 
neighbors but Owls, Hedghogs, & Rattlesnakes, & them 
in plenty." The next day, April 15th, he notes, "A 
Small guard of ours was Surprisd this week in Gersey 
by a party of Tories from N. York, & every man put to 
the bayonet on the Spot under the cover of a dark night. ' ' 
This report would seem to confirm an impression of the 
Loyalists he received about two years earlier, when he 
referred to the " Indians, and their more savage brothers, 
the Tories." By April 17, however, more tranquil condi- 
tions seemed to have been restored, for he reports, "We 
ware oblige'd to walk 4 miles to day to find a place 
leavel enough to play ball." 

From perusing the journals, one gets the impression 
that most of the time not occupied in fighting was spent 
in observing glorious anniversaries by drinking toasts. 

General Henry Dearborn 13 

Even during Sullivan's expedition against the Indians, 
this was not overlooked. The Fourth of July, being Sun- 
day, was observed by an appropriate sermon, and the 
real festivities were postponed until the 5th, apparently 
with cumulative force. Dearborn's entry for that day is, 
"Gen! Poor made an Entertainment to day for all the 
Officers of his Brigade, to celibrate the Anniversary of 
the declaration of American Independence. 87 Gentleman 
ware present at dinner, after which the 13 following 
Patriotick toasts ware drank. 1* 4th of July 76, the ever 
Memoriable Eara of American Independence z d the 
United States 3 d the Grand Counsel of America 4 th Gen! 
Washington & the Army 5 th The King & Queen of France 
6 th Gen! Lincoln & the Southern Army 7 th Gen! Sullivan 
& the Western Army 8 th May the Counsellors of America 
be wise, & her Soldiers Invincible 9 th A Successful & de- 
cisive Campaign 10 th Civilization or death to all Ameri- 
can Savages 11 th the Immortal Memory of those heroes 
that have fallen in defence of American Liberty i2. th 
May this New World be the last Asylum for freedom and 
the Arts. 13 th May the Husbandman's house be bless'd 
with peace, & his fields with plenty. 

' The whole was conducted with such Joy & festivity, 
as demonstrated an Independent Elevation of Spirit, on 
this Important & enteresting Occation." 

It is certainly a remarkable tribute to the stamina of 
our Revolutionary ancestors that they could not only 
drink thirteen toasts, but remember every one of them! 

On the 7th, Dearborn notes a decided change of diet, 
4 ' I eat part of a fryed Rattle Snake to day, which would 
have tasted very well had it not been snake." 

But the most poignant contrast between the carefree 
interludes in the life of a soldier and tragedy is found in 
the following sequence: "October 17, 1778 — this being 

14 Biographical Essay 

the first Anniversary of the Glorious 17 th of Octob r 1777. 
the field Officers of this Division Make an Entertainment 
for all the Officers of the Division, & Gentlemen of the 
Town. — we Eat Dinner on a small hill between two of 
the brigades, — after the officers of the three Brigades had 
assembled, . . . thirteen Cannon ware Discharg d from 
Each Brigade at which time Genf 1 Gates arivd with a 
number of other Gen!; 1 Officers, there was then three 
Cheers from the whole Division, at Dinner we had about 
350 Officers & other gentlemen, after Dinner there was 13 
toasts Drank — & a Cannon Discharged for Each. — at 
Evining we Retire 'd to the Town, & spent the Evining 
very agreably. 

18 th — we are geting sober. — . . . 

19 th — we march at 10 O Clock towards Hartford. I Re- 
ceiv'd News this Day by Express that my wife Lay Dan- 
gerously sick with a Nerveous Fever. In Consequence of 
which I got Leave of absince & set out for home this 

X4 th — I ariv'd at my House at 7 O Clock in the Evining. 
found my wife Senceless & almost Motionless, which 
was a very shocking sight to behold, at half after Eleven 
she Expired, much Lamented not only by her Relation 
but by all her Neighbours. — this was a very Trying 
Scene to me. I seem'd to be Quite alone in the world. Ex- 
cept my two Little Daughters who are two small to feel 
their Loss, or offer me any Comfort. 
X5 th — the most Malloncolly Sunday I Ever Experiencd." 
After the war had ended, Colonel Dearborn, having re- 
corded in his journal with remarkably poor foresight, 
'Thus ends my millatery life," settled down with his 
family at Pittston on the Kennebec River in southern 
Maine. In 1780, two years after the death of his first 
wife, Mary Bartlett, described above, he had married a 

General Henry Dearborn i 5 

young widow, Dorcas Marble. Before the close of the 
war, she presented him with two children — a daughter, 
Julia, and that son, Henry A. S. Dearborn, who was to 
be the pride of his later years. In reference to Julia's 
beauty, a contemporary writer stated, "We are told that 
Venus rose out of the sea, but I once thought she came 
out of the waters of the Kennebec." 

But peace and semi-retirement did not bring inactivity 
to this vigorous character. Shortly after the organization 
of the government, President Washington designated 
him United States Marshal for the District of Maine; the 
State of Massachusetts appointed him a Major General 
of Militia; and in 1792. he was elected to Congress, where 
he demonstrated his independence of thought by oppos- 
ing the Jay Treaty of 1794 against the wishes of his be- 
loved chief, President Washington. Even the seclusion of 
the Maine woods failed to provide protection from call- 
ers, for Louis Philippe, and Talleyrand, who was inter- 
ested in the lumber trade, visited him in Pittston in 
1794. It is recorded that Talleyrand fell into the cold wa- 
ters of the Kennebec while fishing, and was only rescued 
from drowning by the efforts of a small boy who held his 
fishing pole to him. 14 


In 1 801, President Thomas Jefferson invited General 
Dearborn to become Secretary of War — one of the four 
positions in the Cabinet. In reference to this appoint- 
ment, General Reid, one of Dearborn's companions of 
the Revolution, was asked, "How could you get along 
with such a democrat as General Dearborn is?" In reply, 
General Reid said, "I always was sorry Harry was a 
democrat, but that is of no consequence among old 

14. Goodwin, The Dearborns, p. 2.x. 

1 6 Biographical Essay 

officers. He is a noble fellow; there is no man I esteem 
and love more, and if Jefferson had always made as good 
appointments as Dearborn to the war-office, I should 
think much better of him than I do now." 15 It was 
of course his position as Secretary of War which was 
responsible for General Dearborn's association with 

The period following the Revolution had been one of 
great disorder along the western frontier, until the Treaty 
of Greenville in 1795 > which was made possible by ' ' Mad 
Anthony" Wayne's victory over the Indians at Fallen 
Timbers in the year previous. In consideration of the dis- 
tribution of presents and annuities, and after an adjourn- 
ment of two or three days "to have a little drink," 16 as 
was customary, the Indians signed this Treaty, which 
recognized the American title to a large tract of land in 
what is now southern Ohio, and to certain "isolated 
reservations" including "One piece of Land Six Miles 
square at the Mouth of Chikago River emptying into the 
Southwest end of Lake Michigan where a fort formerly 
stood." With the surrender of the British military posts 
in the northwest in 1796, in accordance with the terms of 
the Jay Treaty — the Treaty, incidentally, which Con- 
gressman Dearborn had opposed — the way was clear for 
the United States to take possession of the West. But it 
was not for another seven years that the pending Louisi- 
ana Purchase made further delay perilous and urged im- 
mediate fortification. 

Realizing the necessity of establishing a base of com- 
munication with this vast new territory, Secretary Dear- 
born, under date of March 9, 1803, wrote Adjutant Gen- 
eral Thomas H. Cushing to take up the matter with 

15. Ibid., p. zo. 

16. Quaife, Chicago and the Old Northwest, p. 1x3. 

General Henry Dearborn 17 

Colonel John F. Hamtramck of the First Infantry, in 
command at Detroit, thus linking two names which are 
still joined in the neighboring Michigan cities of Dear- 
born and Hamtramck. After giving instructions relative 
to various frontier posts, this letter states: 17 

"Colonel Hamtramck should be directed to send a 
suitable Officer with Six men and one or two guides across 
the Country to the mouth of St. Josephs at the south end 
of Lake Michigan and from thence to Chikago on the 
opposite side of the lake to examine the situation with 
a view to the establishment of a Post, and to look out 
and mark a track by which a Company may march from 
Detroit to the St. Josephs and to asurtain what sup- 
plies of provisions can be obtained from Mr. Burnit 18 
and others, and to decide on a suitable scite for an en- 
campment at St. Josephs as a temporary stand for a Com- 
pany, until preparations can be made at Chikago for the 

' 'And if it should be found that a Company can march 
from Detroit to the St. Josephs with pack Horses for 
transporting the light baggage and such provisions as 
may be necessary Col. Hamtramck will order a Company 
under the Command of a discreet judicious Captain to 
take post as above and he should send by water two field 
pieces, and a suitable quantity of amunition and other 
Stores for a Post at Chikago with a suitable number of 
axes, spades and other tools for erecting Barracks and a 
Strong stockade work of the kind which is skitched on 
the enclosed 19 — which should be forwarded to Colonel 

17. This letter, which gives the original instructions for the establishment of the 
Fort, apparently has not been published hitherto. It is in the National Archives, 
Secretary of War Military Letter Book, Vol. I., 1800-03. PP- 385—387. 

18. William Burnett, a French trader on the St. Joseph River, with Montreal connec- 
tions, who at times extended his trading operations around the Lake as far as Chicago. 

19. This sketch has unfortunately been lost or destroyed. 

1 8 Biographical Essay 

Hamtramck with the directions and explenations accom- 
panying it." 

By midsummer, with the arrival of two small detach- 
ments of troops, one having come overland from Detroit, 
the other by the schooner ' ' Tracy, ' ' the construction of 
the Fort was in full progress under the command of the 
"discreet, judicious captain," John Whistler — the same 
Whistler who had been captured with Burgoyne at Sara- 
toga. It was of course only natural that this fort should 
bear the name of the Secretary of War, who had deter- 
mined its location and ordered its construction. 


The naming of the Fort, which was to give him im- 
mortality, must have seemed at the time a trivial inci- 
dent to General Dearborn. Even twenty years later, the 
Fort was not considered worth mentioning in the ful- 
some seven volume manuscript biography which the 
"young General" wrote to enhance his father's fame. 
Certainly the Secretary of War of the young Republic 
had more important things to think about. In 1805, 
the ambitious Aaron Burr was concluding his term of 
office as Vice President under Jefferson. Finding himself 
an outcast in the East, because of his recent fatal duel 
with Alexander Hamilton, he was hatching a fantastic 
scheme for the foundation of a colony in Louisiana, 
which could serve as a base for a military invasion of 
Texas, if the expected war with Spain should become an 

On his way to New Orleans in the spring of 1805, Burr 
made a side trip to Nashville for the purpose of securing 
the support of Andrew Jackson, who was at that time 
a General of Militia there. Burr held out to Jackson 
the idea that from his intimacy with Secretary of War 

General Henry Dearborn 19 

Dearborn, who had been his companion on the march to 
Quebec, he would obtain a military appointment upon 
the outbreak of hostilities with Spain. No doubt influ- 
enced by this report of the secret backing of Dearborn, 
Jackson lent his patronage to Burr's project. After co- 
operating with Burr for a year and a half, Jackson, in 
November, 1806, received a visit from a certain Cap- 
tain Fort, who was on his way from New York to join 
Burr in the southwest. Fort incautiously characterized 
the project as a scheme "to divide the union." 2 - In 
spite of Fort's hasty attempts at retraction, the quick 
mind of Jackson was aroused. He immediately warned 
the Federal authorities at Washington, and advised 
Burr in "strong tones" that until "my suspicions . . . 
were cleared from my mind no further intimacy was to 
exist between us." 2 " 1 

With the likelihood of discovery imminent, Burr's 
confederate, General Wilkinson, — Dearborn's compan- 
ion of the Saratoga campaign, — decided to try to save 
his own skin by betraying Burr in a crafty letter to 
Jefferson. This prompted a presidential proclamation on 
November 2.6, 1806, declaring the existence of a military 

In Washington, the former friendly relationship be- 
tween Jackson and Burr was known, but no word of 
Jackson's indignation at the suggestion of treason had 
been received. In fact, there were unfounded rumors that 
Jackson was leading an army to the support of Burr. Ac- 
cordingly, Secretary Dearborn, perhaps having difficulty 
in grasping the depth to which Burr and Wilkinson, his 
two companions of the campaigns of thirty years before, 
had sunk, dispatched a cautious communication to his 

2.0. Bassett, Correspondence of Andrew Jackson, Vol. I, p. 168. 

2.1. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 169. 

xo Biographical Essay 

subordinate, General Jackson. This letter Jackson char- 
acterized as "a milk and cider thing," . . . "the merest 
old-woman letter . . . you ever saw." 2 - 2- 

"War Department Dec 19, 1806 
"General Jackson, 


" . . .It appears that you have some reason for suspecting that some 
unlawful enterprise is in contemplation on the western waters. There 
can be no doubt, but that many persons are engaged in some such en- 
terprise; and before this reaches you, it is not improbable, that a gen- 
eral movement will have commenced. — 

"It is presumed that the Proclamation of the President . . . will have 
produced every exertion . . . and . . . that you will have been among 
the most jealous opposers of any such unlawful expedition, as appears 
to be initiated, by a set of disappointed, unprincipled, ambitious or 
misguided individuals, and that you will continue to make every ex- 
ertion in your power, as a General of the Militia, to counteract and 
render abhortive, any such expedition. About Pittsburgh it is indus- 
triously reported among the adventurers, that they are to be joined, at 
the mouth of the Cumberland, by two Regiments under the Command 
of General Jackson — such a story might afford you an opportunity of 
giving an effectual check to the enterprise if not too late, I am etc. 
' 'Henry Dearborn " z 3 

Jackson promptly put two brigades under arms, and 
wrote the Secretary of War a letter, which concludes 
with the following comment : ' ' The first duty of a sol- 
dier or good citizen is to attend to the safety and interest 
of his country, The next to attend to his own feelings 
whereever the[y] are rudely or wantonly assailed. The 
Tenor of your letter is such and the insinuations so grat- 
ing — The ideas and tenor so unmilitary, stories alluded 
to, and intimations, of a conduct, to stoop, from the 
charector of a general to a smiling assasin (These here- 
after) . . . Health and respect." 2 " 4 

2.7.. Ibid., Vol. I, pp. 161, 164. 

2.3. James, The Life of Andrew Jackson, p. 12.5. 

X4. Bassett, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 163. 

General Henry Dearborn xi 

It soon became apparent that the Burr conspiracy had 
fallen to pieces, and, with his "first duty" as a soldier 
attended to, the hot-headed Jackson, who was prepared 
to defend his honor with dueling pistols on the least 
provocation, had more time to consider the slight to his 
patriotism implied in Dearborn's letter, over which he 
had undoubtedly been brooding. In his reply he proved 
himself as deadly with the pen as with the pistol. At the 
conclusion of a long preliminary draft, in which he dis- 
cussed fully Dearborn's supposed intimacy with General 
Wilkinson, he wrote, "Colo.B. received at my house all 
that hospitality that a banished patriot . . . was entitled 
to . . . But Sir when prooff shews him to be a triator, I 
would cut his throat, with as much pleasure as I would 
cut yours on equal testimony." 2-5 

This still did not satisfy Jackson. It was not until 
March 17, 1807 that he dispatched the final document, 
omitting the frequent references to "yanky cunning" 
which adorned the first draft. "After I have given, the 
most deliberate] consideration to your expressions, 
then, in a degree, ambiguously made, I cannot draw 
from them any other conclution than this : that you be- 
lieved me conserned in the con[s]piricy, that I was an 
fit subject to act the traitor of traitors, as others have 
done, and that it was only necessary for the Secretary at 
war of the United States, to buy me up without honour, 
money or price ... It is a well known fact that you 
have been uniformly the intimate friend and Supporter of 
Genl. Wilkinson ... It has been not only storied in this 
part of the western country, but has been reported on 
the most respectable authority, that Colo. Burr and his 
adventure[r]s held your order as Secretary at War, pur- 
porting a furtherence and governmental support of the 

15. Ibid., Vol. I, pp. 177-178. 

Z2. Biographical Essay 

enterprise . . . The government must indeed be tottering 
with its own imbecility when the principal supportors of 
it, shall be thus insulted, thus assailed by an officer of 
government, devoid of talents, integrity and altogether 
ignorant of the duties attached to his elevated station. 
The nominal dignity that the Secretary at war acquires 
at the first entrance upon the duties of his office, will 
always give to his assertions a degree of credit. I know 
what he has done is unworthy the character of a genl. or 
a man of honor. " z6 This, so far as we can determine, was 
the final word in the correspondence between Jackson 
and Dearborn in regard to the Burr episode. In spite of 
abominable spelling and grammar, Jackson had made his 
opinion of the Secretary of War unmistakably clear ! 

THE WAR OF l8l2. 

With the vituperative Jackson to contend with, it is 
not surprising that Dearborn welcomed the relative peace 
that was offered when Madison appointed him to the 
lucrative post of Collector of the Port of Boston in 1809. 
But again his retirement proved all too brief, for it was 
soon interrupted by the threat of hostilities with Eng- 
land. In January, 1812., Congress took steps to increase 
our military strength, and President Madison immedi- 
ately asked Dearborn, who was then more than sixty 
years old, to accept the post of Senior Major General of 
the Army. He hastened to Washington, and on February 
19, i8ix wrote his son, 

"I arrived here on the 17th safe and in good health. I 
do not discover as much harmony as could be wished, 
but I presume that all will go on very well ultimately. 

We are engaged in forming lists of nominations of offi- 
cers for the several states. I hope to complete these soon. 

2.6. Ibid., Vol. I, pp. 172.-74. 

General Henry Dearborn X3 

"There are no indications of any adjustment with Eng- 
land, and although there are many different opinions 
about the measures for preparation for commencing the 
war, there seems to be a very general agreement in sen- 
timent as to the necessity, unless a satisfactory adjust- 
ment is made between this time and spring. I doubt 
whether war will be declared before it shall be known 
what the disposition of the British Government will be 
after the Prince Regent comes into power, but perhaps it 
will not be expedient for you to mention the last sen- 
tence ..." This letter likewise concludes with a refer- 
ence to the same two persons as does the undated one to 
his wife previously quoted, — "I hope Mrs. Wingate and 
Julia remain with you and that all of you are as happy 
as can be wished by your affectionate parent, H. 
Dearborn." 2-7 

In spite of the several months' warning provided by the 
full realization of the imminence of hostilities which is 
clearly indicated by this letter, the declaration of war on 
June 18, i8ix found the United States badly prepared. 
There was almost universal opposition to the war in New 
England. Governor Caleb Strong of Massachusetts, upon 
the unanimous advice of the Supreme Court of the Com- 
monwealth, refused to respond to General Dearborn's 
call for troops as being unconstitutional. It is not sur- 
prising that with such opposition, and crippled by lack 
of competent officers and trained men, General Dear- 
born's ambitious plan of taking Montreal and Quebec — 
a plan which is easy to identify with his own march 
through the wilderness thirty-six years previous — was 
impossible of execution. The failure of this hoped-for 
pressure in the East by the troops under his command left 
the western posts vulnerable to attack. With Mackinac 

Z7. Quoted from letter in the collection of the writer. 

X4 Biographical Essay 

Island in the hands of the British, and the fall of De- 
troit imminent, General Hull, who was in command of 
the Army of the Northwest, issued his historic order for 
the evacuation of Fort Dearborn. Meanwhile, the Indi- 
ans around Chicago, emboldened by news of the British 
successes, which a runner from Tecumseh had brought 
them, had become increasingly warlike. On August 15, 
1812., as the little band of soldiers and their families left 
the protective stockade of Fort Dearborn and made their 
way along the sand dunes of Lake Michigan on the route 
to Fort Wayne, the Indians swept down on them from 
ambush. The intensely dramatic qualities of this massa- 
cre, the story of which is familiar to every Chicagoan, 
seem chiefly responsible for the association of Chicago 
with the name of Dearborn. 


It is interesting to speculate as to the extent to which 
the man who was responsible for the founding of Fort 
Dearborn, was also responsible for its destruction. His- 
torians generally agree with Quaife's statement that ' ' on 
the issue of Hull's campaign hung the fate of Fort Dear- 
born and the Northwest." 2 - 8 However, the extent to 
which Dearborn was to blame for Hull's failure has been 
the subject of bitter controversy. 

Hull had accepted the command of the Army of the 
Northwest reluctantly. He had repeatedly expressed the 
opinion that control of the lakes was essential to the 
safety of Detroit. Accordingly, with Dearborn doing 
nothing to engage the British by pushing the attack 
upon Canada from New York, Hull must have looked 
upon his position as hopeless, and consequently surren- 
dered Detroit without firing a shot. Early in 1814, Hull 

18. Quaife, Chicago and the Old Northwest, p. xi4- 

General Henry Dearborn 2.5 

was tried before a court-martial on grounds of treason, 
cowardice, and neglect of duty. In his defence before the 
court, General Hull quoted from a memorial to the Ad- 
ministration dated March 6, 1812., in which he had writ- 
ten, "The British force which can be brought to operate 
against us in the territory, is more than ten to one, with- 
out including the Indians . . . who now hold a constant 
and friendly intercourse with the British agents, and are 
liberally fed and clothed by the bounty of the British 
government ... If a force is not sent sufficient to oppose 
the British force which may be collected at Amherstberg 
and its vicinity, Detroit, Michilimackinac and Chicaga 
must fall — the inhabitants must once more change their 
allegiance, and the Indians become the exclusive friends 
and allies of the King their great Father." 19 

In outlining his case, Hull stated, "I did understand, 
and such it will appear was the understanding of the ex- 
ecutive officers of the government, that in the event of a 
war the operations of my army would be strengthened 
and secured by a competent naval force on Lake Erie, and 
by the direction of other forces against the enemy's ter- 
ritory. Had these expectations been realized, instead of 
having lingered out so many months as a prosecuted 
criminal, instead of now standing before you as an ac- 
cused, I might still have shared my country's confidence 
— The foul charges to which I am now to answer would 
not have thus blasted the laurels of my youth — But even 
in the wilds of Canada and amidst these whitened locks 
they might have retained their pristine verdure." 30 

Unfortunately, even such eloquence did not prevail 
against the forceful arguments of the special Judge Advo- 
cate, young Martin VanBuren. Hull was found guilty 

2.9. Forbes, Report of the Trial of Brig. General William Hull, Appendix I, pp. 30-31. 
30. Ibid., Appendix I, p. z8. 

2.6 Biographical Essay 

upon the counts of cowardice and neglect of duty, and 
was sentenced to be shot, but President Madison re- 
manded execution of the sentence, because of Hull's Rev- 
olutionary services. Curiously enough, the court martial 
was presided over by General Dearborn, a most improper 
appointment, since Hull had alleged that Dearborn's 
ineffectiveness had contributed to bring about his sur- 
render. After his conviction, Hull appealed to his coun- 
trymen in "An Address to the Citizens of the United 
States," in which he objected bitterly to the impropri- 
ety of General Dearborn being ' ' president of the court- 
martial which has condemned me for the misfortune 
which his own misconduct had been a great cause in pro- 
ducing." 31 Ten years later, upon the release of certain 
pertinent documents, General Hull resumed the attack 
on General Dearborn, in a series of articles in the ' ' Amer- 
ican Statesman." Due to his father's absence as Minis- 
ter to Portugal, young General Dearborn took up the 
cudgels on his behalf in a well documented ' ' Defence of 
General Henry Dearborn Against the Attack of General 
William Hull." This brought forth another attack from 
Hull, and further prolonged the fruitless controversy 
which was only terminated by the death of Hull within 
a year. 

For Dearborn, the period of the war of 1812. was prob- 
ably the most trying in his long career. Of the officers 
appointed by Madison, McMaster says "as a class they 
were old, vain, respectable, and incapable." 32 " Describing 
the rank and file of the militia, a contemporary wrote, 

the soldiers are under no more restraint than a herd of 
swine, reasoning, remonstrating, threatening, and ridi- 
culing their officers, they show their sense of equality 

31. Defence of Brigadier General W. Hull, p. XL 

31. McMaster, A History of the People of the United States, Vol. Ill, p. 546. 

General Henry Dearborn 2.7 

and their total want of subordination." 33 At critical mo- 
ments they would refuse to cross the line between their 
state and Canada. 

With these difficulties to contend with, it is not sur- 
prising that the operations around Niagara lagged, in 
spite of the capture of York (now Toronto). This cam- 
paign has a special interest for Chicagoans, because 
Dearborn probably was never so near to the site of Chi- 
cago as he was during this unhappy period. Finally, in 
July, 1 8 13, broken with ill health and disappointment, 
the failing General was replaced by his companion of the 
Revolution, — that swaggering, incompetent James Wil- 
kinson, of all people ! There may be some poetic justice, of 
a comic opera sort, in the fact that eighteen months later 
Dearborn was to preside over the court-martial of this 
same Wilkinson. 


With the return of peace to the nation, came peace 
to the General as well, — and a prosperity he had never 
previously enjoyed. In 1813, three years after the death 
of his second wife, he married Sarah Bowdoin, widow of 
James Bowdoin, patron of Bowdoin College, and daugh- 
ter of William Bowdoin. The Bowdoin fortune made it 
possible for General Dearborn to give his old home in 
Roxbury to his son, while he and his new wife took over 
the Bowdoin mansion on Milk Street in Boston. Here he 
lived continuously, except for two years abroad as Min- 
ister to Portugal, until his wife's death in 182.6, which 
was followed by his own death three years later. His 
wide acquaintance, set off by his wife's great wealth, 
made their home a center for the entertainment of visi- 
tors of prominence. Here he received the Marquis de 

33. Babcock, The Rise of American Nationality, p. 79. 

z8 Biographical Essay 

Lafayette, and hereon July 3, 18 17, he and his wife gave a 
magnificent ball in honor of the newly elected President 
of the United States, James Monroe. 

The observant reader will have noted that by now con- 
siderable light has been thrown on the Portsmouth let- 
ter. "My dear Sarah" is obviously the General's third 
wife, Sarah Bowdoin Dearborn, which brackets the date 
of the letter between 18 13 and 18x6, the period of their 
marriage. Julia is his third daughter, the "Venus of the 
Kennebec," wife of Joshua Wingate, Jr., Collector of 
United States Customs at Portland; — she whose beauty 
so affected the gallant Marquis de Lafayette that he pre- 
sented her with a set of china which had belonged to 
Marie Antoinette. "Mrs. W" appears to be the Mrs. 
Wingate of the Washington letter, Mrs. Joshua Win- 
gate, Sr., Julia's mother-in-law. With our knowledge 
that a ball was given in honor of President Monroe at 
Dearborn's home in Boston, the ' ' President" of the letter 
is revealed as Monroe, and the year as 18 17. To authenti- 
cate these suppositions fully and to determine the exact 
circumstances of the letter, required detailed information 
regarding President Monroe's trip to Boston in 1817. 
This was located in a book published at Hartford in 1818, 
entitled, The Tour of James Monroe, President of the United 
States, in 18 iy through the States of Maryland, Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachu- 
setts, New Hampshire, Vermont and Ohio, by S. Putnam 
Waldo, Esquire, Compiler of Robbins' Journal. 

It is hard for us who are used to streamlined presiden- 
tial specials and battle ship fishing expeditions to realize 
the significance and magnitude of President Monroe's 
tour, which required three and one half months of hard 
travel on horseback, and in coaches over bumpy roads. 
Some of the states had never received an official visit from 

General Henry Dearborn zy 

a President, and their reaction to his setting foot on their 
sovereign soil so soon after the unpopular War of 1812. 
was problematical. Lacking the advice of a modern pub- 
lic relations counsel, Monroe started off on the wrong 
foot, arriving in Baltimore, his first stop, on the Sab- 
bath, and thus "excited the indignation and called forth 
the censure" 34 of many devout citizens. After this ill- 
starred beginning, the tour continued smoothly, except 
for some slight tension at the Massachusetts border, oc- 
casioned by the tactlessness of the legislature in passing a 
resolution directing the proper local authorities to escort 
the President through the State, instead of leaving his 
reception to "Republican munificence and individual 
hospitality" as had been done elsewhere. Enroute to 
Boston, he was joined by General Dearborn, who had 
just been defeated for the governorship, and others of the 
friendly minority, who presented him with a memorial 
expressing ' ' their high regard for his official and personal 
character." With the arrival in Boston, the tour may be 
said to have inaugurated what the Columbian Centinel 
of Boston referred to as "The Era of Good Feelings," a 
fortunate phrase, which Monroe adopted, and which has 
been used by historians since to denote the happy period 
of Monroe's two terms in office. 

The President remained a number of days in the vicin- 
ity of Boston, during which, according to the historian 
of the tour, ' ' he renewed his acquaintance with many of 
his revolutionary associates, and, at many private par- 
ties, witnessed that elegance and refinement, which is in 
no way inconsistent with republican simplicity, the 
most striking characteristic of the President. It would 
be too much in the style of an English tourist, describ- 
ing the visits of a prince, to designate every splendid 

34. Waldo, The Tour of James Monroe, p. 50. 

30 Biographical Essay 

mansion and every brilliant party he honored and adorned 
by his presence." 35 

As stated before, one of the " brilliant parties" was at 
the home of General Dearborn. In addition, the President 
was entertained by the Society of Cincinnati, celebrated 
Independence Day at the Charleston Navy Yard, re- 
viewed the troops at Bunker Hill, and received an hon- 
orary degree from Harvard University. 

On July 8th, the President, with his suite, left Boston 
for Marblehead and Salem, escorted by the Boston Light 
Dragoons. After a journey through northeastern Massa- 
chusetts, which partook of the nature of a triumphal 
tour, he reached Portsmouth about seven o'clock in the 
evening of Saturday, July ixth. He was met "by the 
Committee of Arrangements and a numerous cavalcade 
of citizens on horseback and in carriages, and a company 
of cavalry belonging to the Thirty-Fifth Regiment. 
When he passed the lines of the town, it was announced 
by a national salute from the artillery company stationed 
on the Plains; and on the arrival of the President at that 
place, he viewed the First Regiment, which was ordered 
out for his inspection. When passing Wilbird's Hill, he 
was again welcomed by a national salute from the com- 
pany of Sea Fencibles, and by the ringing of bells; after 
which, he was escorted into town, through lines formed 
by the scholars of the several public and private schools 
in this place, who were arranged on each side of the 
road. The windows on the streets through which the 
President passed were crowded with the fair, and the 
streets lined with spectators, anxious to view the man 
who had been raised to the highest possible honor, — ■ 
that of being the chief magistrate of a free people." On 
the entrance of the President into Market Street, he 

35. Ibid., p. 140. 

General Henry Dearborn 31 

passed through an arch of ' ' evergreen which had been 
tastily formed by the ladies of the town, near which a 
band of music received him with national and appropri- 
ate airs. After arriving at Frost's Hotel, the President 
and suite, together with the Committee of Arrange- 
ments, appeared in the balcony over the door, which 
was fancifully decorated, when the Honorable Mr. Ma- 
son, in behalf of the citizens, delivered an address of 
welcome." 36 

Mr. Mason, in addition to welcoming the President, 
made a brief reference to that perennial condition ' ' the 
temporary depression under which we are now suffer- 
ing," and in reply, the President philosophically re- 
marked, "occasional depressions ought not to excite 
surprise. They are inseparably connected with human 
affairs." Thereupon, the Portsmouth regiment passed in 
review, and the President was escorted to his lodgings 
by the Committee of Arrangements and Marshals. 

Not wishing to repeat the mistake made at the begin- 
ning of his tour, of traveling on the Sabbath, the Presi- 
dent attended divine service twice, at St. John's Church 
on Sunday morning, and again in the afternoon at the 
Rev. Mr. Putnam's meeting house. Inasmuch as the os- 
tensible purpose of the tour was the inspection of the 
national defences, it was appropriate that he should de- 
vote Monday to a tour of the Navy Yard and the forts in 
the harbor. On their return, the President and his party 
were waited upon by a committee from the Society of As- 
sociated Mechanics of the State. In reply to the formal 
address of the President of the Society, President Monroe 
gave an extemporaneous answer in which "he made 
some appropriate reflections on the utility of encourag- 
ing our native manufacturers." This was followed that 

36. Ibid., p. 167. 

32. Biographical Essay 

evening by a concert given by the Social Harmoniac So- 
ciety at Jefferson Hall, "which was very elegantly 

Because of General Dearborn's intimate connection 
with Portsmouth, he was undoubtedly called upon to 
play an active part in this round of festivities. At Salem 
or Marblehead he might have begged off the concert 
given by the Social Harmoniac Society, at least, on the 
grounds of his nearly seventy years, but at Portsmouth, 
he had to put in an appearance with his fellow towns- 
men. And so it was not until 11:30 that night that he 
was free to drag his weary feet up to his room and dash 
off a hurried line to his wife. We can now understand 
why he made note of the late hour, but did not bother 
about the date, which we have determined to be Mon- 
day, July 14, 18 17. "This is the first minuit that I have 
been able to write a line today," he starts. The evidence 
we have seems to support that statement, as he probably 
got back from the tour of the fortifications and the re- 
ception barely in time to dress for a formal dinner before 
the concert of the Harmoniac Society. His next sentence 
is, "We set off at 6 o'clock tomorrow morning for 
Portland, where the President intends to arrive before 
night. ' ' This emphasis on the early morning start further 
explains the necessity of a brief note. Portland was nearly 
fifty miles as the crow flies, a long trip by horse, and, 
furthermore, after crossing the Piscataqua, the President 
and the General were to be met by more Committees on 
Arrangements, speeches of welcome, and escorts of cav- 
alry. It is a relief to know that in spite of these delays, 
the party reached Portland by six that evening. In his 
closing sentences, the General refers to his expected re- 
turn home by Saturday. After a two day stay in Port- 
land, where he could enjoy the company of his daughter, 


L Y-7* ^(L- ^^«^^^feg?^r^ 

T/>e Portsmouth Letter 


General Henry Dearborn 33 

Julia, he would finally be free to return to Boston, and 
recuperate, while the President journeyed on to Concord, 
and thence to the West. 

■* * * 

The General's hasty note is thus fully explained, with 
every reference made clear, — and in seeking its explana- 
tion, we have also brought to life its colorful author 
whose career is so closely interwoven with the principal 
events of the critical period of our history. It is easy to 
see how a less vigorous personality whose name was 
linked by chance with the founding of a metropolis, 
might well lose his identity, swallowed by the very leg- 
ends the greatness of the city would create. But in his 
strenuous Revolutionary career, Henry Dearborn person- 
ified the very qualities of untiring energy and wide- 
spread activity which have made Chicago great. Yet, he 
seems destined to share the fate of Count Nesselrode, — 
the Russian statesman, whose name has survived only as 
a pudding. His personality has been well-nigh obliter- 
ated by the cartoonists' legend of an old dodo, with plug 
hat, frock coat, and spade beard, labeled "Father Dear- 
born." Chicago would do better to remember the brave 
and resolute Revolutionary fighter to whom the name 
rightfully belongs, — Henry Dearborn. 


The Quebec Expedition 

one of the first objectives of the Continental army in ijj} was 
the capture of St. Johns and Montreal. The invasion of Canada 
was launched after the battle of Bunker Hill. Montgomery led 
an expedition north by way of Lake Champlain and the Richelieu 
River, while the main army under Washington was besieging 
Howe's troops in Boston. To distract Carle ton in Canada, 
Washington ordered a second expedition to march on Quebec. 
This daring exploit was entrusted to Arnold. The route selected 
was the little-used wilderness trail by way of the Kennebec River 
and the Chaudiere. After enduring great suffering and privation 
for eight weeks, Arnold' s expedition emerged from the woods near 
Point Levis and threatened Quebec. This diversion made possible 
the capture of Montreal by Montgomery . The wilderness march 
and the unsuccessful assault on Quebec which followed have 
evoked commendation from all military historians. 

A JOURNAL kept by Cap? Henry Dearborne, 1 of 
the Proceedings, and Particular occurrences, 
L which happened within my knowledge, to the 
Troops, under the Command of Colonel Bennedicte 

i. Henry Dearborn was twenty-four years old and a practising physician in Notting- 
ham Square, N. H., when he received news of the battle at Lexington. Being captain 
of the local militia, he immediately mustered his company and set off for Cambridge. 
When the ist New Hampshire regiment was organized under the command of Col. 
John Stark, Dearborn was appointed a captain. He participated in two skirmishes 


36 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1775 

Arnold, 2 " in the year 1775 Which Troops were detached 
from the American Army Lying before the Town of 
Boston, for the purpose of marching to, and taking pos- 
session of Quebec: 

Said detachment consisted of Eleven hundred Men, 
Two Battalians of Musket-men, and three Companies of 
Rifle-men as Light-Infantry — , 3 

around Boston, and on June 17, his regiment checked the British advance at the rail 
fence barrier running down to the Mystic River from Breed's Hill. After the retreat, 
Stark's New Hampshire line retired to Winter Hill. In September Dearborn volunteered 
for Arnold's expedition to Quebec. Charles Coffin, The Lives and Services of Major General 
John Thomas . . . Major General Henry Dearborn (New York, 1845), 104-8. 

2.. Benedict Arnold (1741-1801), of a good Connecticut family, began his military 
career brilliantly. He left a prospering trade to captain a militia company which 
responded to the Lexington alarm. He obtained a colonel's commission on his offer to 
seize the cannon and powder at Fort Ticonderoga. The same idea had occurred to Ethan 
Allen of Vermont, and the two led the victorious assault of May 10, 1775. Arnold went 
up to Lake Champlain and also captured the fort at St. Johns. Dispute over this com- 
mand led to his being superseded, and he returned home, where his wife had just 
died. Next he proposed to Washington an expedition against Quebec by way of the 
Kennebec River to co-operate with Schuyler's (later Montgomery's) invasion of Canada 
by way of Lake Champlain. The progress and outcome of this expedition is related in 
this journal. Arnold was wounded in the leg at Quebec and in the spring gave up the 
siege of Quebec and fell back to Montreal. Now a brigadier-general, he ordered his 
force to retreat towards Crown Point, anticipating Gen. Carleton's move to drive the 
Americans from Canada. At Crown Point Arnold's command built a fleet of green 
timber and successfully diverted Carleton's fleet carrying ix,ooo men after two fierce 
battles on Lake Champlain. Although Arnold lost his fleet, he nevertheless was 
responsible for Carleton's retreat to Canada for the purpose of assembling a stronger 
expedition against the colonies. Arnold spent the winter at home on leave, but routed 
Tryon's raid on Connecticut, for which service he was made a major-general. In the 
summer of 1777 he joined Gates who was sent out to stop Burgoyne's army descending 
from Canada. First he stopped St. Leger at Fort Stanwix, then turned back Burgoyne 
at Saratoga, where he was again wounded. He rejoined the army in May, 1778, and was 
placed in command of Philadelphia, recently evacuated by the British. There he 
married Peggy Shippen, went into debt, and became involved in petty military dis- 
putes with the Pennsylvania authorities. In 1779 he began supplying the British with 
intelligence, and when Washington put him in command at West Point the following 
year, he negotiated the surrender of that post to the enemy for £2.0,000 and a com- 
mission in the British army. The capture of Maj. Andre exposed Arnold's plan, and 
he barely escaped to the British in New York City. He served as an officer in the 
British army, leading raiding parties into Virginia and along the Connecticut coast. 
He sailed for England in December, 1781. Diet. Am. Biog., I, 362.-6. 

3. The British had detached one company from each regiment of foot as "light 
infantry." These units were equipped less heavily than the regular infantry, and were 
used primarily for skirmishing, reconnaissance and outpost duties. As the Continental 
army took shape, the same plan was instituted, fsee Dearborn's entry for Aug. 6, 1777) 

I 775 3 ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 37 

Officers of Officers of 


Lieu? Colo : Roger Enos Lieu? Colo : Cristopher Green 

Maj? Return Jon. Meigs Maj : Timothy Biggelloe 

Cap? Thomas Williams Cap? Sam! Ward 

Cap? Henry Dearborne Cap? Simeon Thayre 

Cap? [William] Scott Cap? John Topham 

Cap? Oliver Hanchett Cap? [Samuel] M-Cobb 

Cap? William Goodrich Cap? Jonas Hubbard 

The Captains of the Rifle Men. 

[Daniel] Morgan 
[Matthew] Smith 
[William] Hendrick 

Septem? io? 1 ? 1775 
I march 'd my Company from Winter-Hill 4 to Cam- 
bridge n? h i2.? h and the chief of the 13? 11 We Lay at 
Cambridge preparing for to March, at 5 O Clock P. M: 
March'd from Cambridge to Medford, and Encamped, 
14— at 12., O Clock march'd from Medford to Salem & 
Encamp' t*? 5 

15 Marched to Ipswich and encamped. 6 

although whole regiments were equipped and employed as light infantry. In this 
instance the three specially organized companies of riflemen were to serve as light 
infantry for the expedition. 

4. Winter Hill here refers to the works erected on the Charlestown road at the point 
where the road divides, one branch leading to Concord, the other leading north to 
Medford. Dearborn marched his men from Winter Hill to Cambridge, a distance of 
x.% miles, where the entire detachment under Arnold was equipped and paraded by 
Gen. Washington. On the nth, Dearborn and the other officers attended a council of 
war, during which Arnold received instructions to proceed to Quebec via the Kennebec. 
Dearborn started from Cambridge late in the afternoon and camped at Medford, about 
three miles from Cambridge. 

5. A distance of about 9 miles. Salem, situated on a peninsula formed by two inlets 
of the ocean, was an important maritime city at this time, carrying on a large for- 
eign trade. 

6. Ipswich, Essex co., Mass., on the Ipswich River 3 miles from its entrance to the 
ocean, and about 13 miles from Salem. 

38 Journals of Henry Dearborn £1775 

16 Marched to Newbury Port and Encamped. 7 

17 Being Sunday, we attended Divine Service there. 
i8* h at 4 Clock, the whole detachment Embarked on 

Board 10 Vessels. 

19 at 10 Clock A: M.. we made Sail, But as Soon as we 
got outside of the Bar, we hove too, — In order to receive 
the Several Signals which we were to observe while at 
Sea, Said Signals were to be given by the Vessel, which 
Colo: Arnold was on Board of Called the Commodore. 

The Signals were as followeth Viz? 

i st Signal, for Speaking with the whole Fleet an Ensign 
was to be Hoisted at the Main-Top: mast head. 

2. Signal, for Chasing a Sail, Ensign at fore, top, mast, 

3 Signal, for heaving too, a Lanthorn at Main, Topmast, 
head, and two guns if head on Shore, and three Guns, 
if off shore. 

4 Signal, for making sail, in the Night, a Lanthorn at 
Mast head, and four Guns, — In the day, a Jack at the 
fore Top: Mast-head. 

5 Signal, for dispersing and every Vessel for making the 
Nearest, Harbour Ensign at the Main-Topmast Peak. 

6 Signal, for Boarding any vessel, a Jack at Main Top- 
mast head. 

at ix O Clock we put to Sea, and had a fair wind — at 
10 O Clock.. P: M: we hove too, Head, off Shore with a 
Brisk wind, the Chief of our people were Sea-Sick. 

xo In the Morning, we made the mouth of Kenne- 
beck River 8 which we enter'd at io'Clock an Came 

7. Newburyport, Essex co., Mass., on the south bank of the Merrimac River 3 
miles from the ocean and about 9 miles from Ipswich. 

8. The sail from Newburyport to the mouth of the Kennebec is about 100 miles in a 
straight line. The sloops and schooners which comprised the fleet encountered favour- 
able weather and a good breeze; the passage was made in about 10 hours. The boats 

1775 3 ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 39 

to an Anchor, at 3.. O: Cl[Ock] P: M: we Weighed, 
Anchor and put up the River a Bout 3 Leagues, and 
came to an Anchor, I went on Shore at Rousask 9 
where there are a Number of Inhabitants and a Meeting 

2.1" Put up the River as far as Swan Island, at the upper 
End of Merry-meeting-Bay-where we Run on Shore and 
Came to an Anchor, 10 I went on Shore with some of my 
ofhciers, and Stay'd all Night. 

Septem' 2.2-f 

Proceeded, up the River, We pass'd Fort Richmond 11 
at 1 1 : O Clock where there are but few Settlements at 
Present, this afternoon we pass'd Pownalborough, 12 " 
Where there is a Court-House and Goal — and some very 
good Settlements, This day at 4. O Clock we arrived at 
the place where our Batteaus were Built. 13 

We were order' d to Leave one Sergeant, one Cor- 
poral and Thirteen men here to take a Long the Bat- 
teau's, they embark'd on Board the Batteaus, and we 
all proceeded up the River to Cabisaconty, or Gardners 

anchored at Parker's Flats, four miles from the river mouth. Justin Smith, Arnold's 
March From Cambridge to Quebec (New York, 1903), 69. 

9. Arrowsic Island, about 1 mile above Parker's Flats. 

10. Swan Island, about 3^ miles in length, is five miles above Merrymeeting Bay. 
It splits the river. The bay is formed by the junction of the Androscoggin River with 
the Kennebec; it is about twenty miles from the sea. 

11. Fort Richmond was occupied in 172.0-172.1, but was dismantled in 1754. The 
expedition passed the remains of this fort, located on the west side of the river a little 
above the present village of Richmond. Smith, op. cit., jt. 

12.. Pownalborough was situated on the east side of the Kennebec, on the present 
site of Dresden, Lincoln co., Maine. 

13. The batteaux were built at Maj. Reuben Colburn's ship-yard, at what is now 
Pittston, Kennebec co., Maine, on the east side of the Kennebec River. Arnold had 
ordered 2.00 batteaux large enough to carry six or seven men with provisions and lug- 
gage. The boats were to be fitted with 4 oars, 2. paddles and 2. setting poles. Smith, 
of. cit., 74-8. 

Dearborn was so impressed by the beauty of the country in this vicinity that he 
moved his family to Pittston in 1784. Daniel Goodwin, The Dearborns . . . (Chicago, 
1884), 2.1. 

40 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1775 

Town, 14 Where Doctor Gardner of Boston owns a Large 
Tract of Land and Some Mills, & a Number of very good 
dwelling Houses, where we Stayed Last night, on Shore. 

±T, d We put up the River, and before Night, we arrived 
at Fort Western 15 which is 50 Miles from the Mouth of 
the River, this evening a very unhappy accident hap- 
pen'd, a Number of Soldiers being in a Private-house, 
some warm words Produced a quarrel and one M^Cor- 
mick being Turned out of the House, Soon after dis- 
charged his Gun into the House, and Shot a Man thro' 
the Body of which wound he Soon Expired. 

M^Cormick was Try'd by a Court Martial and Con- 
demn 'd to be hanged, He abstinately denyed the fact un- 
til he was Brought under the Gallows where Confess'd 
the Crime — but for Some reasons was reprieved, until the 
pleasure of Gen! Washington could be known. 16 

2.4- 2-5- z6- We lay at Fort Western preparing for our 
March — Fort Western Stands on the East side of the 
River and Consists of two Block Houses, and a Large 
House 100 feet Long which are Inclos'd only with Pic- 
quets, this House is now the property of one Howard 
Esq^ where we were well entertained. 

Z5 Captains Morgan, Smith, and Hendrick, 17 with 
their Companies of Rifle, Men embarked on Board their 

14. Gardinerston comprised the vast estate of Sylvester Gardiner. Until 1803 it 
included Pittston, Gardiner, West Gardiner, Farmingdale, Chelsea and Randolph. 
Smith, op. cit.y 74, passim. 

15. Fort Western, on the east bank of the Kennebec, was about 9 miles above Col- 
burn's ship-yard, in the present town of Augusta. Built in 1754, it had been a strong, well- 
defended frontier post, marking the head of navigation in the Kennebec. Ibid., 77, ff. 

16. According to Arnold, James McCormick had been condemned for the murder of 
Reuben Bishop on board the schooner Broad Bay. The prisoner had been drafted for 
the expedition out of Col. Scammon's regiment. In sending him to Gen. Washington 
for approval of the sentence, Arnold called him a simple, ignorant fellow and rec- 
ommended him for mercy. Arnold to Washington, Sept. 2.7, 1775, Kenneth 
Roberts, March to Quebec (New York, 1938), 67. 

17. Captain Daniel Morgan (1736-180Z) commanded a company of Virginia rifle- 
men noted for their marksmanship. He volunteered for Arnold's expedition. When 

1775 1 T HE Quebec Expedition 41 

Batteaus, with orders to proceed up the River as far as 
the great Carrying place, there to Clear a Road a Cross 
the Carrying place, while the other divisions were get- 
ingup. 18 

2.6... Colo: Green 19 embark'd on Board the Batteaus 
with three Company's of Musketmen to proceed for 

27... at 3.. 0:ClockP..M: Major Meigs 10 embarked on 
Board the Batteaus with four Companies of men, my 

Arnold was wounded in the attack on Quebec, Morgan assumed command and pene- 
trated far into the lower town, but was forced to surrender when he was not sup- 
ported. He was not released from prison until the fall of 1776, when he was commis- 
sioned a colonel. Morgan raised a corps of 500 sharpshooters that was conspicuous 
in defeating Burgoyne in 1777. He resigned from service in July, 1779, but re-entered 
the war in the southern campaign, winning a brilliant victory at Cowpens in 1781. 
Ill health forced him to retire to his Virginia home. Diet. Am. Biog., XIII, 166-7. 

Capt. Matthew Smith ( d. 1794) of Pennsylvania commanded the Lancaster County 
riflemen. In 1765, as one of the "Paxton Boys" he had led a mob which destroyed 
trade goods going to the western Indians, and massacred a group of Conestoga Indians. 
Smith was the only officer who failed to take part in the assault on Quebec; his com- 
pany was led by Lt. Archibald Steele. Smith was made a captain in the 1st Continental 
Infantry in 1776, but resigned and was appointed major in the 9th Pennsylvania regi- 
ment the next year. He left the army early in 1778. F. B. Heitman, Historical Register 
of Officers of the Continental Army . . . (Washington, 1914), 505. 

Capt. William Hendricks was an officer in Thompson's Pennsylvania Rifle battalion. 
He seems to have been a hardy, courageous and well-liked officer. In the assault on 
Quebec his company was placed in the rear, but under his direction his men pushed 
to the front to storm the barrier; there Capt. Hendricks was killed. Ibid., 185. 

18. On September 2.5 at Fort Western, the battalions and riflemen were divided into 
four divisions. Three companies of riflemen under Capt. Morgan composed the first 
division and led the expedition. Lt. Col. Greene and Maj. Bigelow led the second 
division comprised of three companies under Thayer, Topham and Hubbard. The 
third division, under Maj. Meigs, was made up of four companies under Dearborn, 
Ward, Hanchet and Goodrich. The companies of McCobb, Smith and Williams 
brought up the rear under Col. Enos. 

19. Lt. Col. Christopher Greene (1737-1781) was a lieutenant of Rhode Island's 
Kentish Guards, and marched to Boston at the Lexington alarm. A month later he 
was appointed major in Col. Varnum's Rhode Island regiment. Greene volunteered for 
the Quebec expedition and commanded the second division. He was taken prisoner at 
Quebec and held until August, 1777. Appointed colonel of the 1st Rhode Island regi- 
ment, he held Fort Mercer against a Hessian attack and later was active in the Rhode 
Island campaign. Surprised at his headquarters in Westchester County, New York, 
he was killed May 14, 1781. Diet. Am. Biog., VII, 563. 

2.0. Return Jonathan Meigs (1740-18x3) marched a company of Connecticut volun- 
teers to Boston after the Lexington alarm. There he was commissioned a major in 
the ind Connecticut regiment. He joined Arnold and kept a journal of the Quebec 

42. Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1775 

Company being One of them) With 45 days Provisions 
proceeded up the River four miles, and encampt, the [wa- 
ter?] not very rapid. 

2.8 Procee'd up the River four miles, the Water exceed- 
ing Rapid, some bad falls and encampt. 

X9 Proceeded up the River four miles to Fort Hallifax 2-1 
against a very rapid stream, where we arrived at 11- 
O Clock A.. M. this Fort stands on a point of Land, Be- 
tween the Rivers Kenebeck and Sabastacook. It Consists 
of Two Large Block-Houses and a Large Barrack which 
is Inclosed by Picquet Fort, after Staying half an hour at 
the Fort I Cross 'd the River to a Carrying place, which 
is 97 Rods, We carry'd a Cross our Batteaus and Bag- 
gage and Encampt. 

30 Proceeded up the River this Morning, found it 
exceeding rapid and rocky for five miles, so that any 
man would think, at its first appearance, that it was 
impossible to get Boats up it, I fill'd my Battoe to day, 
and wet all my Baggage, but with the greatest diffi- 
culty, we got over what is call'd the 5 mile ripples, and 
then encampt, and dryed my Cloathing as well as I 

Octo : 1 Proceeded up the River 3 miles, the Stream was 
very rapid, here Major Meigs had Bought an Ox, and 
had him dress' d for us when we came up, we eat what 
we could and took the remainder into our Batteaus, and 
proceeded up the River four miles further and encampt, 

campaign. He was captured at Quebec and exchanged in 1777, after which he was pro- 
moted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He retired a colonel at the end of 1781 when 
the Connecticut troops were reorganized. He was a leader in the establishment of 
Marietta, Ohio, in 1788 and later became an Indian agent. Ibid., XII, 508-9. 

2.1. Fort Halifax stood about ^ of a mile below the present city of Waterville, at 
the junction of the Sebasticook and the Kennebec. It was built in 1754 under the 
direction of Gen. John Winslow. The fort accommodated 100 men on the point, and 
a redoubt on the tip of the tongue of land projecting into the river could accommodate 
a dozen men as well as 2. two-pounders and a swivel. Smith, op. cit., 94-9, passim. 

I 775 3 ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 43 

the Water not so rapid as before, the Land here on the 
Shores very good in General. 

2. Procee'd up the River Nine miles, the Water not very 
rapid intil towards Night, We encampt, it Rained very 
fast the most part of the night. 

3 proceeded up the River over very bad falls and Shoals 
such as seem'd almost Impossible to Cross, But after 
much fatigue, and a Bundance of difficulty we arrived at 
Schouhega"-falls, 2 - 2 ' where there is a Carrying place of 60 
rods, here we hall'd up our Batteaus and Caulk'd them, as 
well as we could they being very leaky, by being knocked 
a Bout a Mong the Rocks, and not being well Built at 
first, we Carryed a Cross and loaded our Batteaus, and 
put a Cross the River, and encampt, this days March was 
not a Bove 3 Miles, from here I sent Back two Sick men. 

4 Our Course in general from the Mouth of the river to 
this place, has been from North, to North East, from 
here we Steer N: W.. to Norrigwalk, Z3 which is Twelve 
miles to where we arrived to night, the River here is 
not very rapid. Except Two bad falls, the Land on the 
North side of the river is very good, where there are 2. or 
3 families settled, at Norrigwalk, is to be seen the ruins 
of an Indian Town, also a fort, a Chapel, and a Large 
Tract of Clear Land but not very good, there is but one 
family here at present Half a Mile above this old fort, is 
a Great fall, where there is a Carrying place of one Mile 
and a Quarter. 

5 We haled up our Batteaus, and Clear'd them for over- 
hauling, and repacked all our pork, and Bread, several 

2.2.. Skowhegan Falls were about 3 miles above the present town of the same name 
and 11 miles above the Sebasticook. The approach to the falls included a sharp bend 
in the river, fast water and whirlpools. Ibid., ioz, ff. 

2.3. What Dearborn describes is Old Norridgewock, at the mouth of the Sandy- 
River, in the present town of Starks and about 2.^4 miles above the present town of 
Norridgewock, Somerset co., Maine. Ibid., 105, jf. 

44 Journals of Henry Dearborn £1775 

Barrels of Bread was Spoiled, here we found Colo. 
Greens Division. 

6. . . After our Batteaus were repair'd, we Carry'd them 
a Cross the Carrying place, and Loaded them again, we 
put up the River two Miles and Encampt. 

7 We proceeded up the river nine miles and encampt. 
the Land we pass'd to day, was exceeding good, the 
Stream not very rapid, it rained very heavy all Night. 

8 It rain'd some part of this morning, But we pro- 
ceeded up the river Seven miles to Carritunkus-falls, 24 
where we arriv'd at 1 O Clock, P: M: the Weather 
proved very rainy, here is a Carrying place of 95 Rods, 
we Carry'd a Cross and put up the river 3 miles, the wa- 
ter was very rapid, and encampt. 

9 We proceeded up the River, 9 miles the Water was 
very Rapid, the river is divided here into a Number of 
Channels, occasion'd by small Islands, which Channels 
are Shoal and rapid, it rain'd the Bigest part of this day, 
We encamp'd at dusk, and I Catched Some fish before 

10 We proceeded up the River, I march'd by Land, the 
Weather Severely Cold, in Crossing a Small River on a 
Logg I slipt off and fell flat on my Back in the river, the 
Water not being more than four feet deep I waded out, 
But was obliged to Stop and Strike up a fire, to dry me, 
at 2... O.. Clock we arrived at the great Carrying place, 2-5 
Where we found the three Rifle Companies, and Colo: 

14. Carritunk Falls, about 18 miles above Norridgewock Falls, are at present a 
drop of ii feet. Arnold estimated the drop as 15 feet, but a dam has increased the 
drop. Ibid., 337, passim. 

Z5. The Great Carrying Place, also called Twelve Mile Carry, began about ij}4 
miles above Carritunk Falls. It was about 12.^ miles in length and consisted of a 
chain of three ponds and four portages by means of which it was possible to cross 
from the Kennebec to Dead River ten miles below their junction. By cutting off ten 
miles of shallow, unnavigable river, the Great Carrying Place was an important seg- 
ment in the trail through the wilderness to the Chaudiere River. 

I 775 H ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 45 

Green's Division we Carryed one Turn a Cross the Car- 
rying place which is four miles, to a Pond/ 6 

11 Lieu* Hutchins 2 " 7 and Ten of my men were order'd to 
assist Cap* M-Cob 2 " 8 in Building a Block-House, here to- 
day, Our last Division has now arrived, Commanded by 
Colo.. Enos. 2 - 9 We carryed the Chief of our Baggage and 
Boats To-day. 

ix This morning we took the remainder of our Baggage 
and march"? a Cross the Car'ying place to the pond, which 
is one mile wide But we Cannot Cross it today by reason 
of the winds blowing very hard, here we Catch 'd plenty 
of trout. 

13 We Cross'd the pond and Came to another Carrying 
Place half a mile a Cross, where our first division had 
Built a Block-house and left some Sick men under the 
Care of Doctor Erving. 3 ° We Carryed over the Carrying 
place to a pond, 31 We Cross'd the pond, i}4 Miles and 
Came to a Carrying place, one mile and three Quarters, 
We Carry'd half a mile and encampt. 

2.6. The distance from the Kennebec to East Carry Pond, the first in the chain, is 
closer to 3X miles. Smith, op. cit., 346, ff. 

2.7. Lt. Nathaniel Hutchins ( d. 1831) was a second lieutenant in Capt. Dearborn's 
company. He was captured at Quebec, and on his release was given a captain's com- 
mission. Hutchins left the army at the end of 1780. Heitman, op. cit., 312.. 

18. Captain Samuel McCobb ( d. 1791) was a captain of Minute Men who joined 
Nixon's Massachusetts regiment. On the march to Quebec he traveled with Col. 
Enos' division and voted to abandon the expedition. Later he transferred to the 5th 
Continental infantry, and later was a colonel of the Massachusetts Militia. Ibid., 366. 

19. Col. Roger Enos (172.9-1808) had served in the French and Indian War and was 
a lieutenant-colonel of the 1st Connecticut regiment on the march to Quebec. At 
Dead River his captains voted to abandon the expedition and Enos joined his men in 
the return march. Accounts of his behavior at the time differ. Washington ordered him 
courtmartialed, and although he was acquitted, he was never promoted, and in 1779 
he resigned. In 1781 he moved to Vermont and was put in command of the Vermont 
militia. Smith, op. cit., 161-3; Cyclopedia of Am. Biog., (Boston, 1897), II, 667. 

30. Dr. Matthew Irvine ( d. 1817) was surgeon's mate in Thompson's Pennsylvania 
Rifle Battalion. He later served as surgeon to Lee's battalion of Light Dragoons. The 
log hospital or block house built for the wounded was called Arnold's hospital; also 
Fort Meigs. Heitman, op. cit., 314; Smith, op. cit., 1x9. 

31. Little Carry Pond. 

46 Journals of Henry Dearborn [1775 

14... We Carry'd a Cross the Carrying Place, to a Pond 
three miles over, 32- we Cross'd the pond and Came to a 
Carrying place, 33 four miles over a Very-high-Hill, and 
the last mile a Spruce Swamp Knee deep in mire all the 
way, We Carry'd one mile over this Carrying place and 
then Encampt, from here I sent three sick-men Back. 

15 We Carry'd a Cross the Carrying place to a Small 
Stream 34 within half a mile of the dead River, 35 we went 
down this Stream into the River, and proceeded one Mile 
up said River and then encampt, the water here very deep 
and Still, the Land where we Encampt was very good. 

16 At 12... Clock we proceeded up the River ten miles 
to a Small Carrying place 7 Rods a Cross and then en- 
campt. 36 

17 We proceeded up the River 10 miles and Came to an 
Indian Wig- Warn, Said to belong to an old Indian Called 
Nattannas 37 it Stands on a Point of Land Beautifully 
situated, there is a Number of acres of Clear'd Land 
a Bout it — the river is very Still, and good Land on each 
side of it a Considerable part of the way, To day we 
proceeded up the River 5 miles farther, and found Colo : 
Arnold, and Colo : Green with their Divisions, making up 
Cartri d ges, here we Encampt. 

3Z. West Carry Pond, which Arnold's surveyors called 3 miles long and z miles 
wide. Smith, op. cit., 12.6. 

33. The last portage was over Carrying-Place Mountain to Bog Brook. The length 
of the portage has been estimated as between 3 and 5 miles. Ibid., 12.6, passim. 

34. The stream was Bog Brook. The spruce swamp and mire may have been the 
east branch of Bog Brook or the lowlands around it. 

35. Dead River or West Branch is formed by a chain of ponds extending westward 
to the "height of land." This river meets the East Branch, formed by the outlet of 
Moosehead Lake by way of Indian Pond, to form the Kennebec. 

36. This camp has been identified as Hurricane Falls, located about 8 miles up 
Dead River from Bog Brook. Smith, op. cit., 139, 361. 

37. Natanis, a Norridgewock Indian, had a cabin on the present site of Flagstaff, 
Maine. Arnold was first given to understand that he was employed by Carleton as a 
spy, and ordered him killed. Later Natanis showed himself to be a helpful friend and 
guide. He fought with the Americans at Quebec and was wounded. Ibid., passim. 

1775 H The Quebec Expedition 47 

18.. The weather is very rainy To day. My men had 
their Powder-Horns filled with Powder. Joseph Thomas 38 
is appointed my Ensign, By Colo: Arnold this day, I 
had a ]A. Quarter of Beef Served to my Company today. 

19.. The weather Rainy, at 2... O.. Clock A: M: We 
Set off: from this place proceeded up the River five miles, 
pass'd several Small falls and then Encampt 

10 Proceeded up the River, pass'd by Several small falls, 
one Carrying place, thirteen rods, the Weather rainy all 
day we Suppose this days March to be 13 Miles. 

2.1 We proceeded up the River 3 Miles to a Carrying 
place 35 Rods Carry 'd a Cross and Continued our Rout 
up the River two miles to a Porlag 39 30 Rods a Cross and 
Encampt. it Rained very fast all Night, the River rose 

2.2.. . The River has Risen eight or Nine feet, Which ren- 
ders it very bad getting up, We pass'd three Carrying 
places To'day 74 Rods Each, our whole March To-day 
is not more than four miles, the River Rising so much, 
fills the Low ground so full of Water, that our Men on 
Shore have found it very difficult and Tedious Marching. 

2.3 We Continued our March, tho. very slow by reason 
of the Rapidity of the Stream, a very unlucky accident 
happen 'd to us today, the most of our men by land 
miss'd their way and marched up a Small river, 40 Which 
Comes into the Dead River, a few Miles a Bove where 
we encampt last night. We fancied they took a Wrong 
Course, I Sent my Batteau up that four miles (where 
they that went in it) found the foot people had Cross 'd 

38. Joseph Thomas of Deerfield, N. H., was an ensign in the ist New Hampshire 
regiment. He was taken prisoner at Quebec, at which time Dearborn referred to him 
as a lieutenant. Heitman, op. cit., 539. 

39. Portage. 

40. Alder Stream, at its junction with the Dead River. Here Alder Stream is about 
the same size as Dead River. Smith, op. cit. t 155, 373. 

48 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1775 

the River on a Tree, and had Struck a Cross for the dead 
River, my Batteau Came Back, and we proceeded up the 
River to a Carrying place, where we found our foot-men at 
the foot of these Falls, 41 Several Batteaus overset, which 
were entirely lost, a Considerable quantity of Cloathing, 
Guns, and Provisions, our march to-day we Judge, to be, 
about 8 miles, here we held a Counsel, in Consequence of 
which we Sent Cap? Hanchet 4Z and 50 Men forward to 
Shadear 43 as an advanced party, and Sent Back 2.6. . Sick- 
men under the Command, or Care of an officer and Doctor. 
14 At 10.. O, Clock, we proceeded up the River, tho 
with a great deal of difficulty, the River being very rapid, 
This days march don't exceed four miles. 

2.5 Continued our Rout up the River, the Stream very 
rapid, We pass'd three Carrying places, Two of them 
four Rods and the other 90, our march to day 6 miles 
and then Encampt, — This Night I was Seized with a 
Violent Head-Ach and fever, Charles 44 gather' d me some 
herbs in the woods, and made me Tea of them, I drank 
very Hearty of it and next morning felt much Better. 

2.6 Continued our Rout and Came to a Pond 2. miles 
a Cross 45 and then Came to a narrow gut 2. Rod wide, and 
four rod Long, and then to a nother Pond one mile over, 46 
then to a narrow Streight, i}4 miles Long, Then a third 

41. Upper Shadagee Falls, about 2. miles above the mouth of Alder Stream. Ibid., 156. 

42.. Capt. Oliver Hanchet (1741-1816) had been a lieutenant of Minute Men. He 
later received a captain's commission in the md Connecticut regiment. After a quarrel 
with Arnold, and after objecting to Montgomery's plan of attacking Quebec, he 
joined in the assault and was captured. He was paroled in 1776 but was not exchanged 
until early in 1777. Heitman. op. cit., zji. 

43. Chaudiere Valley. Here the expedition hoped to obtain provisions from the 
French settlers. 

44. Charles Burget, a French youth who enlisted in Dearborn's company at Fort 
Western and acted as his orderly. Burget was taken prisoner at Quebec. 

45. Lower Pond, the first of a series of ponds. Here, above Sarampus Falls, the trail 
left Dead River. Smith, op. cit., passim. 

46. Bag Pond. Ibid., 165. 

1775 H The Quebec Expedition 49 

Pond 3 Miles over, 47 Then pass'd another Streight half a 
Mile Long, and then enter'd a fourth Pond a Bout a quar- 
ter of a Mile Wide, 48 then entered a Narrow gut 4 Miles 
in Length, 49 and then Came to a Carrying place 15 Rods 
a Cross, Here we Encampt. 

27... Cross'd the Carrying Place to a pond half a mile 
over, 50 Came to a Carrying Place, one Mile, also to a 
Pond yi Mile Wide, 51 then to a Carrying place 44 Rod, to 
a Pond 2. Miles Wide and Cross'd it. 52 " — and Came to the 
Carrying place into Chaudear pond 4^ Miles a Cross, 53 
we received orders here to Leave our Batteaus, and all 
march by Land, We here Divided our Provisions and 
gave every man his part, we march'd a Bout half a mile, 
and then encampt. Here I found a fine Birch Canoe Care- 
fully Laid up, I Suppose by the Indian's. 

Here a Very unhappy Circumstance happen'd to us, in 
our March, Which proved very fatal and Mortifying to 
us all, Viz 1 — 

When we were at the great Carrying place (just men- 
tion^ from the Dead River to Shodeer Pond we had the 
unhappy News of Colo. Enos, and the three Company's 
in his Division, being so Imprudent as to return back 
Two or three days before which disheartned and discour- 
aged our men very much, as they Carri'd Back more than 
their part, or quota of Provision, and Ammunition, and 
our Detachment, before being but Small, and now loosing 

47. Long Pond. Ibid., 165. 

48. Natanis Pond. Ibid., passim. 

49. Horse Shoe Stream, which Arnold estimated as 5 miles in length. Ibid., passim. 

50. A small lake which empties into Horse Shoe Stream (or river), named Lost 
Lake by Justin Smith. It is practically unknown to sportsmen and guides in the region. 
Ibid., passim. 

51. Horseshoe Pond. Ibid., 165. 

51. Arnold Pond, formerly called Moosehorn Pond. Ibid., passim. 
53. Dearborn refers to Boundary Portage leading to Arnold River, then called 
Seven Mile Stream. Ibid., passim. 

50 Journals of Henry Dearborn C1775 

these three Companies, We were Small, indeed, to think 
of entering such a place as Quebec. But being now almost 
out of Provisions we were Sure to die if we attempted to 
Return Back. — and We Could be in no Worse Situation 
if we proceeded on our rout. Our men made a General 
Prayer, that Colo: Enos and all his men, might die by 
the way, or meet with some disaster, Equal to the Cow- 
ardly dastardly and unfriendly Spirit they discover' d in 
returning Back without orders, in such a manner as they 
had done, And then we proceeded forward. 

x8 Very early in the morning my Company marched 
one M^ Ayres, 54 the Cap* of our Pioneers a Gree'd to go 
with me in the Canoe, We took it on our Backs, and 
Car'y'd it a Cross the Carrying place, to a Small Stream, 
which led into Shodeer Pond, 55 we put our Canoe in, 
Went down the Stream, my men marched down by 
Land. When we Came to the Pond, I found Cap? Good- 
rich's 56 Company, who Could not proceed by reason of 
finding a River which leads into the Pond, 57 which they 

54. Pioneers were military laborers employed to build roads, dig trenches, make 
bridges and keep camps clean. Although today they form a part of the corps of 
engineers and are attached to every division, formerly they were local civilian laborers 
impressed into military service. They carried tools as well as weapons. Capt. Ayres, 
who did not hold a regular commission, doubtless was given brevet rank to command 
the needed trail blazers on this expedition. E. S. Farrow, Farrow's Military Encyclo- 
pedia . . . (New York, 1895), II, 5x8. 

55. Probably Mud Brook which flows into Arnold River, which in turn flows into 
Lake Megantic or Chaudiere Pond, as Dearborn calls it. Smith, op. cit., passim. 

56. Capt. William Goodrich had commanded a company of Minute Men and now 
was in Glover's Massachusetts regiment. On the march to Quebec his company and 
Dearborn's missed their way by reason of setting off a few hours before a letter from 
Arnold was received warning the troops to avoid the river route to Lake Megantic. 
Their mistake threw them into a swamp and so increased their suffering that Good- 
rich's company was reduced to eating dog meat. Goodrich was captured at Quebec. 
After his exchange he became a brigade major in Putnam's brigade. Later he was in 
the Massachusetts militia. Heitman, op. cit., t.^x; Smith, op. cit., zoo, 2^5 . 

57. The men who marched overland probably came up against either the sweep of 
the Arnold River, which crosses the trail, or what is called the Dead Arnold, a 
branch of the Arnold which empties into the lake. The land between the men and the 
lake, as a matter of fact, was a series of bogs and swamps and small streams lying 
south of Rush Lake. Smith, op. cit., 103, ff. 

1775 2 The Quebec Expedition 51 

Could find no way to Cross, my Company Came up and 
had thoughts of Building a raft. I told them I would go 
with my Canoe, and See if I could not find some place to 
Cross the River, going into the Pond and round an Island, 
where Cap* Goodrich was with Some of his Men who had 
Waded on, He informed me that he had made a thorough 
Search, and that there was no way to pass the River with- 
out Boats, the Land round here was all a Sunken Swamp 
for a Great distance, Cap? Goodrich, informed me also, 
that one of his Sergeants and another man, who were not 
well, had gone forward with a Batteau, and he did not 
doubt but I could find it not far off it now Began to be 
Dark, We discover'd a Light on Shore which Seem'd to 
be 3 Miles from us, Cap? Goodrich was almost perished 
with the Cold, having Waded Several Miles Backwards, 
and forwards, Sometimes to his Arm-pits in Water & Ice, 
endeavouring to find some place to Cross this River, I 
took him into my Canoe, and Carryed him over, and 
When we arrived where we Discover'd the Light, we 
found a good Bark-House with one man in it who was 
Left by our advanced Party for want of Provision to join 
his Company, We warmed ourselves but not finding Cap? 
Goodrich's Batteau here, we Sent my Canoe farther on to 
find it, if Possible, after being gone an Hour and a half, 
they return 'd but had not found the Batteau, Cap? Good- 
rich and I were very uneasy all Night a Bout our men. 
X9 As Soon as it was Light we went to our Men and 
Began to Carry them over in my Canoe, But Lucky for us 
Cap c Smiths Batteau arrived which we hired to Carry 
our Men over, But after we had got them over this river, 
we had not marched above 50 Rod before we Came to 
Another River, 58 Geting a Cross these Two rivers took 

58. Another branch of the Arnold River, probably near the point where the Arnold 
and Rush rivers flow together. Ibid., passim. 



52. Journals of Henry Dearborn £1775 

up the Chief of the day, Before Sun Set we all arrived at 
the Bark-House Safe, where I slept last Night, But the 
men were very much fatigued here we encampt. 

30 We Marched very early in the Morning, our Provi- 
sions [torn] to be very Scant, Some Companies had but 
one pint of Flour for Each Man and no Meat at all, M r . 
Ayres and I went down the Pond, in our Canoe, this 
Pond is 13 Miles Long, at the Lower end of the Pond, I 
met my Company where we found the Mouth of Shodeer 
River, 59 Which Looked very wild, Here I Choose to walk 
by Land, and accordingly did a Bout Eight Miles, I was at 
this time very unwell, we encamp'd near a fall, 60 where 
all the Boats that had attempted to Come down had over- 
set except Colo, Arnolds, and mine, The Number of Boats 
that was overset here was Ten, one man was Drown'd, 
and a great Quantity of Baggage and Guns were lost. 

3 1 We Started very early this morning, I am Still more 
unwell, than I was yesterday, We Carry'd our Canoe 
over a Carrying place of a Bout Half a mile, and put it 
into the River, the Same is very Rapid, Shole and Rocky, 
We pass'd another Carrying place to-day, we went 
down about 2.8 miles, then went on shore and Enca'p'd, 
I saw Some of the men on foot to-night who I find are 
almost famished for want of Provisions. 

Nov. 1 This morning we Pitched our Canoe she being 
Somewhat Leaky, we have run several times on the 

59. Chaudiere River, meaning cauldron, rises at the northern end of Lake Megantic 
and follows a north-northwest course of iox miles between high, sometimes pre- 
cipitous, banks into the St. Lawrence River. The falls near its mouth are more than 
100 feet high. Lake Megantic lies almost noo feet above the level of the St. Law- 
rence; thus the river is very turbulent, and filled with rapids. Dearborn should have 
said the outlet of Lake Megantic or the source of the Chaudiere. The mouth of the 
river is at the St. Lawrence River. 

60. This point was the Devil's Rapids. The boats which met with an accident were 
swamped in the less violent rapids above. Smith says the accident probably saved 
the party — they never would have survived the treacherous water of the Devil's 
Rapids just below. Smith, op. cit., 43Z. 

1775 H ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 53 

Rocks going down falls, where I expected to have Stove 
her to pieces, we put her in and proceeded down the river, 
which Remains very rapid, and a Bounding in falls, we 
got down a Bout 30 Miles, by which time our Canoe got 
to be worn out, we went on shore and Encamp'd, Here 
I saw Some of the foot-men who were almost Starved, 
This day Cap? Goodrich's Company Kill'd my Dog, and 
another dog, and Eat them, I remain very unwell. 

2. M? Ayres my Shipmate, Said he would Try to go 
down a Little further, in the Canoe and Carry our Bag- 
gage, I conclude to march by Land, I set out and 
marched a bout four miles and met some French-men 
with 5 oxen & Two Horses going to meet our People, 
although, I wanted no Provision myself, yet knowing, 
how the Poor men were suffering for want & seeing we 
were like, to Come to some Inhabitants, it Causf the 
Tears to Start from my Eyes, before I was apprized, I 
proceeded about four miles farther, and Came to a Large 
fall, 61 where we found a good Canoe, Here was a Carry- 
ing place one Mile long, We Carryed a Cross the Carry- 
ing place, and put in. below the falls, where we found 
Two Indians with Some Provisions for our men, they 
left their Provision with some of our men, and went 
down with us, I got into their Canoe, and one of them 
into our's, the river being very rapid, & Shoal, we found 
it very difficult to pass. — we run down a bout eight miles, 
and to our Great Joy Espy'd a House, 62 " where we arrived 
at 4.. O.. Clock P..M: at 5 O Clock Lieu? Hutchins, 
Ensign. Thomas and 50 of my men arriv'd, with Cap? 
Smith's Company which were the first Company that 

61. The Greater and Lesser Falls. The first was a drop of about zo feet. Arnold, 
with the help of two Indians, paddled the half mile between the two falls, but Dear- 
born portaged around both of them. Ibid., 431, ff. 

62.. About 4 miles below the mouth of the Riviere du Loup, and about 64 miles 
from Lake Megantic. Ibid., passim. 

54 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1775 

arrived, Here, 3 Colo- Arnold had Provided provisions 
for us against we arrivf We Stay'd here one night, this 
morning our men proceed'd down the River, tho, in poor 
Circumstances, for Travelling, a Great Number of them 
being Barefoot, and the Weather Cold and Snowy, many 
of our men died within the last three days, from here to 
Quebec, is Seventy miles, I hir'd an Indian to Carry me 
down the River 6 miles to where Colo: Arnold was, 
where I found n Indians who Engaged with Colo: Ar- 
nold for 40/ a month, here I Stay'd all night, By Colo: 
Arnolds advice being Snowy, I took a Puke this night 
which did not operate much. 

4 The Weather Snowy I Stay'd here to-day, Major 
Biggellow, 63 Doctor Senter, 64 and some others stay'd 
here Likewise all night. 

5 The Weather is very Clear and pleasant for this season 
of the year, Major Biggaloe, and I hir'd each of us a Horse 
to go down the River 6 miles, and Came to a Tavern, where 
we had Provisions Served out for the Men, the Country 
here is Tolerable good Land, and Considerably Settled on 
Both sides of the River, the People are very Ignorant, 
but seem to be very kind to us, at evening Charles 
Hilton, 65 and Charles Burget, a French Lad, Inlisted, at 

63. Maj. Timothy Bigelow (1739-1790) had been a captain of Minute Men before 
joining Ward's Massachusetts regiment, in which he was commissioned a major. He 
volunteered for Arnold's expedition. Mount Bigelow in Maine is supposed to have 
been named for him because he is said to have climbed it. Captured at Quebec, he was 
exchanged in May, 1776. He became colonel of the 15th Massachusetts regiment and 
saw service at Saratoga, Valley Forge and around the Hudson. He retired Jan. 1, 1781 
and died in debtor's jail. Cyclopedia of Am. Biog., I, Z94; Heitman, op. cit., 102.. 

64. Dr. Isaac Senter (1753-1799) was studying medicine in Newport, R. I., with 
Dr. Thomas Moffat, when the Revolution began. He joined the 3rd Rhode Island regi- 
ment as surgeon and went to Cambridge, where he was later assigned to Arnold's 
expedition. He remained with the American forces until June, 1776, when he returned 
southward. Senter kept a journal of his adventures. He retired from the army in 1779 
and became surgeon-general of the Rhode Island militia. Smith, op. cit., 2.66; Heitman, 
op. cit., 489. 

65. Charles Hilton, a private in Dearborn's company, helped take care of his com- 
mander for the next few days. Hilton was taken prisoner at Quebec. 

1775 3 ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 55 

Fort Western, who was a native of Canady, Came back 
for me with Two Horses, we Stay'd here all night. 

6 I hir'd an Indian to Carry me down the River, 9 
Miles, to one Sonsosees, a French-mans, one of Charles 
Burgets relations, where I hir'd Lodgings and took my 
Bed Immediately, I was this time in a High fever. I kept 
the Two Charles? to take Care of me — I will now with 
my Pen follow our Main Body, 66 they have now pro- 
ceeded as far as S* Mary's the middle Parish of what 
is Commonly Call'd Sattagan, 67 here is a very good 
Church, and a pleasant Country — our people are Sup- 
ply'd with provisions at Several places By the way, but 
being in Great Hurry, and having but Little time to pro- 
vide, necessaries, our men were but Very poorly supply'd 
in General, the Inhabitants appears to be very kind, but 
ask a very Great price for their Victuals. 

7 Our Troops Proceeded as fast as possible, they fol- 
lowed the river Shodear down from the first Inhabitants 
a bout 36 miles, and then Turn'd to the Eastward, and 
left the river, had to pass thro, a wood 15 Miles where 
there is no Inhabitants, and at this time of the year it is 
Terrible Traveling, by reason of its being Low Swampy 
land, our people Carry 'd Twenty Birch Canoes a Cross 
these woods, in order to Cross the River S* Laurence in. 
— 68 as we Suppos'd the Boats near Quebec, would be in 

66. Dearborn was in bed from this date to Nov. x8; his entries made in the interim, 
therefore, do not contain first-hand information as to what was going on. From 
a comparison of texts, it is probable that Dearborn obtained his information from 
the journal of Maj. Return J. Meigs. 

67. Ste. Marie de la Beauce. Sattigan or Sartigan or Sertigan "meant the region 
(St. Egan) watered by the Chaudiere, from the Du Loup to St. Isodore de Lauzon, — 
that is to say, almost to the St. Lawrence." At. Ste. Marie was the manor-house of 
Gabriel Elzear Taschereau, a gentleman and landed proprietor of considerable import- 
ance. Smith, op. cit., Z47, 447. 

68. From Ste. Marie the expedition followed the Chaudiere to a point a little beyond 
the present village of Scotts. Here the road left the river, turning sharply to the right 
through the "forest of Sertigan." This road formed the boundary between the seig- 
neurie of Beauce and of Lauzon; it is known as the Route Justinienne. Ibid., t.^. 

56 Journals of Henry Dearborn [ 1775 

the Hands of our Enemies after we had got thro, these 
Woods, we arrived at S* Henry's, 69 a Considerable Parish 
with a Church, we pass'd several other Small parishes, 
before we arrived at Point, Levi, 70 where the main Body 
of our Detachment, arrived the 9^ Day of November, 
But so fatigued, that they were very unfit for action, a 
Considerable number of our men are left on the road Sick 
or woren out with fatigue & hunger. 

On our arrival we found Two Men of war Lying in the 
river Between Point-Levi, and Quebec, and Guard Boats 
passing all Night, up and Down the River. 

10 Our men lay at Point Levi, Nothing extraordinary 

11 happen' d except that a Deserter 71 from Quebec Came 
12. to us who Inform'd us that Colo: M'rLane 72 - had 
13 arrived from Sorrell, with his Regiment, and our 

men made A prisoner of a young Man, by the Name of 
MpCensey, 73 Midshipman of the Hunter Sloop [of] War. 
On the evening of the 13 * Our men Embarked on Board 
35 Canoes, and by four of the Clock, in the morning we 
had Landed all our men that were fit for duty which was 
about 500.. at Woolfs Cove, 74 entirely undiscover'd, 
altho, we pass'd Between Two Men of War, who had 

69. At the end of the Route Justinienne the troops crossed the River Etchemin and 
entered the village of St. Henry CSt. Henri) about 10 miles from Ste. Marie. Ibid., 2.49 m 

70. Point Levis. The exact location of this point in the different journals, accounts, 
and on contemporary maps, varies. The name was usually applied (in 1775) loosely 
to the great promontory across the river from and a little below Quebec. 

71. The deserter's name was Halstead or Haulstead. He had come, originally, from 
New Jersey, and had been working as a merchant in Quebec. Ibid, 456, 457. 

72.. Col. Allan MacLean (172.5-1784) had remained in America after serving in the 
French and Indian War with a Scots regiment. In June, 1775, he was commissioned 
to raise a regiment of highland emigrants in Canada to augment Carleton's army. 
His corps was sent up the St. Lawrence, but returned on the night of Nov. 13. Carleton 
entrusted the command of Quebec to MacLean, who was responsible for resisting 
the American attack. Diet. Nat. Biog., XII, 643-4. 

73. Midshipman McKenzie was a brother of Capt. Thomas McKenzie of the Hunter, 
British sloop-of-war. Smith, op. cit., 456. 

74. Wolfe's Cove is on the Quebec side of the river just above the Plains of Abra- 
ham which faced the fortified city on the land side. 

1775 H ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 57 

Guard Boats Cruising all Night, after Parading our 
men, and sending a Reconitring party towards the City, 
and placing Some Small Guards, we marched a Cross 
the plains of Abraham, 75 and took possession of a Large- 
House formerly own'd by General Murray, 76 Now by 
Mg r . Codlwell, and some Houses adjacent which made 
fine quarters. 

14 After reconitring, proper Guards being placed to 
Cut off all Communication from Between the Town and 
Country, at 12.... O.. Clock the Enemy surprized one of 
our Centinels, and made him Prisoner, soon after our 
Main Body, Turn'd out and march'd within Half a mile 
of the Walls on the Height of Abraham, Immediately 
after being full in the'r view, we gave them Three Huz- 
za's, but they did not Chuse to Come out to meet us, 
this afternoon, the Enemy set fire to Several Houses in 
the Suburbs, at Sun set Colo: Arnold sent a Flag to 
Town Demanding the Possession of the Garrison in the 
Name, and in behalf of the united American Colonies, 
But the Flag being fired upon was obliged to Return, 
We lay Constantly upon our Arms to prevent a Surprize, 
We are by a Gentleman from Quebec inform 'd, that we 
may expect an attack very soon from the Garrison. 

15 Colo : Arnold sent a flag to Demand the Town again 
this morning, thinking the Flag's being fir'd upon 

75. The Plains or Heights of Abraham commanded the land side of the city of 
Quebec, which was well protected by strong walls. From a rising ground about a 
hundred yards from the walls it was possible to bombard the upper town. Three 
important approaches to the city by land ran across the Plains; a road from Lorette, 
one from Ste. Foy, and one from Three Rivers and Sillery. 

76. Gen. James Murray (i7i9?-i794) had been governor of Canada, 1763-66. His 
large house was more than a mile outside the city of Quebec. Maj. Henry Caldwell 
(1738-18 10) had leased the estate. He was commander of the Canadian militia during 
the siege of Quebec and was selected to carry the announcement of Arnold's defeat to 
London. For this service the king made him a baronet, a lieutenant-colonel and a 
councillor of Quebec. Royal Society of Canada: Proceedings and Transactions (Ottawa, 
1903), Series x, IX, 2.7-39. 

58 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1775 

Yesterday was done thro, mistake, but was Treated in 
the Same manner, as yesterday, This morning an ex- 
press was sent off to General Montgomery, 77 at 12... . 
O Clock we were alarmed by a report that the Troops 
in the Garrison Were Coming out to attack us, we 
Turn'd out to meet them, but it Proved to be a false 

16 This Morning it is reported that Montreal surren- 
dred to Gen 1 Montgomery last Sabbath, and that he had 
taken a Number of the enemys Ships, One of our Rifle 
Serg" was kill'd to day by a Cannon shot from the Town, 
we sent a Company of men To, day to take possession of 
the General Hospital, 78 which is a very large Pile of 
Building a Bout three Quarters of a mile from the Walls 
of Qebec, in this Building is a Nunnery of the first or- 
der in Canada, where at present there are a Bout Thirty 
fine nuns — The Canadians are Constantly Coming to us, 
and are expressing the Greatest satisfaction at our Com- 
ing into the Country. 

17 A Soldier Came to us from Quebec, But brings no 
Extraordinary Intelligence, a Party of our men are gone 
over the River, to Bring over some of our men, who were 
not Come over before, also to bring some provisions, — 
The Weather is very pleasant for this Country, and the 

77. Brig. Gen. Richard Montgomery (1738-1775) was born in Dublin and educated 
at Trinity College. He served in America during the French and Indian War, returned 
to England a captain in 1765, sold out of the army in 177Z and came back to New 
York to farm. Elected to the Provincial Congress in 1775, he was commissioned a 
brigadier-general and reluctantly took up arms against England. He was second in 
command to Maj. Gen. Schuyler on the expedition into Canada, but because of 
the latter's illness Montgomery was in full charge. His forces took Chambly, St. 
Johns and Montreal. He joined Arnold at Pointe aux Trembles and assumed full 
command. He was killed at the beginning of the assault on Quebec. Diet. Am. Biog., 
XIII, 98-9. 

78. The General Hospital was situated on the north side of the upper town on the 
right bank of the St. Charles River (Little River) and about a mile from the Porte du 
Palais or Palace Gate. 

I 775 3 ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 59 

18 Nothing Extraordinary To, day, the evening or- 
ders that are given is to Parade To-morrow Morning at 3 
of the Clock. 

19.. Very early this morning we Decamp'd, and March'd 
up to Point Aux-Tremble, 79 a Bout Seven Leagues from 
Quebec, the Country thro, which we marched is thick 
settled and pleasant, there are a Number of Handsome 
Chapels by the way, we find the people very kind to us. 

10... An Express arrived this morning from Gen! 
Montgomery, The Contents of which is that he's in full 
possession of Montreal, also of the shipping that are 
there, and that he intends to join us very Soon... We 
have sent an Express to Montreal To-day. 

2.1 The Curate of the Parish Dines at Head-quarters 

12. An Express arrived this day from Montreal, which 
informs that Gen! Montgomery's Army had taken 13 
Vessels with a Large Quantity of Cloathing and provi- 
sions and that the General was a Bout Marching for 

Z3 . . . This Morning an express arrived from Montreal 
which Inform, that Gen! Montgomery is on his March 
for this place, And that he has sent Cloathing forw*? for 
our Men. 

2.4 This Morning the Hunter Sloop of War, and three 
other Arm'd vessels appear'd in sight; — An express is 
sent from us to meet the Troops from Montreal. 

2.5 The Hunter Sloop, a Large Snow, and an Arm'd 
Schooner Came to an Anchor Opposite our Quarters this 
Morning. Some of our men were sent up the River in a 
boat to meet the Troops which were Coming down from 

79. Pointe aux Trembles en Bas is on the north side of the St. Lawrence River 19 
miles above Quebec. 

60 Journals of Henry Dearborn C i 775 

x6 A Number of Gentlemen Came in this morning from 

2.7 We are inform'd that the House belonging formerly 
to Maj' Coldwell, in which our Troops were Quarter'd 
before Quebec, is Burn't down. 

z8 Colo: Arnold is gone up to Jackerty, 8 ° about ix 
Miles above Point Aux-Tremble, to hasten down the 

2.9.. Cap* Morgan who had been sent down Near 
Quebec, sent up Two Prisoners which he took in the 

30 Cap? Duggan, 81 has arrived from Montreal with 
Provis'ens and Ammunition. 

Dec? 1 Gen! Montgomery, arriv'd this day at 10.. 
O Clock with Three Arm'd Schooners, with men, Artil- 
lery, Ammunition, Provision & Cloathing, to the Great 
Joy of our Men, Towards evening our Detachment 
turn'd out & march' d to the Gen! s Quarters, where we 
were Rec^ by the General, who Complimented us on the 
Goodness of our appearance. 

2. This morning our field Artillery was sent down by 
Land and our Large Cannon by Water Near Quebec. — 
the Boats when they had Landed the Cannon were to go 
to Point Levi for the Ladders. 

3 Our men are drawing Cloathing this day, the Gen- 
eral has made a present of a Suit of Cloaths to all our De- 
tachment which they were in great need of. 

80. Jacques Carrier, sometimes spelled Jackerty, Jackurte or Iaques Quartier, was a 
small stockaded settlement on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River above 
Pointe aux Trembles, at the mouth of the Jacques Cartier River. 

81. Capt. John Dugan, with Col. Livingston, had been influential in raising the 
Canadians against the British. He obtained a commission from Congress to raise three 
companies of rangers among the Canadians. Col. Hazen's jealousy drove Dugan out 
of the service in 1776, but he raised some Canadian troops to help Gen. Sullivan just 
before the retreat from Canada was ordered. J. H. Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth 
Colony . . . (New York, 1907), passim. 

I 775^ The Quebec Expedition 6i 

4 At 12.-O Clock we marched for S* Foys 82 " before Que- 
bec, We March'd as far as Augustine, 83 where we Tar- 
ry'd all Night. 

5 In the Morning we proceeded on our March and 
about noon arrived at S* Foys — my Company were or- 
der'd into the General Hospital for quarters. 

6 Nothing extraordinary or remarkable to-day, the 
weather is attended with Snow Squalls. 

7 We are inform 'd that a Company of our[S] took a 
sloop with Provisions and Some quantity of Cash, not 
far from the Island of Orlean's. 84 

8 We receiv'd Some shot from the enemy to-day but no 
person Injur'd thereby. 

9 Now I will give Some account of Matters respecting 
myself I Still remain sick at Sattagan at the House 
which I heretofore mention'd taking up Lodging at, 
from the 6' h Day of November to the 2_8* h before I went 
out of the House, the first Ten days I had a Violent Fe- 
ver, and was Delirious the Chief of the time, I had nothing 
to assist Nature with, but a Tea of Piggen plumb Roots, 
and Spruce, 85 as there are no Doctors in these parts nor 
any Garden Herbs, my fever abated in some degree, but 
did not leave me, I had a violent Cough, and lost my 
flesh to that Degree, that I was almost Reduced to a per- 
fect Skeleton, and so very Weak that when I first began 
to set up for Several days, I could not go from the bed to 

8i. St. Foy or St. Foix, about 4 miles above Quebec and iz^ miles from Pointe aux 

83. St. Augustine — half way between Pointe aux Trembles and St. Foy on the 
north shore of the St. Lawrence River. 

84. Isle of Orleans divides the St. Lawrence River into the north and south channels 
4 miles northeast of the city of Quebec. It is 2.0 miles long and 6 miles across. 

85. Probably the Mitchella, which has 16 local or popular names, two of which are 
"pigeon berry" and "squaw plum." This shrub is found in woods from Nova Scotia 
to Florida and was used for a tea. The spruce was added for flavoring; spruce beer 
was a well known fermented beverage. Britton and Brown, An Illustrated Flora of the 
Northern United States . . . (New York, 1896-98), III, 155. 

62. Journals of Henry Dearborn C i 775 

the fire with a Staff without being held up, I heard that 
our people had got Possession of Quebec, and as I could 
not perceive that I gain'd any Strength, and my fever re- 
main'd upon me very high, at this time I concluded to 
send Charles Burget, my french Lad to Quebec, to see if 
he could procure me something from an Apothecary to 
help my Cough and to assist nature, in Carrying off my 
fever, he went and in four days return 'd, but to my 
great mortification Brought nothing for me but bad 
News, which was, that our people had not got Posses- 
sion of Quebec, but had March'd from Quebec up the 
River, towards Montreal, hearing this, Struck a damp 
upon my Spirits which reduced them something Low, 
But through the kind hand of Providence, I amend 'd 
tho, very Slowly, the first day of December I rode out in 
a Carry 'al with my Landlard, and found myself much 
The better for it, tho, I was so weak now that I Could 
not walk from the Carriall into the House without help, 
I now began to be very uneasy and wanted to be with the 
Army and the Seventh day I set out in a Carriall to Que- 
bec, and the 9? 1 day I Cross' d the River S* Laurence, I 
join'd my Company who Seem'd very Glad to see me, 
they told me that they had been inform 'd by one of our 
men that Came not many days since from Sattagan that 
I was Dead, and that he saw Charles Hilton, and Charles 
Burget making a Coffin for me. 

I will now return to Matters respecting our Army, We 
had a body of men that began to build a battery Last 
night on the height of Abraham about half a mile from 
S* Johns Gate, 86 and we had five small mortars order'd 
into S* Roach's 87 near the Walls of Quebec, to Heave 

86. St. John's Gate faces a commanding height to the north of the plains and west 
of the upper town. 

87. St. Rochs, a suburb of the city of Quebec located i>£ miles northwest of the 
Quebec post-office. 

I 775 1 ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 63 

Shells into the City To-Night the Artillery are to be 
Cover'd with 100 Men, they Threw about 30 Shells this 

10 The enemy began a heavy Cannonade upon our 
Camp this morning and Continued it all day, our people 
hove shells this Night from S* Rock's, & a party was to 
work on the Battery — The enemy return 'd a few Shells 
to us last Night & Some Cannon Balls, but no person re- 
ceived any hurt except an old Canadian Woman who was 
shot thro: the Body with a 2_4 Ib Shot. 

n This morning one of our men lost his way in the 
Storm and had got under the Walls and was fir'd upon by 
the Centinel before he knew where he was, and had re- 
ceived a Shott through the thigh, but got away and is in 
a fair way to recover. The enemy has kept up a faint Can- 
nonading all this day, this night our Train of Artillery 
Threw 45 Shells into the Town, and had a party to work 
on the Battery, the Enemy hove a few shot and Some 
shells at our people who were to work on the Battery, 
but did no damage, the Weather now is Exceeding 

ix The Platforms are almost ready for the Guns at the 
Battery, the Weather Still remains very Cold. 

13... 14 We hove open our Battery, have several men 
kill'd & wound"? This morning before sun rise, our Bat- 
tery, Began to Play upon the Town, we had 5 .. 12. 
Pounders and a Howeteer 88 Mounted, all very well at- 
tended, there was a very heavy fire from the Town upon 
our Battery — after our Battery had play'd one hour they 
Ceas'd and General Montgomery sent a flag to the Town 
but it was refus'd admittance, But after some discourse 
with some ofhciers upon the Rampart return"? at 2... 

88. A howitzer, a short and comparatively light cannon which fires a heavy shell 
by means of a high angle of elevation. It was and still is a favorite siege gun. 

64 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1775 

O Clock P: M: our Battery began to play, again and our 
Mortars at the same time were at work in S* Rock's, we 
hove 50. Shells into the Town to-day, there was a very 
heavy Cannonading kept up from the Town, we had 
Two men kill'd To-day at our Battery, and one of our 
Guns damaged and our Howeteers dismounted, it is 
now in agitation to Storm the Town, which if resolved 
upon I hope will be undertaken, with a proper sense of 
the nature and Importance of such an attack and vigor- 
ously Executed — 

16 In the evening began to Cannonade, Colo : Arnold's 
quarters were Struck by Several Cannon shot, upon which 
he thought it best to remove to other quarters, one of 
our men was Shot through the body with a grape shot — 
to-day his life is dispair'd of, a Counsel was held this 
evening by all the Commission'd officiers belonging to 
Colo: Arnolds detachment. — A majority of which was 
for Storming the Garrison of Quebec as soon as the men 
are well equip'd with good arms, Spears, hatchets, Hand, 

17 Nothing extraordina'y or remarkable, to-day the 
weather is very Cold and Snowy. 

18 Nothing extraordinary to-day the weather Still re- 
mains very Cold, my Company are order'd out of the 
Hospital, the room is wanted for a Hospital for the use 
of the sick, we took our quarters on the opposite side 
of the River S* Charles, at one M* Henry's, a presby- 
terian minister which place is about one mile from the 

19 I began to recover my Strength again & have a fine 

xo The weather Continues Still Cold, preparation is 
making for the intended Storm, several of our men have 
the small Pox. 

I 775 U ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 65 

ii We are order'd every man of us to wear a hemblock 
sprig in his Hat, to distinguish us from the enemy in the 
attack upon Quebeck. 

2.2. Matters seem ripening fast for a storm, may the 
blessing of Heaven attend the enterprize 

13 This evening all the officiers of our detachment 
met at and are visited by the Gen! at Colo: Arnolds 

2.4 This evening the Rev*? M^ Spring 89 preach'd a ser- 
mon in the Chapel in the Gen! Hospital, which is ex- 
ceeding elegant inside, is Richly decorated with Carved 
and guilt work. 

2.5 Colo: Arnolds detachment is Paraded at 4 Clock 
P: M: Gen! Montgomery attended and address 'd us on 
the Subject of making the attack upon the Walls of Que- 
bec, in a very sensible Spirit'd manner — which greatly 
animated our men. 

2.6 Nothing Material happen 'd to day the weather is 
Still cold. 

2.7 This morning the Troops assembled by order of the 
General, with a design to attack the Town of Quebec, 
and were about to march, when there Came an order 
from the Gen! to return to our quarters by reason of the 
weather's clearing up which render'd it improper for the 
attack — 

2.8 The following Came out in Gen! orders this day — 


The Gen! had the most Sensible pleasure in seeing the 
good disposition with which the Troops last night moved 
to the attack, it was with the greatest reluctance he 
found himself Call'd upon by his duty to repress their 

89. Rev. Samuel Spring (1746-1819) was chaplain of Arnold's expedition. He left 
the army at the end of 1776 and became pastor of the Congregational Church at New- 
buryport, Mass., where he spent the rest of his life. Diet. Am. Biog., XVII, 481. 

66 Journals of Henry Dearborn C i 775 

ardor, but should hold himself answerable for the loss of 
those brave men whose lives might be Saved by waiting 

for a favourable opportunity 

X9 . . . Nothing remarkable or extraordinary to- 
day — 

30 I have the Main-guard in S* Rock's, I came on last 
evening our Artillery hove 30 Shells last night into 
Quebeck, which were answer'd by a few shells and Some 
Grape shott, early this morning the Garrison began a 
very heavy Cannonade upon all parts of our Camp within 
their Reach, Particularly on those quarter'd in S l . Rock's, 
and upon the Guard-House which is within musquet 
Shott of the Walls, but partly under the Cover of a hill — 
about sun 'set this afternoon, the Garrison brought a gun 
to bear upon the Guard-house much more exact, and bet- 
ter level'd, than any that they shott heretofore, and 
within the Space of 15 minutes they knocked down the 
three Chimneys of the Guard-house over our heads, but 
could not get a shot into the lower Rooms where the 
Guard kept, at 10.. O Clock this evening I went home 
to my quarters — 

31 This morning at 4.. O Clock I was inform'd by one 
of my men that there was orders from the Gen! for mak- 
ing the attack upon Quebec this morning, I was sur- 
prized that I had not been inform'd or notified Sooner, 
But afterwards found it was owing to the neglect of the 
Serg* Major, who excus'd himself by saying he could not 
get across the River, by reason of the Tides being so ex- 
ceeding High, however I gave orders to my men to pre- 
pare themselves immediately to March, but my Com- 
pany being quarter'd in three different Houses, and the 
farthest a mile from my Quarters, and the weather very 
Stormy and the Snow deep, it was near an hour before 1 
could get them all Paraded & Ready to March, at which 

J 775 H ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 67 

time I found the attack was began by the Gen! party, 
near Cape Diamond, 90 I had now two miles to March, 
before we Came to the place where the attack was made, 
The moment I march'd I met the Serg* Major who in- 
form'd me that Colo: Arnold, had march'd, and that he 
cou'd not Convey intelligence to me Sooner, as there was 
no possibility of Crossing the River, we now march'd 
or rather ran as fast as we could, when I arrived at 
S- Rock's I met Colo: Arnold Wounded 91 Borne, and 
brought away by Two men, he Spoke to me and desir'd 
me to push on forward, and said our people had posses- 
sion of a 4 Gun Battery. — and that we should Carry the 
Town, our Artillery were Incessantly heaving shells, 
with 5 Mortars from S* Rock's, and the Garrison were 
heaving shells and Balls of all sorts from every part of 
the Town, my men seem'd to be in high Spirits, we 
push'd forward as fast as possible, we met the wounded 

men very thick, 

We Soon found ourselves under a very brisk fire from 
the walls & Picketts, but it being very dark & Stormy, 
and the way we had to pass very Intricate & I an utter 
Stranger to the way we got bewilder'd, an altho, I met 
Several men, and Some officiers who said they knew where 
our people were, yet none of them would pilot us untill I 
met one of Colo : Arnolds Waiters who was endeavouring 
to forward some ladders who said he would shew me the 
way, and altho, he was well acquainted with the way, 

90. Cape Diamond is on the southwest corner of the fortified city of Quebec. The 
vulnerability of this point had been brought out by British engineers shortly after 
the city was captured from the French, and an elaborate, heavily-fortified citadel 
had been projected for this spot, but had not been built. 

91. Arnold was wounded in the left leg by a piece of musket ball which entered 
below the knee and passed downward, lodging above the ankle. It gave Arnold great 
pain and occasioned a loss of much blood. Dr. Senter removed the ball, but it was late 
in February before Arnold could hobble around. Dr. Senter's Journal, in Roberts, 
op. cit., Z34, 12.}. 

68 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1775 

he having lived some years in Quebec, he miss'd it and 
Carry'd us quite wrong, but when he found his mistake 
he declared he did not know, where we were, and he im- 
mediately left us, we were all this time harrass'd with a 
brisk fire from the Picketts, which we were Sometimes 
within a stones throw of, I now thought it best to re- 
treat a little and then make a new attempt to find the 
way, I accordingly order'd Lieu? Hutchins who was in 
the Rear to retreat, to a Certain place a few rods back, 
he accordingly retreated, and in retreating he had to pass 
very near the Picket, under a very brisk fire, it now be- 
gan to grow a little light, the Garrison had discover'd 
us and Sent out Two hundred men, who took possession 
of Some houses which we had to pass before we could 
discover them, and as Lieu? Hutchins retreated they Sal- 
lied down in a lane from the Wall, I divided my Com- 
pany about the middle, I now again attempt^ to find the 
way to the main body, It being now so light that I 
thought I could find the way, I order'd that part of my 
men that were with me, to follow me, we pushed on as 
fast as possible, but the enemy took some of my rear, and 
kept a brisk fire upon us from the Houses, which we had 
pass'd, when I Came to a place where I could Cover my 
men a little, while I could discover where our main body 
was, I heard a shout in Town, which made me think 
that our people had got possession of the Same, the men 
were so thick within the Picketts, I was at a Stand to 
know whether They were our men, or the enemy, as they 
were dress'd like us, 92 " I was Just about to Hail them, 
when one of them hail'd me, he asked who I was (I was 
now within Six rods of the Picketts) I answer'd a friend; 

92.. Arnold's troops were dressed wholly or in part in British uniforms captured 
by Montgomery at Montreal, welcome replacements for the rags they had been 
wearing. See Dearborn's entries for Nov. xx and 2.3. 

1775 3 ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 69 

he asked me who I was a friend to, I answer'd to liberty, 
he then reply'd God-damn you, and then rais'd himself 
partly above the Pickets, I Clapt up my Piece which 
was Charged with a ball and Ten Buck shott Certainly to 
give him his due, But to my great mortification my Gun 
did not go off, I new prim'd her, and flushed and Try'd 
her again, but neither I, nor one in Ten of my men could 
get off our Guns they being so exceeding wet, They 
fired very briskly upon us from the Picketts, here we 
found a great number of wounded men, and some dead, 
which did belong to our main body; I order'd my men to 
go into a lower room of an house, and new Prime their 
Guns, and prick dry Powder into the Touch-holes, we 
Now found ourselves surrounded by Six to one, I now 
finding no possibility of getting away, my Company 
were divided, and our arms being in such bad order, I 
thought it best to Surrender after being promis'd good 
quarters and Tender usuage, I told my men, to make 
their escape, as many as possibly could, and in the Con- 
fusion a considerable Number did effect the Same, Some 
of them after they had given up their arms, we were 
now marched to Palace Gate, 93 on my way there to my 
Surprize, I found Lieu* Hutchins, Ensign Thomas, & 
about 15 or 10 of my men under Guard, who were march'd 
to Palace-gate with me, we were Carried to a Large 
Convent and put under the Care of a strong Guard, on 
my way to this House I was inform'd that our people had 
got possession of the Lower Town 94 

It appears at this time, according to the following 
Arrangement, that my Comp'y which may be seen 

93. The Palace Gate into the city was on the north side, opposite the suburb of 
Palais. The large hospital inside the gate was the Hotel Dieu. 

94. The upper and lower towns were so named by virtue of the physical features of 
the two divisions. The upper town comprised the streets and habitations built on the 
high, rocky bluff. The lower town was built on the low shelf facing the east. 

70 Journals of Henry Dearborn £1775 

hereafter, in the attack upon the Town was intended to 
be the second to the front. 

The Genl gave orders last evening for the Troops to 
assemble at Two OiClock this morning in order to 
make the attack, at 5.. O.. Clock in the following man- 
ner viz? 

The Gen! with the first., x.. & 3.. Battalians of New- 
york Troops was to attack the Southerly part of the 
Lower Town, at a place Call'd the Pot-ash 95 

Colo: Arnold with his detachment and part of Cap? 
Lambs 96 Company of Artillery, with one Field-piece, was 
to march through S? Rock's down between the river 
Saint Charles, and the Picket of the Garrison to the 
North part of the Lower Town Call'd the South-ax- 
Matillo, 97 and there attack a 4 Gun Barrier in the fol- 
lowing order, a Subaltern with 2.4 Men was to be 
an advanced party, Cap? Lambs Artillery next with a 
six pounder mounted on a Sled, then the main-body, 
Cap? Morgan first, my Company next, Then Cap? 
Smith's, then Captain Hanchet's, then Cap? Hubbard's, 98 

95. The Potash, also called Pres de Ville, was a natural point of defence, being the 
southern pass into the Lower Town. Above this point on Cape Diamond was a re- 
doubt, which, if manned with gunners, could command the pass. 

96. Capt. John Lamb (173 5-1 800) was a radical agitator from the passage of the 
Stamp Act until the battle of Lexington afforded him the opportunity to seize the 
Customs House and military stores in New York. Then he became captain of an 
artillery company and joined Montgomery's expedition into Canada. Lamb lost an 
eye and was captured at Quebec. Paroled, he was not exchanged until January, 1777, 
when he was appointed colonel of the 2.nd Continental Artillery. He commanded the 
artillery at West Point in 1779 and 1780 and was ranked as brigadier-general at the 
close of the war. Diet. Am. Biog., X, 555-6. 

97. Sault au Matelot or Sailor's Leap, a high precipice at the edge of the Upper 

98. Capt. Jonas Hubbard of Worcester, Mass., had been a lieutenant of Minute Men 
and was now a captain in Ward's Massachusetts regiment. In the attack on Quebec 
he was wounded and captured, and Dearborn reports that he died of his wound. 
Nevertheless, Simon Fobes, a private in Hubbard's company who dictated a journal 
of his experiences on the expedition, relates meeting Hubbard again in the summer of 
1776 near Worcester where he was working on a farm. Fobe's journal is printed in 
Roberts, op. cit., 575-613. 

x 775 H ^he Q UEBEC Expedition 71 

Then Cap? Topham's," then Cap? Thayer, 100 then Cap? 
Ward's, 101 then Cap? Goodrich's, & then Cap? Hendrick's, 
Colo: Arnold in the Front Colo: Green and Maj^ Biggel- 

low in the Centre, and Maj? Meigs in the Rear 

Colo: Levingston, Ioi & Maj? Brown 103 with some of 
Maj? Browns men & some Canadians were to make a feint 
upon the upper Town & at the Same time, were to Set fire 
to S? John's Gate with a Certain quantity of Cumbustibles 
prepar'd for that purpose — The Gen! with his Party 
began the attack, the Gen! with his Aid-de-camp, 104 
and Cap? Shearman 105 & the Carpenters, who served as 

99. Capt. John Tophara ( d.1793) was a captain-lieutenant in the 3rd Rhode 
Island regiment. Wounded and captured at Quebec, he was exchanged and was made 
a colonel in 1778. Heitman, op. cit., 545. 

100. Capt. Simeon Thayer (1737-1800) was a peruke maker in Providence who had 
served in the French and Indian War. He was made a captain-lieutenant in the 2.nd 
Rhode Island regiment in May, 1775, and his company was the first to arrive at Cam- 
bridge from that state. Taken prisoner at Quebec, he was not exchanged until July, 1777, 
when he was given the rank of major. He lost an eye at Monmouth, 1778, and retired 
from the army in May, 1781. Smith, Arnold's March . . . 2.67; Heitman, op. cit., 538. 

101. Capt. Samuel Ward (1756-183Z) was the son of the governor of Rhode Island 
and belonged to the 1st Rhode Island regiment. Taken prisoner at Quebec, he was 
exchanged in 1776 and rose to be lieutenant-colonel in 1778. Ward retired from the 
army at the end of 1780. Heitman, op. cit., 568. 

102.. Col. James Livingston (1747-1832.) joined Montgomery's expedition and raised 
and commanded a regiment of Canadians. With Major John Brown he captured Fort 
Chambly and helped besiege St. Johns. He went on to Quebec with Montgomery where 
he took part in the assault, but was not captured. Subsequently he served at Saratoga 
under Arnold and was in command of Stony Point in 1780. He resigned his commis- 
sion on Jan. 1, 178 1. Diet. Am. Biog., XI, 313-4; Smith, Our Struggle . . . passim. 

103. Maj. John Brown (1744-1780) was a lawyer until he volunteered in February, 
1775, to go to Montreal to seek rebel sympathizers. He took part in the capture of 
Ticonderoga, was commissioned a major, and led the detachment which began the 
invasion of Canada. With Ethan Allen he tried to take Montreal and failed, but he 
helped Maj. Livingston take Fort Chambly. Brown joined the assault on Quebec 
and afterward quarrelled with Arnold. He was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, but 
resigned in 1777. As a colonel of militia he captured Fort George that fall, then 
returned to the practice of law. In 1780 he took the field again with militia in the 
Mohawk valley and was killed Oct. 19. Diet. Am. Biog., Ill, 1x9-30. 

104. Capt. John Macpherson (1754-1775) of Pennsylvania was an aide-de-camp to 
Montgomery. He was killed by the latter's side in leading the assault on Quebec. 
Smith, Our Struggle ... II, 115, 142.. 

105. As no Capt. Shearman appears on any of the casualty lists, and as Capt. Cheese- 
man (see Note no) was killed at the side of Montgomery, it seems probable that the 
person who copied this journal from Dearborn's original misread the name. 

72. Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1775 

Pioneers advanced in the front, The Carpenters Cut the 
Picketts, the Gen! with his own hands pull'd them down 
& enter'd. — after the Gen! had enter'd, he Call'd to his 
men to Come on, they did not advance as quick as he 
thought they might, he Spoke to them again in the fol- 
lowing moving Terms, saying come on my good soldiers, 
your Gen! Calls upon you to Come on, The Gen! was now 
very near a Battery of Several Cannon Loaded with grape 
shott, some of which were unfortunately discharged, and 
which Cut down our Brave Gen!, his Aiddecamp, Cap? 
M^Ferson, Cap? Shearman, & three or four Privates — 

The Guards immediately after firing the first Cannon 
quited their post and Ran, which gave our Troops a fair 
opportunity to enter, But instead of entering Colonel 
Campbell, 106 who now took Command, order'd a retreat, 
which was a very unlucky retreat for us, — A few min- 
utes after the Gen! made the attack on his part, Col: Ar- 
nold made an attack with his party, but instead of mak- 
ing the attack in the manner proposed, which was, when 
the advanced party had got within musket shot of the 
Barrier, 107 they were to Halt and then open to the right 
and left, and the Artillery to fire three shott, upon the 
Barrier and then the advanced party were to fire into the 
Port Holes, Cap? Morgan's Company to pass round a 
wharf on which the Barrier was Built, and Come in upon 

106. Col. Donald Campbell, formerly in the British army, was now Deputy Quarter- 
master General of the New York department, which office he held until 1784. He was 
known for his profanity, and Justin Smith calls him a "pictorial fraud." Smith, 
Our Struggle ... II, 115-6. 

107. Arnold's detachment had passed around the north side of Quebec, following 
the narrow shore between the bluff of the Upper Town and the St. Lawrence, which 
led into the Lower Town at the eastern extremity of the city. Blocking this 
pass were two barriers about 11 feet high, presumably made of pickets, with loop- 
holes for cannon and muskets. The first extended from a wharf across the shore road 
to the bluff. With scaling ladders Morgan's men were the first over the barrier; Arnold 
was wounded soon after coming up to it. Most of the Americans lost their lives 
between the first and second barriers. Morgan and some of his men got over the second 
barrier, but lacking support they were soon forced to surrender. Ibid., II, 131-40. 

I 775 H ^ HE Q UEBEC Expedition 73 

the back of the Guard, while we Scall'd the Barrier with 
Ladders, but the Snow being so deep and the way so diffi- 
cult to pass — The Artillery were obliged to leave the 
Field piece behind, & Colo: Arnold, with the advanced 
party rushed up to the Barrier and kept such a hot fire in 
at the Port-holes, that the enemy Could fire but one of 
their Cannon, before Cap* Morgan and some of his Com- 
pany, and some others Scaled the Barrier, and took the 
Guards Prisoners Consisting of a Cap? & 30 men, Colo: 
Arnold was wounded in the Legg in the first of the attack 
and was Carried Back, our men enter'd the Barrier as 
fast as possible. — But the Main body had not come up 
yet by reason of missing their way, and were obliged to 
Counter-march twice before they could get right, there 
was now a second Barrier to force, where there [were] 
two Cannon placed, Charged with Grape* shott, our 
men who had enter'd the first Barrier, were now waiting 
for the main-body to come up, but before the main-body 
had got into the first Barrier, the enemy found that the 
Gen! Party had retreated, and the whole Garrison had 
Turn'd their attention upon our party, and had taken 
possession of the Houses almost all round us, and had 
mann'd the Barrier so strong that when our people made 
an attempt to force it, we were repulsed, and obliged to 
shelter ourselves in the Houses, as well as we could, I 
say, we altho, I was not at this place, but in order to dis- 
tinguish our Troops from the Enemy, our people being 
Surround' d By Treble their Number, and was under a very 
hot fire, it was now Motion'd by some, whether or no, it 
would not be most advisable to retreat, others immedi- 
ately repli'd who knows but our Gen! with his party, is 
in some part of the Town, and if we go, and leave him 
behind, he and his party will most certainly be Cut off, It 
was then concluded upon to send somebody off in order 

74 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1775 

to learn what was become of our Gen! and his party, and 
agreed to make a stand while [!] night, Immediately after 
entering the Barrier, Cap? Hendrick, Lieu? Humphrey's 
and Lieu? Cooper, 108 together with a number of Privates 
was kill'd Just as this resolution took place, the same 
party that took me followed after our main-body, and 
Came upon their Rear, but our people finding the imprac- 
ticability of a retreat, and hearing nothing from our 
Gen!'s party, & having lost about one hundred men out of 
less than five hundred, it was thought it most prudent to 
surrender, upon the encouragement of being promis'd 
good quarters and Tender usage, It was by this time 
10 :0 Clock A :M : . . . The officiers were Carried to the main 
Guard house and the Soldiers to the House where I was 
Carried first, I with my other officiers, ware Carry 'd to the 
main, guard-House to the other officiers, where we had a 
good Dinner, and aplenty of several sorts of wine, in the 
afternoon we were Carry ' d to a Large Seminary, I09 and put 
into a large room in the fourth Story from the ground , 

A List of the officiers that were killed. 

Brigad? Gen! Montgomery 

M? John Mcpherson Aid-decamp to the Gen! 

Cap? Cheasman 110 of New-york 

Cap? W 1 ? Hendrick of Pensilvania 

Lieu? Humphry of Virginia 

Lieu? Sam! Cooper of Connecticut 

108. Lt. John Humphries of Capt. Morgan's company of Virginia riflemen; not to 
be confused with Lt. William Humphrey of Capt. Thayer's company, who was taken 
prisoner. Lt. Samuel Cooper belonged to the znd Connecticut regiment. Heitman, 
op. cit. y 170, 309. 

109. The Seminary of Quebec. 

no. Capt. Jacob Cheeseman belonged to the ist New York regiment and was 
aide-de-camp to Montgomery. He had raised two sunken British vessels after the 
capture of St. Johns. In the attack on Quebec he fell by his commander's side. Smith 
Our Struggle . . . , I, 468; II, 141. 

1775 H ^he Q UEBEC Expedition 75 

A list of the wouned officiers that was in the engag? 

Colo, Benedict Arnold shot thro one of his Leggs — 
Cap* John Lamb of New york shot in the Cheeck bone by 

which the sight of one of his Eyes [was lost] 

Cap? Jonas Hubbard of Worcester shot thro, the ancle of 

which he died. 
Lieu? Archibald Steel 111 of Pensilvania two of his fingers 

shot off — 
Lieu? Jam? Tindal IIZ of the Massachusetts Bay shot thro. 

his right shoulder 

The Sergeants, Corporals, and privates, kill'd & 
wounded according to the best accounts I could obtain, 
Amounted to a bout one Hundred men, the number kill'd 
on the Spot, about 40 113 

A list of the officiers taken, but not wounded. 

Names Provinces Towns 

Cap? Daniel Morgan 

Lieu? William Heath Frederick 

Lieu? Peter Brewin Virginia County 

M[ John M^Guyer Volunteer 

M? Char' 

in. Lt. Archibald Steele ( d. 182.x) was in Capt. Matthew Smith's company of 
Pennsylvania riflemen. He had been sent on ahead to reconnoitre the Quebec route 
as far as Chaudiere Pond, before reporting to Arnold on Oct. 12.. He led Smith's com- 
pany in the attack on Quebec and was wounded and captured. Exchanged in August, 
1776, Steele became Deputy Quartermaster General in 1777 and served until October, 
1781. He was military storekeeper in 1816 and was finally discharged in 182.1. Heit- 
man, op. cit., 517. 

1 ix. This was James Tisdale, a xnd lieutenant in Heath's Massachusetts regiment. 
After his exchange he was made a captain in the 3rd Massachusetts regiment and 
served to the end of the war. Ibid., 544. 

113. According to the casualty lists, 35 officers and men of Arnold's force were 
killed and 33 were wounded; 13 of Montgomery's force were killed and one was 
wounded. See Roberts, op. cit., 40. 

Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1775 


Names Provinces 

Lieu? Archibold Steel 
Lieu? Francis Nichols Pensilvania 
M? Mathew Duncan Volunteer 
M? John Henry Volunteer 

Lieu? Andrew Moody New-york 

Maj! Return Jona. Meigs 

Cap? Oliver Hanchet. 

Cap? Sam! Lockwood Connecticut 

Lieu? Abijah Savage 

Cap? Aliezer Aswald Vol : 

Quar: Mas? Ben: Catlin... 

L? Col? Cristopher Green 

Cap? John Topham Rhode-Island 

Cap? Sam! Ward 

Cap? Simeon Thayer 

Lieu? James Webb 

Lieu? William Humphrys Rode Island 

Lieu? Edw. Slocam 

Lieu? Silvanus Shaw- 














Maj? Timothy Bigellow Worchester 

Cap? W™ Goodrich Stockbridge 

Lieu? Sam: Brown Massachusets Bay Acton 

Lieu? John Cumston Sacho 

Lieu? John Clark Hadley 

Cap? Henry Dearborn 
Lieu? Nathan! Hutchins 
Lieu? Ammi Andrews 
Lieu? Joseph Thomas 



Adju' Christian Febeger 
a deanish officier... 

1776 2 The Quebec Expedition 77 

The Number of Serg* s Corpor! s 
& Privates Taken, but not 
wounded, are about 300 114 

January 1 I begun this year in very disagreeable Circum- 
stances, it being the first day I ever Spent in Confinement 
except by sickness, but I hope I shall be enabled to bare it 
with a becoming fortitude. Considering it to be the for- 
tune of War. 

2. Gen! Montgomery's body was taken up to day, and 
brought into Town 

3 Gen! Carlton 115 gave Major Meigs Leave to go out 
after our Baggage to-day 

As the Small pox is prevalent in this Town, it is 
thought best for as many of us, as had not had the 
Small Pox to be Innoculated immediately — Accord- 
ingly sixteen of us Concluded to apply to some phy- 
sician to innoculate us, Doctf Bullen was recom- 
mended to us as being a skilful in Innoculation, 
whom we apply'd to, to day, & he engag*? to Innocu- 
late us, and gave us some preparatory Medicines to 
day. — 

114. There were 372. men taken. Roberts, op. cit., 40. 

115. Guy Carleton (17x4-1808) began his army career in 1741 and served in Canada 
and the West Indies during the French and Indian War. He was appointed lieutenant- 
governor of Quebec in 1766 and held the office for four years. At the end of 1774 he 
was sent back to Canada as governor of Quebec. When Gage was recalled, the com- 
mand of the British troops was divided; those in Canada were placed under Carleton 
and those in the American colonies under Howe. Having only two regiments of 
regulars to depend on, Carleton narrowly escaped capture when Montgomery took 
Montreal on Nov. 12., 1775. He moved on to Quebec and successfully resisted the assault 
led by Montgomery and Arnold. In the summer of 1776 he followed the retreating 
Arnold up Lake Champlain, but winter forced him to withdraw before he had estab- 
lished himself. In 1777 a second attempt was made to invade New York state, this 
time under Burgoyne, who replaced Carleton as commander, much to the latter s 
disgust. The next year Carleton returned to England, but was sent back as commander- 
in-chief in 1781. His main task was to get the defeated British army back to England. 
Later he was created Baron Dorchester and served as governor of Canada. Diet. 
Nat. Biog., Ill, 1 002.-4. 

78 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1776 

4 — We were this day Innoculated, . . . Gen! Montgom- 
ery's body Was Interr*? to-day, 116 in a very decent manner 
by order of Gen! Carlton — 

5 We that have been innoculated, are removed to-day 
into another Room, & have the liberty of walking into 
another room adjoining to that we Lodge in. 

6... Maj. Meigs return'd to-day, with some part of our 
Baggage but a Considerable part of it is not Brought in — 
four of our men are tolerated to wait upon us. 

7... We purchas'd some poor mutton to make Soop of 
at one Pistereen 117 p* pound. 

8 We had a very good Collection of Books sent us by 
several friends in Town, in the perusal of which, we pass 
many of of our dull hours — 

9 To, day I wrote a letter to send to my wife, but find 
no opportunity of sending it. 

10 This day M^ Levius, 118 who was formerly a Judge of 
our Court, came to see me, and offer'd to supply me with 
any thing I stood in need of, that was in his power, he 
furnish'd me with some Cash, and Two shirts, and said 
he would have me let him know, if I should hereafter be 
in want of any thing, as he would be ready to oblige me 
therewith if within the Sphere of his Influence — 

11..1Z...13 Nothing extraordinary. The Field officier 
of each day, Generally visits us, the Guard that is set 
over us, is a subaltern and Twelve men — Our mens Bag- 
gage is sent for to-day — 

116. Montgomery's body was buried within the city of Quebec. It was removed 
in 1818 to St. Paul's churchyard, New York. Diet. Am. Biog. t XIII, 99. 

117. A pistareen was a small Spanish silver coin current in America and the West 
Indies at this time. 

118. Peter Livius (i72.7?-i795), formerly a member of the council and chief justice 
of New Hampshire, was transferred to Quebec as a justice in 1775, and two years 
later became chief justice. He held this office until 1786. He was of German-Portuguese 
extraction. L. J. Burpee and A. G. Doughty, eds., Index and Dictionary of Canadian 
History (Toronto, 191 1), 2.Z1. 

I 77^ 3 ^ HE Quebec Expedition 79 

also I begin to feel the simptoms of the small Pox. 

Lieu? Savage," 9 who was one that was Innoculated 
with me, for the Small pox, has it the natural way, he hav- 
ing taken it before he Came into Quebec, & is very bad — 

14 I begin to break out with the Small Pox — 

1 5.. 16.. 17.. 18: 19 Nothing extraordinary the Small 
Pox is Turning, the greatest of my suffering is hunger 
since I was Innoculated, one of our Waiters who was In- 
noculated after he Came to wait upon us has had it the 
Natural way, he having had it before and broke out with 
it in two days, after he was Innoculated. — and is dead, 
Lieu? Savage is getting better, Nothing very extraordi- 
nary happens from this time to the 10 th of February — 
when Major Meigs is Carried to the Hottel-dieu — which 
is a nunnery & a Hospital, he having a swelling under 
his arm, and the remainder of us who have had the small 
pox are removed into the room which we were first put 
into with the other ofBciers, we spend our time in read- 
ing in the forenoon, and at Cards in the afternoon, and 
endeavour to make ourselves as happy as possible under 
our present disagreeable Circumstances, We hear a great 
deal of bad News, but none that's good — We are told 
that General Washington, with his army made an at- 
tempt to Storm Boston, but had lost 4000 men, some 
kill'd and the rest were drown 'd, we have been in- 
form'd of Montreal's being retaken by the Canadians four 
or five times — We are told that Gen! Lee, in marching to 
Newyork with 3000 men lost them all to 300, by disser- 
tion for want of Cloathing. 

We are inform 'd that Gen! Amherst is arrived at New- 
york with izooo Troops, we are likewis c told that the 

119. Lt. Abijah Savage ( d. 182.5) belonged to the xnd Connecticut regiment. He 
was exchanged in October, 1776, and rose to the rank of captain. He retired from 
the army Jan. 1, 1781. Heitman, op. cit., 582.. 

80 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1776 

paper Currency has lost its value, and that the Congress 
is impeached with dishonesty by the people, but we give 
no Credit to any such Rumours — Iio 

March 10 We had a square of Glass put into the door 
that opens into our room, and two Centinels stands look- 
ing in all the time, and a lamp is kept burning all night 
— -in our room, and Two Centinels stands under our win- 
dow who are order 'd to fire upon any of us who at- 
tempted to open either of the windows in the night, no 
person is allowed to come into our room but the Field 
offid of the day, and the officier of the Guard — not even 
our washer-woman — 

16 Being indispos'd I got liberty to go to the Hottel- 
dieu to day — 

I remain'd at the Hottel-dieu, until the 31 st day of 
March nothing very extraordinary happen ' d during this 
time, I recover*? my health in a few days after I got here, 
I saw one of my men here who inform' d me that all my 
Company has had the Small Pox, and not one of them 
died with it, which I think is something remarkable, 
we are all, now order'd to the Seminary, we are told for 
want of wood in the Garrison. 

April 1 We are informd that our men who are prison- 
ers in this Town, were last night detected in the execu- 
tion of a plan in order to make their Escape, for which 
reason, they are all put in Irons. We have two Small 
Bed-rooms allow'd us to sleep in, being too: much 
Crouded in one room — 

4 This day our people open'd a four Gun-Battery, 
at Point Levi and play'd upon the Town, there was 
now a very heavy Cannonading from the Town, upon 
our Battery every day, there was six or seven Balls 
shot from our Battery into the Garden under our 

iio. And quite rightly, because none of the rumors was true. 

1 77^ > 1 The Q UEBE c Expedition 8i 

window, & three or 4 of them struck against the 

15 In the Course of this month there has been two or 
three alarms in Town, the Garrison thought that our 
people were about making an attack. 

Cap? Thayer was detected by the officier of the guard 
to-day in attempting to open a door that led from the 
Passage to the necessary, into an upper loft, and was 
Carried on board a vessel and put in Irons there is Bolts 
& Locks put upon our doors and we are order'd not to go 
out of our respective Lodging Rooms after dark until 
sometime after sun-rise — 

2.8 This day Colo: NKLane, M? Lanodear 111 the Gen! 
Aid-decamp and several other officiers, Came into our 
room & took Cap? Lockwood, 1 " - & Cap? Hanchet and 
Carried them off, witho't saying any thing to them, but 
we heard since it was reported that they had Tamper'd 
with a Cintinel, they were likewise put in Irons on 
Board the Vessel where Cap? Thayer was — 

2.9 Our people open'd a Two Gun Battery to-day upon 
the opposite side of the Town from Point Levi a Cross 
the river S? Charles and play'd upon the Town, we are 
likewise inform'd that they are about opening another 
Battery on the height of Abraham, there is a Constant 
Cannonading on both sides every day. 

May 4 As I was laying down my book this evening 
about Ten of the Clock, preparing for bed, I heard a 

111. Francois de Lanaudiere was a member of the first legislative council under the 
Quebec Act. He had tried to enlist some Canadians to aid the British, but his company 
was dispersed on the way to Montreal. However, Lanaudiere joined Carleton and 
escaped with him to Quebec. From Dearborn's entry it would appear that he was now 
Carleton's aide-de-camp. W. Kingsford, History of Canada (Toronto, 1891), V, 411, 
445. 463. 

111. Capt. Samuel Lockwood was an assistant engineer. On his release from capture 
he became captain in themd Continental artillery, but resigned early in 1779. Heitman, 
op. cit., 355. 

8x Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1776 

Centinel hale a ship, which very much surprized me, as 
I expected some relief had arrived, But I soon was unde- 
ceived by a brisk fire of Cannon, and Small arms, & the 
ringing of the alarm Bell, as also hearing a great confusion 
in all parts of the Town, we now Concluded, that our peo- 
ple made an attack upon the Town, we soon discover'd 
a fire-ship in the River, near the Lower Town, which was 
sent as we since heard, in order to set fire to the shi'ping 
in the Lower Town, & which must Consequently set fire 
to the Lower Town, & at the same time we heard Gen! 
Worster I2-3 with his Troops had drawn up near the Town, 
with their Ladders ready to Scale the walls, when ever 
the Lower Town was on fire, but as the fireship fail'd the 
attack was not made. 

6 This day forenoon, three ships arrived from England 
to the Great Joy of the Garrison, but much to our morti- 
fication as we now gave over all hopes of being retaken, 
and Consequently of seeing our families again until we 
had first taken a Voyage to England and there Tryed for 
rebels, as we have often been told by the officiers of the 
Garrison, that, that, would be the case. 

The ships that have arrived Brought the 2.9^ Regi- 
ment with them, who landed, and at i2_.. O Clock, this 
Regim* with 5.. or 6 Hundred of the Garrison marched 
out of Town, and two of the Frigates which arrived to- 
day put up the River, and an arm'd Schooner. Towards 
Night, the Troops return'd back to Town, and said they 
drove all the yankees off. — and took a large quantity of 

1x3. Brig. Gen. David Wooster (1711-1777) had served in King George's War and 
the French and Indian War. In April, 1775, he was appointed major-general of 6 Con- 
tinental regiments and served in New York that summer. Congress named him briga- 
dier-general rather than give him his provincial rank. He accompanied Mont- 
gomery into Canada and was left in command at Montreal when the latter went on to 
Quebec. After Montgomery's death he became commander of the American forces in 
Canada, but was superseded in May because of incompetence. He was killed in action 
during Tryon's raid on Danbury, Connecticut. Diet. Am. Biog., XX, 5x4-5. 

z 77^ H The Q UEBEC Expedition 83 

Cannon, ammunition, and Baggage from the Americans, 
which indeed proved too True, But from the accounts 
we have had since from Lieuten' M^Dougle, IM who was 
taken in a schooner at Point Aux Tremble by the Two 
Frigates & an armed Schooner, that went up the River 
the day they arrived, we find that Gen! Woosters Troops 
began to decamp, the day before the Troops arrived, by 
hearing there was a Large Fleet in the river, but what 
Baggage they left was not very Considerable, there are 
more or less ships coming in daily, we are inform 'd that 
there are 15000 Men destin'd for Canada, the 47 Regi- 
ment has arrived here from Boston, who bring Ace? that 
Gen! Howe, 12 " 5 with his Troops has evacuated Boston 
& Came to Hallifax, pursuant to orders received from 

10 A party marched out to day towards Montreal, we 
have Liberty to walk the Seminary Garden for our rec- 
reation to-day, which is a very excellent Garden for 

Maj^ Meigs has obtain'd Liberty of the Gen! to go 
home to New-Eng*? on his Parole. 

13 M" Levius Came to see me to-day, & informed me, 
that if I would endeavour to assist him, in getting his 
family to him from Portsmouth, he would use his influ- 
ence w* h the Gen! to get leave for me to go home with 
Maj^ Meigs On Parole, but he told me I must not depend 

12.4. Lt. Ronald T. McDougall belonged to the ist New York regiment, which 
had invaded Canada under Montgomery. Heitman, op. cit., 368. 

12.5. Sir William Howe (172.9-1814) had distinguished himself in America during 
the French and Indian War. As a major-general he was sent over to aid Gen. Gage as 
commander-in-chief of the American colonies in October. After spending the winter 
in besieged Boston he evacuated the city in March, 1776, and moved his army to Hali- 
fax, from whence he descended on New York in August. He defeated Washington in 
their first encounters, but failed to follow up his victories. Refusing to co-operate with 
Gen. Burgoyne in the campaign plan of 1777, Howe instead moved on to Philadelphia 
and spent an inactive winter. In the spring of 1778 he was recalled and was succeeded 
by Sir Henry Clinton. Diet. Nat. Biog., X, 1 02.-5. 

84 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1776 

much upon going as he thought it very uncertain whether 
he should succeed or not, notwithstanding I depended 
much upon going, as I thought his influence with the 
Gen! would be great, he being one of the Counsel, Judge 
of the Admiralty, & Judge of the Superior Court at 
Montreal — 

14 Major Meigs was sent for to wait upon the Gen! 
who inform' d him the Vessel would sail in a day or 
Two, in which he was to go to Hallifax, when the Ma- 
jor Came back, & I hearing nothing of M^ Levius's ob- 
taining leave for me to go home, I then began to dispair, 
and accordingly wrote a letter to my wife to send by the 
Major — 

16 At one O Clock P: M: M^ Levius Came to see me, & 
to my great Joy, inform'd me that the Gen! had given his 
Consent for me to go home, on Parole, & that we should 
sail this afternoon, — at 5 : of the Clock the Town Ma- 
jor Came for Major Meigs & myself, to go to the Lieu* 
Governor, to give our Parole, the verbal agreement we 
made was, that if ever there was an exchange of Prison- 
ers, we were to have the benefit of it, and until then we 
were not, to take up arms against the King, after giving 
our Paroles from under our hands, we were Carried before 
the Gen! who appear 'd to be a very humane tender- 
hearted man. after wishing us a good Voyage, & Saying 
he hoped to give the remainder of our officiers the Same 
Liberty, he desir'd the Town Major to Conduct us on 
Board, we desir'd leave to visit our men in prison but 
could not obtain it. 

after getting our baggage & taking leave of our fellow 
prisoners we went on board a schooner, which we are to 
go to Hallifax in, but as she did not sail to day, we were 
invited on Board the Admirals ship, where we were very 
genteely used, and Tarried all night — 

I 77^ H The Q UEBEC Expedition 85 

17 We Sail'd this morning, 10. .O. .Clock, we fell down 
to the lower end of the Island, of Orleans, the wind be- 
ing a head we were obliged to Cast Anchor, at Two of 
the Clock P : M : we went on shore upon Orleans, bought 
some Fowl & eggs, Orleans is a very pleasant Island, 
but the Inhabitants are extremely Ignorant — 

18 We weighed Anchor at 4 this morning, & had a fine 
breeze, at i Clock we Struck on the Rocks off against the 
Isle of Caudre, 12 " 6 which is eighteen Leagues from Quebec, 
we ware in great danger of staving to pieces. But Lucky 
for us we got off, here we Saw a great many white Por- 
puses which were very large — We came to an Anchor this 
Night by Hare-Island, which is 36 Leagues from Quebec. 

19 We hove up at 4 this morning, we have but very 
little wind the River here is 5 Leagues in Weadth, we 
fell down to the Isle of Beak, 12-7 which is 50 Leagues from 
Quebec, where we found his Majesty's Ship Niger, which 
is a 32. Gun Frigate, and an arm'd schooner lying at An- 
chor, we cast our anchor here at sunset. 

2.0 We weighed anchor here this morning at 4.. we 
had a small Breeze & some rain, and a very large sea. at 
six a Clock we had both our Masts sprung, which were 
barely saved from going overboard, we made a signal of 
distress to the above mention'd Vessels, which we were 
in sight of. — who gave us immediate relief, we put back 
to the ship as fast & well as we could, and after the 
Schooner was examin'd by the Carpenters, it was order 'd 
back to Quebec, and we were put on Board the Niger, 
which was now going to sail, bound for Hallifax. at 
10.. O Clock this evening we met with Two Men of war 
and several Transports — 

ix6. Isle aux Coudres, 12. miles southeast of St. Paul's Bay in the St. Lawrence 

12.7. Bic, or l'lslet au Massacre, near the south shore of the St. Lawrence opposite 
the village of Bic. The island is 3 miles long by ^ of a mile broad. 

86 Journals of Henry Dearborn [1776 

2.1 This morning we met 32. Transports with Troops on 
Board under Command of Gen! Burgoyne, said to be 6000 
Troops in the whole on Board this Fleet — I2 - 8 

2.2. We enter'd the Gulph of S- Laurence this afternoon, 
at 5 in the afternon we pass'd Bonaventura — IX$ 

2.3 at Twelve of the Clock we pass'd the Magdolen 
Islands. 1 * 

2.4 This morning we made the Isle of S? Johns, this 
afternoon we made the Isle of Cape Briton — I31 

2.5 at z-Clock P: M: we enter'd the gut of Canso, I3X 
pass'd half way through it, having no wind we Cast 
anchor — 

2.6 Having no wind we Catched plenty of fish — 

7-7 We hove up this morning at 9 O Clock, & had a 
fresh breeze, at ix..O.. Clock we enter'd the Atlantick. 

2.8 This day we have a fair wind, but a very thick fogg. 

2.9 We made Land within 15 Leagues of Hallifax, the 
wind is Contrary — 

30 This morning we enter'd the mouth of Hallifax, 
Harbour, as we pass'd up the Bay [the] Town has a very 
handsome appearance, at 12... O.. Clock we Came to An- 
chor, near the Town & at Two We went on shore, the 
Land on which this Town is Built rises Gradually until 

iz8. Maj. Gen. John Burgoyne (zjtjl-ij^x) had been sent to America to assist 
Gage in the spring of 1775, but had returned to England in disgust over his inactivity. 
On this second arrival he was to serve as second in command to Carleton on a cam- 
paign designed to take New York and split the colonies. Carleton 's forces were held 
back on Lake Champlain by Arnold in the summer and fall of 1776 and gave up the 
expedition as winter set in. Again Burgoyne returned to England. Diet. Nat. Biog., 
Ill, 340-2.. 

119. Bonaventura — a small island at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River south of 
the Bay of Gaspe. 

130. Magdalen Islands — a group near the center of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

131. Cape Breton Island, off the extreme northeast tip of the peninsula of Nova 
Scotia. It is 100 miles long and 85 miles across. The Island of St. Johns is now Prince 
Edward Island. 

13Z. The Gut of Canso, about 17 miles long, separates the Island of Cape Breton 
from the peninsula of Nova Scotia. It averages x3^ miles in width. 

1776 ] The Quebec Expedition 87 

it forms a beautiful eminence, Call'd the Citadel-Hill, 
the Town is handsomely laid out, the Building are but 
small, in general, at the upper end of the Town there is 
a very good Dock-yard, handsomely built with Stone 
and Lime, in which there are some handsome build- 
ings. Major Meigs & I waited on his Excellency Gen! 
How this afternoon, with some dispatches from Gen! 

June.. 1 Gen! Howe after some Conversation desir'd us 
to wait on him again, on Monday Next, & he promis'd 
us he would inform us when and how we should have a 
passage to New England, I visited some officiers, and 
others who were prisoners in Hallifax. Viz? Cap? Mor- 
tingdell, of Rhode, Island who was taken in a privateer, 
Lieu? Scott 133 who was taken at Bunker Hill, the 17? 1 of 
June last and a number of others amounting in the whole 
to 2.0. . persons — this day we took Lodgings at one Rid- 
ers Tavern. 

2... 3.. 4.. 5 We remained on shore, untill 3.. O.. Clock 
this afternoon, then we embark'd on Board his Majesties 
Ship Scarborough. 

6 Lord Piercy 134 din'd on board the Scarborough, at 
his Coming on Board he was saluted by 13 Guns from 
this ship, & the same number from several ships that lay 
near us, I went ashore to-day and found an opportunity 
of writing to my fellow prisoners in Quebec, which I 
gladly embraced — 

133. This is probably xnd Lt. William Scott ( d. 1796) of Sargent's Massachusetts 
regiment. After his exchange he attained the rank of captain. He retired from the 
army at the end of 1780, but served later in the navy. Heitman, op. cit., 486. 

134. Sir Hugh Percy (1742.-1817) came to America in 1774 as a colonel, although 
opposed to the King's colonial policy. He commanded the re-enforcements sent to 
Lexington, April 19, 1775, to cover the British retreat; soon after he received the rank 
of major-general. He went to Halifax with the army when Boston was evacuated in 
March, 1776. Later he moved to New York. After several disputes with Howe, Lord 
Percy returned to England. He succeeded his father as second Duke of Northumberland 
in 1786. Diet. Nat. Biog., XV, 865-7. 

88 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1776 

7.. 8.. 9 We Still remain here expecting every day to 

10 at 10.. O.. Clock this morning we sail'd, we had a 
fair brisk Breeze. 

11 Little wind to day — 

ix The wind is not fair, we are beating of[f] Cape 
Sables— 1 ^ 

13 The wind is Contrary we are beating off..d° — 

14 This morning we enter'd the Bay Fundy, at 3.. 
O.. Clock P: M: we pass'd Falmouth, 136 a small Village I 
am inform' d 15.. or 18.. sail of Vessels own'd at six 
o. .Clock we were abreast of Long Island, 137 the wind is 
fair & fresh, we pass'd a number of small Islands, & 
Rocks to day, particularly Gannets Rock, which was 
Cover'd with white Fowl in such Numbers, that at a dis- 
tance it looks like a small Hill, Cover'd with Snow, 
These Fowl are Call'd Gannets or Solen Geese, they are 
almost as large as our Common Geese — 

15 The wind N: E.. we pass'd Peteet, Passage, to 
day. 138 

16 We pass'd high Islands the wind is fair for us to go 
to Cumberland, where we are order'd — 

17 At 10. .Clock A. .M : we Came to Anchor in Cumber- 
land Bay 139 about 4 Miles from the Town, the Country 
has a very pleasant appearance from where we lye, I am 
in a disagreeable Situation to-day, but there is not such a 

135. Cape Sable Island, at the southwestern tip of Nova Scotia, not to be confused 
with Sable Island. 

136. Falmouth — probably Yarmouth, on a small bay about 35 miles northwest 
of Cape Sable. 

137. Long Island — between St. Mary's Bay and the Bay of Fundy. 

138. Petit Passage separates Long Island from the peninsula which forms St. 
Mary's Bay. 

139. Cumberland Basin — the northeast arm of Chignecto Bay, which communicates 
on the southwest with the Bay of Fundy. The town and Fort Cumberland were on 
the present site of Amherst. 

I 77^ H ^he Q UEBEC Expedition 89 

scence of Slaughter, and Blood shed, as I was in this day 
12. Months — 

18 This day we apply'd to the Cap? for leave to go on 
shore but were refus'd. 

19 We sent on Shore, & Bought x..Fowl at 3* Lawful, 
dear indeed — 

2.0 We understand we are to sail the first fair wind, we 
had a fine dinner to-day, one Fowl roasted, and another 
Boil'd, with some pork and Potatoes, I made the best 
meal that I had made for about six-months past, some 
of the Inhabitants Brought some sheep along side to-day 
for which they asked 48/p? piece for — New: England 
Rum here is 2.i s /4 d Lawful p Gallon. 

xi This is the first day that has looked like Summer 
since I came to Hallifax, we expect to sail from here to- 
morrow, if the wind do favour us, every day seems a 
month to me, I am very anxious to see my dear family 
once more. 

2.2. We hove up to day, and attempted to go down the 
Bay, but the wind was so fresh against us that we were 
obliged to come to anchor again, after falling down about 
x.. Leagues. 

2.3 The wind blows very Strong & Contrary against us. 

14 We had a heavy gale of wind at S..W..last night, 
it was supposed that we were in great danger, of driving 
on shore, but by letting go another anchor, we Rode it 
out without any damage, the wind remains Still Con- 
trary — 

15 At ii. .O.. Clock to, day we sail'd from Cumberland 
with a fresh Breeze — 

2.6 at 8..0 Clock this morning we came to anchor at 
the mouth of Anapolis Harbour, 140 seven Leagues from 

140. An inlet of the Bay of Fundy, formerly Port Royal, at the mouth of the river 

50 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ J 776 

the Town, from Fort Cumberland to this place is 30 
Leagues, Anapolis lays on the east side of the Bay of 
Fundy, the Land at the Mouth of the Harbour, is very 
Mountanious, and Barren, as is almost all the Land on 
this Coast which I have seen, — at 3.. O.. Clock P: M: 
we weighed anchor and put up the River, and at 6. .of the 
Clock, Came to Anchor at Anoplis Town, which appears 
to have 50.. or 60 Houses in it, and a fortification; several 
miles before we come to the Town, there are some Inhab- 
itants, On both sides the River, where there is several 
very good Orchards, the Land in general, is Cold, spruce 
bad looking Land, but there is very fine Marshes here, 
which makes a very pretty appearance, as we Sailed up 
the River — 

2.7 We apply 'd for leave to go ashore to-day, but was 
refus'd the weather is very pleasant — This afternoon I 
was seized with a violent pain in my head, and soon aft- 
erwards, I was seized with a sickness in my Stomach, 
after vomiting very heartily, I felt some rilief at my 
stomach, but the pain in my head increas'd, I was 
visited by the Surgeon of the ship, who said I was in a 
high fever, & urged me to take a puke, which Operated 
very well upon me, after heaving up a large quantity 
of Bile, I found myself much better, and a tolerable 
Nights Rest. 

x8 I find myself very weak and something feverish, I 
have had blood let, after which I felt much better, I am 
now in hopes of escaping a fever, which last Night I was 
much afraid of. 

2.9 The weather is very fine, we heard to day, that the 
Milford ship of 2.8 Guns, has taken a Privateer of 18 
Guns, belonging to Newbury Port, Commanded by one 
Tracy, we Bought some Veal to-day at 6 d Sterling p T . 
pound, which is very Cheap, call'd here, at 7 O Clock 

I 77^ 1 The Q UEBEC Expedition 91 

we left the Scarborough (P..M) This morning we come 
to Sail with a good Breeze, we are extremely well 
Treated by Cap* Graves, 141 and the other officiers on 
Board at 7 O Clock this evening we are abreast of 
Grand Manan. 142 - 

July 1 We have very little wind, the weather is very 
Cloudy, at 12... O.. Clock We have a brisk Breeze and a 
thick Fogg. 

2_ The weather remains Foggy, we have a light Breeze ; 
our General Course is S..S..W..but as the weather is 
thick, and we not willing to fall in with the Land, untill 
it is Clearer, we keep running off and on waiting for the 
weather to Clear up — 

3 The weather is Clear, we are in sight of Mount 
desert, 143 we have a fresh Breeze at N: W.. We are 
Stearing for Machias, 144 at 3.. O.. Clock, as we were 
about entering Machias harbour, we espied three small 
sail to windward, the Cap* sent a Barge after them, 
at 6..0 Clock the Barge Return'd with a small fishing 
Schooner as a prize, they inform'd the Cap? that there 
was a small privateer along shore, which fired several 
shot at them, at seven O Clock the Cap? order"? about 
2.0. . hands on board the Schooner — Which they had 
taken, with some Blunder-Busses and ther arms, and 
sent them off, after the Privateer, which was in sight 
when the Schooner left the ship, which was about 
sun' set — 

141. Doubtless this officer belonged to the famous naval family of Graves, but 
whether he was Sir Samuel Graves Ci747?-i8i4) or one of his three brothers is uncer- 
tain. See Diet. Nat. Biog., VIII, 440-1. 

142.. Grand Manan Island, about 2.0 miles long with an average width of 5 miles, 
lies due east of Annapolis harbor near the west coast of the Bay of Fundy. 

143. Mount Desert Island lies about one mile off the Maine coast, about 75 miles 
from Grand Manan Island. 

144. Machias bay or harbor is at the mouth of the Machias River. The town, a port of 
entry of Maine and the capital of Washington county, is situated 10 miles up the river. 

52. Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1776 

4 We are Cruising up and down from Mount Desart to 
Machias waiting for the Schooner which went after the 
Privateer last Night, the weather is very fine — at 2... 
O.. Clock P: M: the Boats return'd with Two small fish- 
ing boats and two men we Anchor'd this Night by an 
Island, Called Mespecky 145 

5 about three Leagues from Machias Harbour, the 
boats were sent out this morning, and took a Small fish- 
ing schooner Laded with fish belonging to Portsmouth, 
one Fumell Master, by the writing found on Board, the 
people all left her, and went off in a Canoe, when they 
found they were like to be taken, we lay at anchor here 
all day. 

6 This morning Cap? Graves gave two of the men, who 
were taken in some of the fishing Boats, liberty to take 
one of the Same, (by the name of Wallas: & Dyer) be- 
longing to Narriguagos, 146 a few leagues below Mount 
Desart; upon their promising to Carry Major Meigs, & 
myself to Casco, Bay, and at 10.. O.. Clock, we left the 
ship and went up as far as Narriguagos, which is about 5 
Leagues, and went on shore, to one Cap? Wallas' s where 
we were very genteelly entertained. 

7 This day being Sunday, we went to meeting, the 
weather is very warm, we found the people all in arms, 
to oppose any boats from the men of War, that attempted 
to land — as they were apprehensive of their Coming to 
plunder for fresh Meat, — 

145. Probably one of the islands off the coast of Maine between Indian River and 
Englishman Bay. An 18th century chart names the stretch of shoreline between these 
two points "Moose A Becky's Beach." Osgood Carleton's map of Maine, 1795, names 
the channel between this beach and the islands "Mispeckey Channel." 

146. Narraguagus here refers to a settlement near the mouth of the Narraguagus 
River, indicated on Des Barres' chart of the coast of Maine, 1776. On this chart the 
river empties into what was called Naragnagus Bay, now a part of Pleasant Bay. 
Dearborn should have located Narraguagus above "Mount Desart" (Mount Desert 
Island) instead of a few leagues below it. By water, the distance from Pleasant Bay 
to Casco Bay is about 100 miles. 

I 77^ H The Quebec Expedition 53 

8 At seven O. .Clock in the morning we sailed for Casco : 
Bay, we made no Harbour this Night, we are off, 
abreast of Mount Desart,. 

9 We have a light Breeze this morning at S..W.. we 
pass'd the Bay, of Jericho this forenoon, this afternoon, 
we pass'd the Isle, of Holt, 147 we saw a Number of very 
Large whales to day, at 5.. O.. Clock this afternoon, we 
pass'd Ponabscutt Harbour, 148 a few Leagues without 
this Harbour, is a number of small Islands, Call'd the 
Silley Islands, 149 at 9.. O.. Clock this evening, we came 
to an Anchor in a small bay — Called Talland Harbour, 150 
where there are several families — it is on the West side 
of Ponobscut Bay — 

10 This morning we set sail at Sun-rise, but the Fogg 
being very thick we were obliged to put back to the same 
Harbour again — we went on shore and got some milk 
and Greens, at 9. .O. .Clock the weather Cleared up a lit- 
tle and we put to sea, but soon after we put out, it came 
on very foggy again, it was so Foggy and Calm, that we 
concluded to go back into the Harbour again — where we 
came to Anchor at i..O.. Clock P: M: Maj' Meigs & I 
agree'd to take our Land-Tacks on board and quit the 
Boat — We walked 2. miles & Came to a river, Called 
George's River, we Cross'd the same and Came, to a Vil- 
lage Called George's Town, 151 we walked Two Miles, 
and Came to a river Call'd Madamcook, which we 
Cross'd and Came to a Village call'd Madamcook, 152 - 

147. Isle au Haut, opposite Deer Island. 

148. Penobscot Bay. 

149. Probably the group including Seal, Wooden Ball, Matinicus, Criehaven and 
Green islands. 

150. Tenants Harbor — about iz miles south-southwest of Rockland, Maine. 

151. St. George's River opens into Muscongus Bay. The village is about 9 miles 
southwest of Rockland, Maine. 

152.. Madam Cook — Madumcook or Medumcook — between St. George's River and 
Broad Cove. 

54 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1776 

where there lives 40 families, we Tarried here one 

11 We started this morning for Broad Bay, 153 which is 
six miles distant from here, at 9 O. .Clock we arrived at 
said Bay — where there is fine settlements, the inhabi- 
tants seems to live very well; we were very Genteely 
Treated by Esq^ Thomas, of said place, who I found was 
Nephew to Gen! Thomas 154 in the Continental Army, 
said Thomas favour'd us with his Horse to Carry our 
Packs as far as Damascoty 155 which is eight Miles, we 
Cross' d Demoscoty River & walked Two miles to one 
Barkers Tavern, in a place Called Newcastle, 156 here 
Stayed all night,. 

ix We hired Horses to go to Sheepscutt River, 157 
where we arrived at 9 O.. Clock; we sent the Horses 
back again and Cross'd the River called Sheepscut, and 
walked one mile, and met some people to work on the 
High:way, we were asked into a house to eat some 
dinner, here we hired Two Horses to go to Kennebeck 
River, which is 15 miles, we Cross'd Kennebeck River, 
at sun-set & walked one mile, then Lodged at M? Lam- 
berts Tavern, — I58 

13 We hired said Lamberts Brother & Horses to Carry 
us to Falmouth, at 9.. O.. Clock we Started, at 11.. 

153. Now called Broad Cove. 

154. Maj. Gen. John Thomas (1714-1776) of Massachusetts. He was sent north to 
replace Wooster as commander of the Canada expedition, but died during the retreat. 
Diet. Am. Biog., XVIII, 438. 

155. Damariscotta, on the east bank of the Damariscotta River opposite Newcastle, 

156. Newcastle, Lincoln co., Maine, on the west bank of the Damariscotta River 
about 15 miles from the sea. 

157. The Sheepscott River enters the ocean about 10 miles southeast of Bath, 

158. Lambert's tavern is located on High Street, Bath, Maine. It was built in ij6i 
by Joseph Lambert who occupied it and kept a tavern. The Lambert property was 
sold to Jonas Hagan whose descendents now occupy it as a farm. 

1776 ] The Quebec Expedition 95 

O. .Clock, we Cross'd Browns Ferry on Stephen's River/ 59 
at ix..O.. Clock we arrived at Brumswick l6 ° which is 30 
Miles from Casco, he[rej we dined, here are a number 
of elegant Buildings, & the ruin of an old Fort, Called 
Brumswick Fort, at 4.. O.. Clock PM.. we left Brums- 
wick, after passing thro, Yarmouth woods, which is 10 
Miles, we pass'd through North- Yarmouth, 161 and at 
Sun 'set we arrived at Nights Tavern, which is 5 Miles to 
the eastward of Falmouth, and there put up and Tarryed 
all night — 

14 We started early this morning for Falmouth, 161 
when we arrived at Falmouth, there we found a sloop 
ready to sail, in which several Masters of Vessels belong- 
ing to New England, who came from Hallifax, were go- 
ing Passengers We also embarked on Board said sloop, 
& at 10.. O.. Clock sailed for Portsmouth, having but 
very little wind & that quite Contrary, we made but 
small headway — 

15 This morning we are a Breast of Wood-Island, 163 
at 5.. O.. Clock P..M: we are abreast of old York, and the 
wind ahead — 

159. Stevens River was the name applied to the head of New Meadows River, an 
arm of the sea reaching north from Small Point to within a mile and a half of Merry- 
meeting Bay. The old road from Bath to Brunswick crossed the river fat Brown's 
Ferry) close to the site of the Penobscot Shore Line R. R. The ferry was about 1.^2 
miles from Bath; here the river was about 40 rods wide. W. D. Williamson, The His- 
tory of the State of Maine, (Hallowell, 1832.), L, 33- 

160. Brunswick, Cumberland co., Maine is on the right bank of the Andro- 
scoggin River 9 miles west of Bath and about 2.9 miles from Portland. The fort was 
old Fort George, also called Pejepscot, built on the remains of Fort Andros. The 
fort was dismantled in 1737. H. E. Dunnack, Maine Forts (Augusta, Me., 192.4), 

161. Probably Yarmouthville, Cumberland co., Maine, about a mile up the Royal 
River from Casco Bay. 

i6z. That part of Falmouth which Dearborn mentions is now a part of the city of 
Portland. In 1776 the town was located on the south side of the peninsula. Portland 
harbor was called Falmouth harbor. The present town of Falmouth is five miles north 
of Portland. 

163. Wood Island — at the entrance of Saco River in Maine. 

96 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1776 

16 This morning we are a Breast of the Isle-of Shoals, 164 
we have a small Breeze and are Running for the Light- 
house in Portsmouth-Harbour, which place rejoiced me 
very much to see once more, at 10.. O.. Clock, A: M: I 
arrived at Portsmouth 165 to my Great joy, and at sunset 
arrived safe at my own House, at Nottingham, 166 & 
found my wife well, my Children alive, & my friends in 
General, well. 


March 15^ 1777— l6? 

164. The Isles of Shoals are eight small islands 10 miles south-southeast of Ports - 
mouth, New Hampshire. 

165. Portsmouth, Rockingham co., New Hampshire, on the right bank of the 
Piscataqua River about 3 miles from the ocean. 

166. Nottingham, Rockingham co., New Hampshire, about 18 miles northwest 
of Portsmouth. 

167. This date may indicate the completion of this journal by the copyist. 


The Burgoyne Campaign 

in 2777 a reinforced British army launched a vigorous offensive 
into New York from Canada. The first force, under Burgoyne, 
followed the Lake Cham-plain route. The second, under St. Leger, 
entered the state by way of Lake Ontario. At Albany the two com- 
manders were to meet and plan further moves after consulting 
Howe, whose army was then in possession of New York City. 
St. Leger was stopped at Fort Stanwix; and as Burgoyne marched 
slowly southward, he met with a determined resistance which 
increased steadily as homesteads and farms were laid waste. 
Meanwhile, Howe had sailed off to take Philadelphia, leaving 
too small a force behind him to relieve the pressure on Burgoyne. 
The American army under Gates and Arnold, its numbers swelled 
by an aroused militia, halted the invasion. After repeated skir- 
mishes and two pitched battles, Burgoyne' s army was cut off from 
its supplies, surrounded, and forced to surrender at Saratoga. 


[1776] "J"ULY 2.5 I set out for New york where our 
main army then lay, to settle my accounts, 
I remaind at N york until the enimy took 
possession of Long Island, 1 & our army was 

about quiting the City, & then returnd home: — 

1. The battle of Long Island, in which the British under Gen. Sir William Howe 
defeated the Continental Army under Washington, took place on August 2.7, 1776. 
By the middle of September the British were in possession of New York City. Wash- 
ington fell back to White Plains and later crossed the Hudson into New Jersey. 


5 8 Journals of Henry Dearborn L 1777 

Decern? 30 th I set out for Philadelphia to settle some 
accounts with congress, I was obliged to go to Balti- 
more in Maryland, Congress having retreeted from Phila- 
delphia to that place. 2 " — I stayd there 10 days & returnd 

[1777] 14 th of March I was Exchanged 3 & appointed 
Maj' to the third N: H. Reg? Commanded by Col? 
Scammell. 4 

10 th of May I set out for, & the 2.0 th ariv'd at Ticon- 
deroga 5 — the first of July Gen! Burguoyn 6 came against 
Ticonderoga with a Learge fleet & Army, & began to 
erect batteries against several parts of our works, the 

z. The Continental Congress adjourned in Philadelphia on Dec. iz and reconvened 
in Baltimore on the zoth. Journals of the Continental Congress (Washington, 1906), VI, 
1015, iozy-8. 

3. In 1 8th century warfare officers usually were paroled soon after being captured. 
They were allowed to return home free men, but could not engage in any activity 
against the enemy until they had been exchanged, i.e., until their respective com- 
manders had agreed to cancel the parole obligation of paroled officers of equal rank 
from either side. Paroles usually were strictly observed. In this instance Washington 
had exchanged a paroled British captain for Capt. Dearborn, and both officers were 
able to resume military activity. Dearborn's promotion was dated March 19, 1777, 
according to Heitman, to rank from Nov. 8, 1776. 

4. Col. Alexander Scammell ( d. 1781) had been a major of New Hampshire militia 
and aide-de-camp to Gen. Sullivan before he was given a regiment in November, 1776. 
He became adjutant-general of the Continental Army early in 1778 and held the post 
three years. He was in command of the 1st New Hampshire Regiment at Yorktown 
when he was wounded and captured. See Dearborn's entry for Oct. 1, 1781. Heitman, 
op. cit., 483-4. 

5. Fort Ticonderoga occupied a point of land on the west bank of Lake Champlain 
at the outlet of Lake George. It was built by the French in the 1750's and was captured 
by the British under Amherst in 1759. At the beginning of the War of Independence 
it was in a dilapidated state of repair and fortified by a very small garrison; it fell an 
easy victim to the Continentals under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold. When Dear- 
born reached there in 1777 the old French works had been repaired and re-enforced with 
new earthworks and blockhouses. The garrison consisted of about z,5oo poorly armed 
Continentals and 900 raw Militia. Justin Winsor, ed., Narrative and Critical History 
of America (Boston & New York, 1889), VI, Z95, ff. 

6. His first expedition from Canada southward having failed in 1776, Burgoyne 
planned a new one for 1777. Commanding a force of about 10,000, he left St. Johns 
in June and moved up Lake Champlain and took Ticonderoga. After a long delay he 
advanced uncertainly towards Albany. Howe failed to co-operate with him and at the 
same time left Clinton in New York with too small a force to risk a march up the 
Hudson. The American army meanwhile grew steadily until it numbered 17,000. After 

1 77711 The Burgoyne Campaign 95 

5 th a councel of war was held in which it was determind 
to Evacuate the post next morning before day brake, — 
early on the morning of the 6* h we left the place, the Eni- 
mies pursued us by land & water, destroyd all our bag- 
gage that was sent to Skeensborouh 7 by water. — a learge 
body of Light troops pursued by land, & early on the 
morning of the 7 th fell in with our rear guard & after an 
action of half an hour, in which they met with consider- 
able loss our troops ware obliged to retreet — our Loss 
was about 300 kill'd & taken — our main body was at 
two great a distance from the rear guard to go to their 
relief in season — our main Army now found themselves 
obliged to perform a Circuitus march of about 150 miles 
thro what is calld the Green Mountains to Saratogia, 8 
almost totally destitute of any kind of provisions or any 
other necessaries of life: 9 — that part of our army that 
went by water, by the way of Skeensborough with the 
baggage, after loosing the baggage ware pursued by a 
body of the Enemy to fort Ann 10 where two or three se- 
vere scurmishes happn'd, in which the Enimy went of [f] 
second best, in one of these scurmishes the brave Cap* 

suffering heavy losses in men and provisions at Bennington and at Freeman's Farm, 
Burgoyne began to retreat. At Saratoga he was surrounded and forced to surrender. 
He returned to England at once where he faced a Parliamentary inquiry. Diet. Nat. 
Biog., Ill, 340-z. 

7. Skenesboro (now Whitehall, New York) stood on the west bank of Wood Creek 
near its junction with the Poultney River. The latter empties into Lake Champlain. 
Here the passage was navigable for batteaux. 

8. Saratoga stood on the present site of Schuylerville, New York, on the west bank 
of the Hudson River near the mouth of the Fishkill River or Creek. 

9. The garrison at Ticonderoga, about 3,000 effectives under Maj. Gen. Arthur St. 
Clair, lacked provisions to withstand a siege, so a retreat southward was ordered. 
The main body marched by way of Hubbardton and Castleton; about 500 went by boat 
to Skenesboro and beyond. The rear guard action took place between three American 
regiments which had stopped at Hubbardton contrary to orders and British detach- 
ments under Generals Fraser and Riedesel. H. Nickerson, The Turning Point of the Revo- 
lution (Boston, 1918), 144-54. 

10. Fort Anne, on the line of march to the Hudson, was 11 miles below Skenesboro 
on the west bank of Wood Creek. 

ioo Journals of Henry Dearborn [ 1777 

Weare 11 of the third N. H. Reg* received a wound of 
which he afterwards died. 

the ix of July our main body ariv'd at Hudson river opo- 
site Saratogia, ware there reinforc'd by several Reg? of 
Continental troops & a considerable body of Millitia, 
some part of our army march'd up the river as far as fort 
Edward, I2 " after remaining there several days finding the 
Enimy ware advancing, our whole force was Collected 
at a place called Moses creek 13 about five miles below fort 
Edward, where we remaind a number of days & then re- 
treeted to Saratogea, had several scurmishes with the Eni- 
mies advanc'd parties, consisting mostly of Indians & 
their more savage brothers, the tories after remaining 
two days at Saratogea we retreeted to Stillwater 14 where 
we ariv'd the 3 d of August. 

August 3^ 1777— 

this morning our army ariv'd at Stillwater & Incamp'd 

4 th we are Begining to Erect some fortifycations to Day. 

5 th I am on the advanced Piquit to Day. 

6 th it is in Genr! Orders for a Company of Light Infan- 
try to be form'd from Each Continental Regiment Imme- 

7 th Nothing New to Day. 

8 th an Indian Scalp was Brought in to Day By a Party 
of our men which is a Rareety with us — Genr! Arnold 
march'd this Day with Genr 1 . Larnerds 15 Brigade for fort 

11. Capt. Richard Weare died August 2., 1777, of the wound he received on July 8 
at Fort Anne. Heitman, op. cit., $jj. 

iz. Fort Edward stood on the east bank of the Hudson River 16 miles south of 
Fort Anne. It was built in 1755. 

13. Moses Creek or Mosses Creek, also called Mosses Kill on contemporary maps, 
flows into the Hudson from the northeast about 5 miles south of Fort Edward. 

14. Stillwater is on the west side of the Champlain Canal about 13 miles above 

15. Ebenezer Learned (1718-1801) of Massachusetts was commissioned a brigadier- 
general in April, 1777. After relieving Fort Stanwix, his brigade was active in the 

1 777 H The Burgoyne Campaign ioi 

Stanwix 16 which has Been Beseiged some time By a 
Party [of] British Troops & their Brothers the Savages 
under Command of Genr! S* Ledger 17 — 

9 th Nothing New — 

10 th from the appearences of thing[s] we are about to 

Retreet further Down the River — 

11 th D°— D°— 
I2 _th D o_ D o_ 

13 th the Army is ordered to march to morrow morning 
at 4 O Clock, the Tents to Be Struck at 2.. this Evining 
the Above order was Countermanded. 

14 th the army is ordered to march to morrow morning 
at gun fire tomorrow morning — 

15 th we march'd this morning about 6 miles to a Place 
Call'd fort Abraham 18 & incamp'd & Drew Tents for the 
New hamps? Battallions which are the first we have had 
Since we Left Ty 19 — 

16 th we Lay still to Day. 

17 th we are Ordered to march to morrow morning — 

18 th the army march'd this morning, — Genr! Poors 
Brigade 10 march'd up mohawke River about 7 miles 

battles of Sept. 19 and Oct. 7, as well as in the final capture of Burgoyne's army. Learned 
resigned from the army in March, 1778, because of ill health. Diet. Am. Biog., XI, 77. 

16. Fort Stanwix, later named Fort Schuyler, was built on the right bank of the 
Mohawk River in 1758, near the present site of Rome, New York. 

17. Lt. Col. Barry St. Leger (c. 1737-1789) was brevetted a brigadier-general for the 
command of an expedition designed to co-operate with Burgoyne's advance on Albany. 
St. Leger, with British regulars, Tories and Indians marched by way of the St. Lawrence, 
Oswego and the Mohawk River. He was unable to take Fort Stanwix, although at 
Oriskany he succeeded in cutting off reinforcements sent out to strengthen the post, and 
was forced to retreat to Canada. Nickerson, of. cit., 194, fl. 

18. Fort Abraham probably refers to a small stockaded Indian settlement in the 
vicinity of Albany, named after Abraham, a chief of the upper Mohawk Castle. 
Docs. Ret. to the Col. Hist, of . . . New-York (Albany 1855), VI, 870, passim. 

19. Ticonderoga. 

10. Enoch Poor (1736-1780) of New Hampshire became a brigadier-general in 
February, 1777. His brigade suffered heavy losses at Saratoga. After wintering at 
Valley Forge, he accompanied Sullivan on his Indian expedition of 1779. Diet. 
Am. Biog., XV, 69. 

i ox Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1777 

& Cross' d it at a Place Call'd Lowdens ferry 11 & 
incamp'd. the other Part of the army incamp'd at 
what is Call'd the sprouts, which is the Place where 
Mohawk River Emties into Hudsons River in three 
Different Branches, this Place is about 9 miles from 
Albany — 

19 th Genrl Gates 2 " 2 " takes Command of the Northern 
army this Day which I think will Put a New face upon 
our affairs. 

2.0 th we have the Glorious News this Day of the Signal 
victory that Genr! Stark 2-3 has Qbtain'd over the Enimy 
at Benington Where he has kill'd & taken about 12.00 

xi. Loudon's Ferry, named after the British commander Earl Loudon, was built 
under the direction of Maj. Gen. William Johnson in 1755 nve miles from the mouth 
of the Mohawk River. The site is now a part of the Erie barge canal. The original 
military route from Albany to Montreal, which crossed the Mohawk at "the 
sprouts," included four fords, ali of which were dangerous during high water, 
and sometimes impassable. The British under Johnson established Loudon's Ferry 
and fortified it from 1755 to 1768. The Continental army occupied the old British 
fortifications at the ferry from 1775 to 1781. A bridge replaced the ferry in 

vl. Horatio Gates (c. 1718/19-1806) had served in the British army from an early 
age until 1765, when he retired a major. In 1771 he settled in Virginia. Espousing the 
rebel cause, he was commissioned adjutant-general of the Continental army with the 
rank of brigadier-general. In 1776 he was made a major-general to take command of 
the troops retreating from Canada, but he acted under Schuyler. The next spring he 
was ordered to replace Schuyler in command of the northern department, but did not 
finally relieve him until August, 1777. He quarrelled with the abler Arnold who 
actually led the troops against Burgoyne and forced his surrender to Gates. Congress 
elected Gates to the Board of War, where he became involved in the Conway cabal 
against Washington. In 1778 he again commanded the northern department, but was 
transferred to the eastern department. He retired in 1780, but in June of that year he 
was ordered to take command of the southern department. His defeat at Camden 
caused him to be replaced by Greene. He again retired until 1782., when he joined 
Washington at Newburgh. Diet. Am. Biog., VII, 184-8. 

13. John Stark (17x8-1811) had served in the French and Indian War as an officer of 
rangers. He was appointed colonel of a regiment of New Hampshire patriots (in which 
Dearborn was a captain) that converged on Boston in 1775. Sent to Canada in May, 
1776, he accompanied the American retreat that summer. He resigned his commission 
in March, 1777, but the New Hampshire General Court soon asked Stark to lead a 
brigade of militia to defend Vermont against Burgoyne's invasion. He attacked Col. 
Baum near Bennington and captured almost his whole detachment of 800. Stark then 
was made a brigadier-general in the Continental Army. He captured Fort Edward 
and blocked Burgoyne's retreat. Twice he commanded the northern department. 
Ibid. XVII, 530-1. 

1777 1 The Burgoyne Campaign 103 

men — Besides a Large Quantity of Baggage & 4 Brass 
field Peices. 14 

n t I went to Albany this Day to take Care of the Ef- 
fects of the Brave Cap* Weare who Died a few Days since 
of the wound he Receivd in the action at fort ann the 8 th 
of July— 

2_2. d I returned to Camp from albany this Day — this 
afternoon we are Join'd By 1 N. york Regiments. Van 
Courtlandts & Livingstanes. 2 " 5 

2.3 d the two Regiments that Join'd us yesterday are or- 
dered to march to fort Stanwix to Join Genri Arnold — 

2.4 th Nothing New to Day — 

2.5 this Day we are Informed that the Enimy made an 
attempt to storm fort Stanwix But ware Repuls'd with 
Considerable Loss in Concequence of which they Imme- 
diately Raisd the seage. 2 " 6 
the 2.6* 2.f> 2.8 th Nothing New— 

19 th the two N. york Regiments above mentioned Re- 
turnd this Day & Join'd our Brigade. 

30 th Col? Morgan from Virginia with 400 Riflemen 
Join'd us to Day — 

31* Genri Arnold with Genr! Larnards Brigade Re- 
turnd from fort Stanwix & Joind us this Day. 

x4. The battle of Bennington took place about 5 miles south of that hamlet. Burgoyne 
had sent out a foraging party of 800 men under Col. Baum to capture rebel supplies at 
Bennington. On August 16, Gen. Stark met the party with i,ooo men and all but annihi- 
lated it. Reinforcements which Baum had ordered on first learning of Stark's presence 
came up later in the day under Col. von Breymann. But Stark, too, had been strength- 
ened with a fresh regiment under Col. Seth Warner, and von Breymann's force of about 
650 was routed. The American casualties were about 30 killed and 40 wounded. This 
battle was the first real check which Burgoyne had received. Nickerson, op. cit., 2.33—63 . 

2.5. Col. Philip Van Cortlandt commanded the xnd New York regiment, and Col. 
Henry Beekman Livingston commanded the 4th. Heitman, op. cit., 354, 555. 

z6. The determination and courage of the garrison of Fort Stanwix under Col. Peter 
Gansevoort held off St. Leger's siege until a relief detachment could be sent out. 
Arnold, in command of the party, sent on ahead a half-wit and a friendly Indian to 
inform St. Leger's Indians that he was coming with a great army. The ruse worked, 
the British were unable to hold their allies together, and St. Leger was obliged to 
retreat towards Canada. Nickerson, op. cit., 2.70-5. 

104 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1777 

Septem r i* i d 3 d Nothing New — 

4 th a Scout of 40 men under Command of Cap? fry 17 of 
Col? Scammels Regi* was Surpris'd By a Body of Indians 
& others Consisting in the whole of about 300. we Lost 
out [of] our scout 9 men kild & taken — 

5 th we are makeing all Possible Preparation to meet 
the Enimy, our Brigad is mustered to Day By Col? 
Varrick 18 — 

6 th we are Ordered to hold our Selves in Rediness to 
march at a munites warning to meet the Enimy. we are 
Joind By a Conciderable Body of Millitia from Connecti- 
cut, Both foot & horse. — 

7 th we Expect Every hour to have orders for marching 
— this Evining we Receivd orders to Strike our Tents at 
gun fire to morrow morning & march towards the 
Enimy — 

8 th we Cross'd the River & march'd about 8 miles to 
Day & Incamp'd — 

9 th we march'd about 10 miles this morning to Still- 
water & Incamp'd on the Hights — a flag Came to 
Genr! Gates to Day from Genr! Burguoyn with a Doct r 
& some Baggage & Nessesaries for their sick & wounded 
taken at Benington. 

10 we are Begining to fortify on the hights — 

11 th the army is as yesterday. I am appointed to the 
Command of 300 Light Infantry who are Draughted 
from the Several Regements in the Northern army & 
to act in Conjunction with Col? Morgan's Corps of 

Z7. Capt. Isaac Fryc of the 3rd New Hampshire regiment, formerly a regimental 
quartermaster. Later he was transferred to the 1st New Hampshire regiment and was 
brevetted a major at the close of the war. Heitman, op. cit., Z39. 

2.8. Lt. Col. Richard Varick ( d. 1831) had been aide-de-camp to Gen. Schuyler 
and was now deputy commissary-general of musters. He became an aide-de-camp to 
Gen. Arnold in 1780, then joined Washington's staff as private secretary to the com- 
mander-in-chief, which position he retained until Washington's death. Ibid., 559. 

J 777 H The Burgoyne Campaign 105 

i2. th I Join'd the Light Infantry this morning which 
with the Rifle men are incamp'd about 1 miles advanc'd 
of the Main army. 

13 th this morning the whole army advanc'd about 4 
miles to a Place Call'd Beemes's Hights 19 a very advan- 
tageous Post & incamp'd. 

14 th V Col? Butler 30 of the Riflemen & myself with 2.00 
men went out as a scout Near to Saratoga to Indevour to 
find out the situation of the Enimy But Being misled By 
Our guide we made No great Discoveries, & tarried all 

15 th After Reconoyrtering the woods Round Saratoga 
we Returnd to Camp — 

16 th from some Intiligence we Receivd Last Night we 
Expected to have been Attacted this morning, But ware 
Disappointed — Genr! Stark Joind us to Day with his 
Brigade from Benington. 

17 th the Enimy are advancing towards us. 

18 th we march 'd with 3000 men to attact the Enimy — 
we fell in with some small Parties & took about 30 Prison" 

19 th hereing this morning that the Enimy ware advanc- 
ing, the Rifle & Light Infantry Corps turnd out to meet 
the Enimy & about 1 miles from our Camp we fell in 
with their advanced Guard & attacted them 31 about 12. 

19. After Arnold and Learned had joined Gates, and Morgan had come in with 400 
riflemen, Gates was encouraged to advance his army. He first moved to Stillwater, 
13 miles north of the Mohawk River. Entrenchments were begun, but it was decided 
that the terrain was not suitable for a strong defence. The army was therefore moved 
3 miles north to Bemis Heights, named for a tavern keeper who lived on the spot. 
New fortifications were immediately begun under the direction of Kosciusko, the 
Polish engineer. 

30. Lt. Col. Richard Butler (1743-1791) belonged to Morgan's riflemen. Later he 
served under Wayne, and after the war became an Indian agent. Diet. Am. Biog., 
Ill, 366. 

31. The first battle of Freeman's Farm took place on the plain between the Ameri- 
can defences and those of the opposing forces; the British had occupied Wilbur's Basin 
2. miles to the north. Freeman's Farm lay to the left of the American position, and 
was defended by Arnold with Dearborn's detachment and Morgan's riflemen. 

106 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ !777 

O Clock, after fighting about half an hour Being over 
Powerd with Numbers we ware Obliged to Retire to A 
height, about 50 rods & there weare Reinforc'd With 
Col? Cilleys Regiment 32 ", who attacted a Body of the 
Enimy with a great Deal of Spirit, I Ran to his assist- 
ance with the Light Infantry, But he was Obliged to Re- 
treet Before I Came up. — Col? Scammells & Hales 33 Regi- 
ments then Came to our Assistence it was Now about 2. 
O Clock P. M. when a very Heavy fire Commenced on 
both Sides, which Continued until Dark, the Enimy 
Brought almost their whole force against us, together 
with 8 Peices of Artilery. But we who had Something 
more at Stake than fighting for six Pence P r Day kept our 
ground til Night, Closed the scene, & then Both Parties 
Retire'd. 34 our Loss was about 180 kill'd 2.50 wounded & 
2.0 taken Prisoners, among the Dead was the Brave L* 
Col?s Colborn & Adams & Cap? Bell U Thomas 35 all of 
Newhampshire, the Loss of those Brave men are very 
greatly Lamented in the Army, But as it was a Debt that 
they & Every one owe their Country I Beleave they Paid 
it with Cherefullness. — the Loss the Enimy Sustaind this 
Day from Best Accounts, was about 300 kill'd & 500 
wounded & about 2.0 Prisoners. 36 on this Day has Been 

yi.. Col. Joseph Cilley ( d. 1799) commanded the 1st New Hampshire regiment. 
Heitman, op. cit. t 155. 

33. Col. Nathan Hale ( d. 1780) commanded the 2.nd New Hampshire regiment. 
He had been captured at Hubbardton on July 7, and he died in prison. Ibid., i.6j. 

34. Although the British had been driven back through the woods by Dearborn 
and Morgan, Burgoyne rallied them and made a second attack, reinforced by Riedesel 
with fresh troops. The Continentals were finally driven in towards their center, only 
after they had taken a heavy toll with their superior marksmanship. Nickerson, 
op. cit., 307-19. 

35. Lt. Col. Andrew Colburn of the 3rd New Hampshire regiment; Lt. Col. Winborn 
Adams of the znd New Hampshire regiment; Capt. Frederick M. Bell of the same, who 
is reported as having died of his wounds on Oct. 9; Lt. Joseph M. Thomas (not Dear- 
born's ensign on the Quebec expedition) of the 3rd regiment. Heitman, op. cit., passim. 

36. Nickerson's figures are nearly 600 British killed, wounded, or taken, and 310 
Americans similarly lost. Nickerson, op. cit., 319. 

1777 1 The Burgoyne Campaign 107 

fought one of the Greatest Battles that Ever was fought 
in Amarrca, & I Trust we have Convincd the British 
Butchers that the Cowardly yankees Can & when their 
is a Call for it, will, fight — 

2.0 th We Expect a General Battle this Day, — but No 
fighting, to Day — 

n c the Enimy have Retired about 1 mile from the 
field of Battle & are fortifying, our army are also for- 
tifying — 

2_2. d we hourly Expect a General Battle. 

2.3 d about 100 Onyda Indians who Joind us the Next 
Day after the Battle, have Brought in more or Less Pris- 
oners Every Day — 

14 th A Conciderable Body of Millitia have Joind us to 
Day from Different Parts — 

15 th we supprisd a Small Piquit of the Enimies — 

2.6 th we toock 18 Prisoners this Day — 

2.7 th Nothing New to Day — 

2.8 th Several Deserters Came in from the Enimy. 

X9 th 10 Deserters Came in — 

30 th 7 Prisoners Ware Brought in this morning — Our 
Camp was Allarm'd this morning By hearing that the 
Enimy ware Comeing out in three Collums to attact us, 
our army in General seem anxious for an other Battle. 
No fighting to Day — our army has Been Reinforcd since 
the Battle of the 19 th Ins^ with at Least 3000 Millitia 
who appear in high spirits. 37 

Octob r i c 1777 this month Begins with Pleasant 
weather & a fine Prospect Before us, & if M? Burguoyne 
& his army are Not subdued this month, it will [not] be 
for want of spirit in us, or for the want of that Divine 
Assistence which has Not faild us heretofore. 

37. Of this number 1,000 were the troops under Gen. Lincoln who joined Gates; 
the others were militia coming in from New England and New York. Ibid., 32.6. 

108 Journals of Henry Dearborn [1777 

2_ d we toock about 40 Prisoners, we had also a Body 
of Millitia Joind in. 

3 d we toock several Prisoners. 
4 th Several Deserters Came to us. 

5 we toock a Number of Prisoners. 

6 I went out a scout with Col? Morgan & 800 men. we 
went in the Rear of the Enimy toock 7 Prisoners & as we 
Returnd, Night Comeing on, together with a heavy 
Rain, we got Bewildered in the woods & Stayd all Night. 

7 th we Came in this morning from our scout & By the 
Time we had Refresh'd our Selves, which was about 12. 
O Clock we found a Body of the Enimy ware Advancing 
towards our Lines, the Rifle men & Light Infantry ware 
sent Immediately Round upon their Right flank. Some 
other Regiments ware sent out to meet them, a scatter- 
ing fire Commencd of Both Cannon & musketry, & about 
3 O Clock Scammells Cilleys & Hales Rigements formed 
a line at yi after 3 & about 4 O Clock the Battle Began 
Between the 3 Last mentioned Regime nts & the Enimys 
main Body — we with the Rifle men & Light Infantry 
fell on upon the Enimys Right flank & Partly in their 
Rear, which soon Obliged them to Quit their heavy Ar- 
tillery & a Conciderable Number of waggons with Am- 
onition & other stores & at the same time finding us in 
their Rear, their main Body Gave way, Leaving several 
other Peices of Cannon, they then all Retreeted with 
great Precepitation & Confusion, we followed them 
about ^ of a mile in which they attempted several times 
to make a stand But Could Not until they got within 
their out Lines, in this time we ware Reinforcd By sev- 
eral Regiments, Immediately after the Enimy got into 
their out works we attackd & Carried them, found their 
Tents standing & several Peices of Artillery in their 
Lines, & several field officers & a Number of officers & 

1777 1 The Burgoyne Campaign 109 

soldiers, the Enimy Retired Down Near the River into 
their strongest works: 38 — we toock to Day Si r Frances 
Clark wounded, Adedecamp to Genr! Burguoyn, Maj r 
Aclan 39 of the granedeers, Maj r Williams of the artillery, 
& several Hushen field Officers & several other officers of 
Different Rank. & about 2.40 Rank & file, their loss in 
kill'd was very Conciderable, among which was Genr! 
Fraser 4 ° — Our Loss was very inconsiderable Except 
that of Genr! Arnold's Receiveing a wound in his Leg in 
forceing the Enemies Lines. 41 we Remain'd all Night in 
their Lines, we toock 8 Peices of Brass Cannon to Day 
in the whole 1 of which ware Double fortify'd 12. Pounds. 
8 th this morning the Rifle men & Light Infantry & sev- 
eral other Rigements march'd in the Rear of the Enimy 
Expecting they ware Retreeting But found they ware 
Not. there has Been scurmishing all Day in which 
Genr! Lincoln 41 got wounded in the Leg. a Large Num- 
ber of the Enimy Deserted to us to Day — 

38. In this second battle of Freeman's Farm, Dearborn played an important part. 
Morgan's riflemen had struck first at the British right flank and routed it. Then they 
moved around to the enemy's rear. The British right began changing front to oppose 
them when Dearborn's riflemen broke up this counter move and drove them back. 
Meanwhile the British left had given way, and Arnold was leading a brigade against 
the center. In less than an hour Burgoyne's advance detachment of 1500 was in wild 
flight back to their breastworks, and during the night the British began a general 
retreat. Ibid., 361-70. 

39. Sir Francis Clarke died of his wounds; he was shot while carrying Burgoyne's 
order to retreat, and the order did not get through. Major John Dyke Acland, who 
had commanded the grenadiers on the British left, was captured; he died the following 
year as a result of a duel. Ibid., 361, 364. 

40. Brig. Gen. Simon Fraser (V. 172.9- 1777) had served with the Scots brigade in 
Holland, and with other regiments at Louisburg and Quebec. He was a close friend 
of Burgoyne and one of his ablest officers. His effectiveness in this battle was such 
that Arnold asked Morgan to order his best sharpshooters to pick him off. One of 
them succeeded, and Fraser died the next morning. Ibid., 116-7, 363. 

41. Arnold had his horse killed under him and his leg broken by the last volley 
fired by the Germans as they retreated. This was the same leg that had been wounded 
at Quebec. Arnold was carried back to the American camp. Ibid., 367. 

41. Benjamin Lincoln (1733-1810) had been a militia officer in Massachusetts and a 
member of the Provincial Congress before the Revolution. Appointed a brigadier- 
general early in 1776, he commanded the militia regiments supporting Washington 

no Journals of Henry Dearborn [ 1777 

9 th this morning we found the Enimy had Evaquated 
the whole of their Lines & had Left about 500 Sick & 
wounded on the ground & a Considerable Quantity of Pro- 
visions, the Rifle men & Light Infantry ware sent Im- 
mediately to take Possession of their works we march. d 
about one mile above their Lines & a heavy Rain Comeing 
on we Stay.d all Night, the Enimy March. d about 4 
miles & Incampd Near Saratoga, where they found Genr! 
Fellows 43 with a body of Millitia in their front — 

10 th there is some Cannonadeing at Saratoga this morn- 
ing Between M' Burguoyn & Genr! Fellows, our army 
march. d this morning for Saratoga where we found the 
Enimy in great Confusion, they had Left Large Quan- 
tity of Baggage Scattered along the Rode & 1 Brass 12. 
Pounder which they Had Buried in the ground — But 
was found A heavy Cannonadeing was kept up all Day 
— & a scattering fire of musketry — 

11 th this morning at Day Break the Rifle men & Light 
Infantry, march. d over fish Creek, 44 & fell in with the 
Enimys guards in a thick fogg, who kill.d 1 L* of ours & 1 
men, we then found our selves Close to the Enimy works 
where their whole Army Lay & we about 400 strong, the 
Enimy on one side & a River which we had Cross. d on 
scattering Logs on the other side, we Remain. d in this 
situation about 2. hours Before we ware Reinforc.d. we 

around New York. The next year he was made a major-general in the Continental 
service and commanded the Vermont militia that attacked Burgoyne's detachment 
near Bennington. The wound here mentioned kept him out of service for ten months; 
then he was given command of the army in the southern department. In May, 1780, 
he and his army were captured at Charleston, S. C. Exchanged in November, he 
rejoined Washington and participated in the siege of Yorktown. From 1781 to 1783 
he was Secretary of War. Diet. Am. Biog., XI, 2.59-61. 

43. Gates had posted two bodies of militia to block Burgoyne's northward retreat. 
The Massachusetts contingent of 1300 was under Brig. Gen. John Fellows ( d. 1808), 
who was ordered to march down the Hudson and post his troops at Saratoga. When 
Burgoyne approached the latter place, Fellows crossed the river and took up a stronger 

44. Fish Creek was just below the British defences at Saratoga. 

1777 H The Burgoyne Campaign hi 

Ware then Reinforcd with Genr! Larnards Brigade, the 
Enimy Began a Brisk Canonade upon us, kill.d Several 
men But we held the ground & Began to heave up up 
some works, we toock a Number of Prisoners to Day — 
this afternoon Genr! Poors & Patterson's Brigade 45 Came 
over fish Creek with some field Peices & Joind us — 

11 th Matters Stand much as they Did yesterday, about 
10 Deserters Came in to Day, — the Rifle men & Light In- 
fantry toock Post in the Rear of the Enimy & incamp.d — 

13 th the Light Troops mooved to the main River 46 in 
the Rear of the Enimy, Left some small Parties to watch 
the Roads & paths while the Remainder of Light Troops 
Reconoytered the Enimys Camp, we toock 15 Prisoners 
and went to what is Call.d Jones. s mill, & Eat. Break- 
fast, & then moovd Down Near Genr! Poors Brigade 
who Lay on the Enimys Right wing & Partly in their 
rear & incamp.d. A heavy Cannonade is kept up on Both 
sides [to] Day & a scattering fire of muskettry — 

14 th at 10 O Clock to Day a flag Came from Genr! Bur- 
guoyn with some Proposels of Caputilation in Consi- 
quence of which a Sessation of armes was agreed on un- 
til Sun Set in which Time Several flags Pass.d Between 
Genr! Gates & Burguoyne — 

15 th in Consiquence of the flags yesterday, a Sessation 
of Arms is agreed on to Day — 

16 th there is a Caputilation agreed on — . 

17 th this Day the Great M^ Burguoyn with his whole 
Army Surrendered themselves as Prisoners of war with 
all their Publick Stores, & after Grounding their armes, 
march. d of[f] for New England, the greatest Conquest 
Ever known. 

45. John Paterson (1744-1808) was appointed a brigadier-general in February, 1777. 
After the Saratoga campaign, he rejoined Washington at Valley Forge and spent most 
of the rest of the war on the Hudson. Diet. Am. Biog., XIV, 2.92-3. 

46. Hudson River. 

H2. Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1777 

the following is a True account of Britons Loss in the 
Northern Department in america this year at huberton, 47 
fort Ann, Benington, fort Stanwix, Still water & Sara- 
toga &c &c in kill.d wounded & taken in the whole 
10x50 men & 47 Peices of Brass Artillery Besides a vast 
Quantity of Stores Baggag &c. 

18 th the whole Army are Ordered to march Down the 
River towards Albany to Day, & Haveing Intiligence on 
the Rode that Genrl Clinton 48 was Indeavouring to git 
up to Albany & Burn it as he has Assopus 49 & other 
Places, we ware ordered to march to Albany to Night 
which is 38 miles where we arivd at 12 Clock At Night 
but Did Not see M r Clinton — 

19 th we incamp.d on the hights about Albany to Day. 

2.0 th Nothing Extreordinery to Day — 

2.1? 2.2. d 2.3 d there is Some Cloathing Drawing for the men . 

2.4 th Col? Morgan march. d this Day with the Rifle men 
for the Southward & Genr! Poors Brigade Cross. d the 
River & march. d Down toward fish kill 50 — 

2.5 & 2.6 I Lay at Albany with the Light Infantry 
Nothing Extreordinery happened Except that of gitting 
some Cloaths. 

47. Hubbardton, Rutland co., Vermont. This engagement took place on July 7, 
1777, between the British forces under Fraser and Riedesel and the Continentals under 
St. Clair, during which the latter were defeated. Nickerson, op. cit., 149, ff. 

48. Sir Henry Clinton (1738-1795) had come to America a major-general with 
Howe and Burgoyne to assist Gage. After seeing action at Bunker Hill, he attempted 
to capture Charleston, S. C, but failed. He participated in the battle of Long Island. 
Left in command at New York when Howe sailed off to Philadelphia in 1777, 
he was without sufficient strength to help Burgoyne in his plight at Saratoga, 
although he did capture the forts up the Hudson early in October. He sent a force to 
Esopus, New York, which threatened Albany, but was too late to aid Burgoyne, 
who had already begun negotiations for a surrender. Clinton succeeded Howe as com- 
mander-in-chief in May, 1778. He resigned his command early in 1782.. Diet. Nat. 
Biog., IV, 551-2.. 

49. Esopus, Ulster co., N. Y., stood about 5 miles west of the Hudson River on the 
left bank of Esopus Kill and about 3 miles southwest of Kingston. 

50. Fish Kill, Dutchess co., N. Y., is 5 miles east of the Hudson River on a creek 
of the same name. It is 7 miles northeast of Newburgh and about 84 miles south of 

1777 1 The Burgoyne Campaign 113 

17 th this Day a very heavy Rain Came on which con- 
tinued until the 19* it is Said So heavy a Rain was Never 
known here Before — 

30 th this Day I march. d with the Light Infantry Down 
the River 12. miles to a Place Call.d Quemens 51 & 
incamp.d — 

31* this Day Genr! Glover. s, 52 - & Genr! Pattessons Bri- 
gades march. d Down & incamp.d at Quemens — 

Novem' i c I have fine weather, good Quarters & good 
Liveing which is Something New to me — 

2. d as yesterday — 

4D — 


7 I went to albany to Day to See Genr! Gates, the 
Light Infantry under my Command are Dismisd this Day 
& I Set Sail for fish kill — 

8 th on my way to fish kill — 

9 th D°— 

10 th ariv.d at fish kill & Joind my Regiment — 

11 th we are Prepareing to march for Philadelphia. 

12. as yesterday. 

13 we march. d to Pecks kill. 53 

14 we Crossd kings ferry & incamp'd. 54 

Albany. This place should not be confused with Fish Kill Creek near Saratoga 
(Schuylerville), New York. 

51. Coeymans, Albany co., N. Y., on the west bank of the Hudson River, 13 miles 
below Albany. 

52.. John Glover (1732.-1797) of Massachusetts was commissioned a brigadier-gen- 
eral in February, 1777. After Burgoyne's surrender Glover conducted the British pris- 
oners to Cambridge. He served in Rhode Island and was later stationed at West Point. 
Diet. Am. Biog. t VII, 331—2.. 

53. Peekskill, Westchester co., N. Y., on the east bank of the Hudson River, 17 
miles below Fishkill and about 42. miles from New York City. 

54. Kings Ferry operated between Verplank's Point on the east bank of the Hudson, 
3 miles below Peekskill, to Stony Point on the opposite side. 

ii4 Journals of Henry Dearborn [ 1777 

15 march. d to Suffinene 55 18 miles & incampd. 

16 th march. d 18 miles & incampd. 

17 th marchd to Morristown. 

18 th march. d 12. miles. 

19 th march. d 16 miles. 

zo th Cross. d the River Dilaware. 56 

zi march. d 14 miles. 

zz we Joind the main army at white marsh. 57 

2.3 d Nothing New. 

Z4 Nothing Extrordinery. 

15 D? 


z 7 D? 


z 9 D? 

30 D? 

Decern 1 " 1 we have very Poor Living. 

2. d Nothing New. 

3 d D? 


55. Suffern, southwest of Stony Point, near the Jersey boundary. 

56. Dearborn's regiment probably crossed the Delaware near the mouth of Smith 
Creek, either by Coxe's Ferry or by way of the ford just below Smith Creek. 

57. White Marsh, n miles north by west of Philadelphia, the site of Washington's 


Operations in the Middle 

leaving Burgoyne to face alone the disgrace of surrender at 
Saratoga, Howe embarked his army from New York and sailed 
for the Delaware River. He captured Philadelphia and there- 
after repulsed Washington s efforts to dislodge him from the 
city. The Continental army went into camp at Valley Forge 
poorly equipped and underfed; but early in the spring of iyj8 it 
was cheered by the news that France had joined the American 
colonies against Great Britain. Howe was replaced as comman- 
der-in-chief by Clinton, who ordered the army back to New York. 
Washington followed the British troops as they marched across 
New Jersey and engaged them in an indecisive action at Free- 
hold, or Monmouth Court House. 

The British moved into New York City and Washington went 
into camp in the vicinity of White Plains. Later that summer an 
unsuccessful attempt was made to drive the British garrison out of 
Newport, Rhode Island. Clinton next dispatched an expedition 
to invade the South. In the winter of iyyg Washington stationed 
his army in camps extending from the Connecticut River, 
through the highlands of the Hudson, to the New Jersey coast. 

DECEIVE 5 th 1777 
I this morning we ware allarm'd at 4 O clock by 
hearing that the Enemy ware advancing, in con- 
siquince of which the whole army Turnd out, & form'd 

JI 5 

n6 Journals of Henry Dearborn [ ^177 

the Lines of battle, & Sent the baggage of the army back 
out of Camp. — at 9 O Clock some scurmishing hapened 
at Chesnut Hill 1 3 miles from our front between the En- 
imys advanc'd Party & a Party of Millitia in which we 
Lost Genr! Arving 2 - who was taken Prisoner — the En- 
imy advanc'd no further we Remaind all Day on our 
Posts, at Evining we Shifted our ground a Little & 
Incamp'd — 

6 th we Lay all Day Loocking at one or the other 
7 th we form'd our Lines at 6 O Clock & at 7 the allarm 
guns ware fir'd by finding that the Enimy ware advanc- 
ing very Rapedly upon our Left wing, but at 8 O Clock 
Several deserters came in who inform'd us that the En- 
imy ware Retreeting towards Germantown, 3 this after 
noon we found that the Retreet which we heard the 
Enimy ware making this morning was in fact Shifting 
their ground from our Right wing to our Left & ad- 
vanc'd within ^ of a mile of our front Line in Conse- 
quence of which Some Scurmish hapened, when our 
Rifle men gave a Party of them a Severe Drubing — we 
hourly Expect a General Ingagement. — Near Night 
I was ordered out with our Regiment to attact the 
Enimys Cavelry, but found them so strongly Posted 
that I Could Not attack* them without too great a 
Resk — the whole army Lay to Night upon their arms. 

1. On the night of December 4, Howe moved out of Philadelphia with most of his 
army. His intention was to drive Washington out of his lines at White Marsh and 
force him beyond the hills. Howe was met by Washington's advance under Gen. Irvine 
at Chestnut Hill, 10 miles out of Philadelphia. But Irvine's Pennsylvania militia were 
driven back to the army's main lines. After looking things over, Howe decided that 
Washington's position was too strong to attack, and after spending four days trying 
to lure him into the open, he gave up and returned to Philadelphia. 

z. James Irvine ( d. 1819), colonel of the znd Pennsylvania regiment, had been 
brigadier-general of the Pennsylvania militia since August. He was captured during 
Howe's advance on Chestnut Hill and not exchanged until June 1, 1781, when he was 
made major-general of the Pennsylvania Militia. Heitman, op. cit., 314. 

3. Germantown lay six miles north northwest of Independence Hall, between 
Philadelphia and Washington's position at White Marsh. 

1 77711 The Middle Colonies 117 

Expecting that they would attact us in the Night with 
fix'd bayonets — 

8 th the Two armies Lay this morning as yesterday this 
after noon the Enimy began to Retreet we at first sup- 
posed they ware only indeavouring to Draw us off of our 
ground, but at Dark we found they had Retreeted into 
Philadelphia, — which must Convince the world that 
M r How 4 Did not Dare to fight us unless he Could have 
the advantage of the ground — 

9 th we are all Quiet to Day & our Tents are Ordered 
into Camp. — 

10 th as yesterday — 

11 th This morning at 4 O Clock the whole army ware 
Ordered to Strike Tents & Parade Redy to march when 
Ordered — at 6-0 Clock We march'd & at 9 we begun to 
cross the Schuylkill on a Bridg about 14 miles from Phil- 
adelphia, & when Genr! Wain's 5 Division had Cross'd we 
found the Enimy had got Possession of the heights Near 
the bridg & ware so strongly Posted that it was Thought 
best for Genr! Wain to Retreet back over the bridg. the 
whole Army form'd in Lines of Battle & Remain 'd so 
untill Near Night & then march'd about five miles up 
the River to a Place Calld Sweeds ford. 6 & incamp'd — 

12. this fournoon we built a bridg with waggons across 
the Schuylkill for the army to Cross on but Near Night 
finding the Enimy had moov'd from the Ground they 

4. Sir William Howe, the British commander-in-chief. 

5. Anthony Wayne (1745-1796) had supported the American retreat from Canada 
in 1776 and then commanded the garrison at Fort Ticonderoga. Appointed a brigadier- 
general in 1777, he took command of the Pennsylvania line. He was active in the 
battles of Brandywine and Germantown. At the battle of Monmouth, Wayne led 
the advance attack. Transferred to the command of a corps of light infantry, Wayne 
captured Stony Point in July, 1779. In 1781 he served under Lafayette in Virginia. 
After Yorktown, Wayne went to Georgia with Greene for the final hostilities of the 
war. He again took the field in 1793 t0 defeat the Indians in the Northwest. Diet. 
Am. Biog., XIX, 563-5. 

6. Swedes Ford was at or near the site of Swedes Ford bridge at Swedeland Station, 
15 miles from Philadelphia. 

n8 Journals of Henry Dearborn C1777 

had Lately Occupied the whole army march'd Down to 
the bridg which we began to Cross yesterday & Cross'd 
over & toock Possession of some Heights & incamp'd — 
11 heshins ware taken to Day 

13 th we Lay still to Day — the Enimy have Retreeted 
into Philadelphia — 

14 this fournoon we are all Quiet — this after Noon a 
Party of the Enemys Light Horse & some Light Troops 
Came with in 3 or 4 miles of us & Carried off some Liq- 
uers from a Tavern. 

15 we have fine weather for the season. 

16 th the weather is Cold & wet which renders our Liv- 
ing in Tents very uncomfortable. 11 Prisoners ware 
Brought in to Day. — 

17 th the weather Remains very uncomfortable — our 
General Officers are Consulting what winter Quarters we 
are to have which I fear will be very Poor — 

18 th the weather still Remains uncomfortable — this 
is Thanksgiving Day thro the whole Continent of Amer- 
ica 7 — but god knows We have very Little to keep it with 
this being the third Day we have been without flouer or 
bread — & are Living on a high uncultivated hill, in huts 
& tents Laying on the Cold Ground, upon the whole I 
think all we have to be thankful for is that we are alive 
& not in the Grave with many of our friends — we had 
for thanksgiving breakfast some Exceeding Poor beef 
which has been boil.d & Now warm.d in an old short 
handled frying Pan in which we ware Obliged to Eat it 
haveing No other Platter — I Dined & sup.d at Genr! 
Sulivans 8 to Day & so Ended thanksgiving — . 

7. A resolution recommending that the states set apart December 18 for a day of 
thanksgiving was passed by the Continental Congress on November i, in consequence 
of the victory over Burgoyne. Journals of the Continental Congress, IX, 854. 

8. John Sullivan (1740-1795) was commissioned a brigadier-general in 1775. He 
served in the siege of Boston and for a short while commanded the American forces 

I 777"7^H The Middle Colonies 119 

19 the army marched about 5 mile & incamp.d Near a 
height where we are to build huts to Live in this winter. 9 

2.0 th we are making Preperation for huting. 

2.1? as yesterday — 

2_i d Nothing New — 

X3 d we have began to build huts — 

2.4 a Party of our Light hors & some Rifle men toock 10 
of the Enimies Light hors men & 13 horses to Day — 

15 th we have Not so mery a Crismus as I have seen — 
the weather warm & Rayny. 

2.6 the whole army are very busy in building huts — ■ 

2.7 as yesterday — 

2.8 th Snowey Last night & to Day — 

X9 th the weather is very Cold & we have not Done 
building Huts yet — 

30 th I think the weather is as Cold here as it is in New 
England — 

3i c Nothing Extreordinery to Day: we are Still Living 
in Tents, Covered with Snow, this year 1777 has not 
Closed without somthing very Extreordinery. s Turning 
up — having Obtaind Leave from Genr! Washington I 
intend to set out for home Next Sunday. God Grant me a 
happy sight of my friends — 

January i c 1778 this year begins with Pleasent Weather, 
may it Prove Ominus of a Happy year for America — 

retreating from Canada. Promoted to the rank of major-general in August, 1776, he 
was captured by the British at Long Island, but was soon exchanged. He was with 
Washington in the attacks on Trenton and Princeton. Active in opposing Howe 
before Philadelphia in 1777, he spent the winter at Valley Forge. In 1779 he took 
command of the drive against the British at Newport. He began the siege, but 
D'Estaing's supporting fleet was dispersed by a storm. Sullivan led an expedition into 
western New York against the Indians and Loyalists in 1779. On his return eastward 
he had to resign because of ill health. Diet. Am. Bzog., XVIII, i^t.-}. 

9. The encampment at Valley Forge was bounded on the north by the Schuylkill 
River and on the west by Valley Creek. The only approaches, from the south and 
east, were protected by strong lines of entrenchments. The strength of Washington's 
position was such that no attempt was made against it during the entire winter, even 
though Howe was aware of the impoverished condition of the Continental army. 

izo Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1778 

2_ d the weather Remains Pleasent. our Brigade is Mus- 
tered to Day — 

3 d I Receivd my Commission this Day as L* C0I? 10 to 
Col? Scammell — 

4 th I set out for home the weather very moderate — 

5 th the Traviling is Exceeding bad — 

6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th the weather & Traviling Remains as it 
was — 

10 I am at Danbury. 11 about 6 inches of Snow fell to 

11 th the Traviling is better, the weather cold. 

12.*- I Bought a Slay to-Day & have very good Travil- 

13 th 14 th 15 th 16 th 17 th have fine slaying— 

18 th at 2. Clock P. M. I arivd safe home, 11 & found all 

Aprill 2.2_ d 1778 Set out for Camp & ariv'd there the 12. 
Day of May at valey Forge — 

[May] 15 th I am P [resident of a Brigade Coart Marc! 
for the Tryal of Cap? Clays 13 he was aquited with 

16 I am Field Officer of the Day 

17 th I Dined at Genr! Washingtons 

18 Nothing New — 

10. Although Dearborn did not receive his commission as lieutenant-colonel of the 
3rd New Hampshire regiment until this day, his promotion dated from September 
I 9> I 777- He succeeded Lt. Col. Andrew Colburn, who was mortally wounded on 
September 19, 1777. Heitman, op. cit., 41, 190. 

11. Danbury, Connecticut, about 30 miles west northwest of New Haven, 
ix. His home was still in Nottingham, Rockingham co., New Hampshire. 

13. Capt. Elijah Clayes of the xnd New Hampshire regiment. He died in 1779. No 
mention of Clayes or his court-martial is made in Washington's correspondence or 
general orders. Heitman, op. cit., 159. 

I 77^H The Middle Colonies hi 

19 a Detatchment of zcoo men march'd out to Day 
Commanded by Marques Le fiete. 14 this day we are as- 
sured of Receiving 7 years Half Pay. 15 

xo th this morning at 8 o Clock we ware alarmd & the 
whole army Turnd out — in Consequence of hearing that 
the Detatchment that march'd yesterday are Surrounded 
by 7000 brittish Troops & no other way for them to Es- 
cape but by fording the Schuylkill which was Perform. d 
in Sight of the Enimy. the army Lay under armes until 
night When rinding that the Enimy after a small scurm- 
ish with a Party of our Anydo Indions 16 Retired into 
Philadelphia it was a very Luckey afair on our side, that 
we Did not Loose our whole Detatchment, our only 
Loss was 6 of my frenchmen. — 

n r Nothing very Extreordinery Except that Genr! 
Lee 17 & Genr! Arnold have both arivd in Camp to the 
great joy of the army. — 

14. Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (1757- 
1834), although from a titled and wealthy family and a captain in the French army, 
became so enthusiastic over the American cause that he volunteered his services and 
arrived in this country in June, 1777. Commissioned a major-general, but given no 
command, he joined Washington's staff. He was wounded at Brandywine, and after 
recovering was given command of the Virginia light troops. He spent the winter at 
Valley Forge. His sortie on May 19, 1778, resulted only in his escaping capture by a 
larger British force. He returned to France early in 1779, ^ ut came back the next year 
and rejoined Washington. In 1781 he acted with Gen. Greene in the southern cam- 
paign that ended the war. Diet. Am. Biog., X, 535-9. 

15. On May 15, 1778, the Continental Congress unanimously resolved that all 
commissioned officers should receive half pay for the first seven years after the war. 
Non-commissioned officers and privates were to be awarded $80 bonus at the end of 
the war. Journals of the Continental Congress, XI, 501. 

16. The Oneidas and Tuscaroras, thanks to their personal attachment to the Rev. 
Samuel Kirkland, were for the most part friendly to the American cause. Many of 
the former volunteered to act as scouts for the Continental army. Winsor, op. cit., 
VI,6x 3 ,#. 

17. Charles Lee (1731-1782.) joined the British army in 1747 and fought in America 
during the French and Indian War. Later he served in the Polish army, but returned 
to America in 1773 afl d supported the American cause. At the outbreak of war he was 
appointed major-general, and served at Boston and in Charleston, S. C In December, 
1776, he was captured by a British patrol in New Jersey and seems to have given 
Howe information about the American army. Exchanged in 1778, he rejoined the 
army. His conduct at Monmouth brought to an end his military career. He was court- 

1 2.x Journals of Henry Dearborn Q 1778 

X2_ d the Marquis with his Detatchm* Returnd to Camp 
this afternoon. 

X3 d Nothing New to Day. 

:14 th we here from Philadelphia to Day that a Frigate 
arivd there yesterday in 2.1 Days from Britan which 
brings News of a battle fought at sea between the French 
& English in which the English Came of[f] second best in 
Loosing two 60 gun ships; — & that the Troops are or- 
dered to hold them selves Redy to Imbark at a munites 
warning. — 

2.5 th Nothing New. — 

2.6 th we Hourly Expect to Hear that the Enimy have 
Lift Philadelphia. I have the fever & ague to Day. 

2.7 th Nothing New. — 

2.8 I am very Sick — 

2.9 I take a Puke to Day. — 
30 th I am better. 

31* we are yet in suspence Respecting the Enimy. s go- 
ing from Philadelphia 

June i l more or Less Deserters from the Enimy Every 

2. d Nothing New. — 

3 d D° 


5 I have got the better of the fever & ague. — 

6 the Enimy have sent of[f] the most of their baggage 
down the River. 

7 Lord Cornwallis 18 with the Cormissioners for make- 
ing Peace between Great Brittan & America have ariv.d 
in Philadelphia. — 

martialed, found guilty, but was only suspended from the army. Diet. Am. Biog. t 
XI, 98-101. 

18. Charles Cornwallis, ist Marquis and znd Earl Cornwallis (1738-1805), had been 
a Whig in Parliament. He came to America a major-general in 1776 and joined Howe 
at Halifax. He took part in the operations around Long Island, White Plains and New 

1778] The Middle Colonies 1x3 

8 Nothing New. — 

9 th the New arangement of the army has ariv'd from 
Congress. 19 

10 th the whole army moov'd out of Huts into tents to 
Day, about one Mile in front of our old incampment, for 
the sake of fresh Air; — 

11 th this Day I sent a Letter Home which is the 
first I have had an oppertunity of sending since I Left 
Home. — 

11 th Nothing Extreordinery to Day. — 

13 th D?— 

14 D° 

15 D° 

16 D° 

17 we hear that the Enimy are Crossing the River 10 
over into the Jerseys — 

18 this four noon we are Assured that the Enimy have 
Lift Philadelphia & our advanced Parties have taken 
Possession. Genr! Lees Division is ordered to march Im- 
mediately for Corells ferry. 2 " 1 & at 3 O Clock we march. 

Jersey. After his victory at Brandywine in 1777, he went home. As Dearborn notes, 
he returned in 1778 as a lieutenant-general and second in command to Clinton. Although 
not a member of the Carlisle commission, he arrived with the peace commissioners, 
who, of course, failed in their effort to negotiate a treaty. After marching with 
Clinton from Philadelphia to New York, Cornwallis again left for England, because 
of the illness of his wife. He returned to America in August, 1779, participated in 
the siege of Charleston and was left in command in the southern department. His 
march northward in 1781 resulted in his surrender at Yorktown. Diet. Nat. Biog., 
IV, 1159-61. 

19. The new arrangement of the American army (regulating size and organization 
of battalions, the number and rank of officers for each, etc.,) was resolved upon in 
the Continental Congress May 2.7, 1778. One reason for it was the dissatisfaction of 
American officers with foreign volunteers who had been promoted over their heads. 
Journals of the Continental Congress , XI, 538-43, 570. 

10. The British crossed the Delaware River at Coopers Ferry in Philadelphia, on 
their way to Sandy Hook. 

2.1. Coryell's Ferry ran from New Hope, Pa., to Lambertville, N. J. The encamp- 
ment was made at Amwell, N. J., three miles from the ferry. W. S. Myers, ed., Stryker's 
Battle of Monmouth (Princeton, 192.7), 60-9. 

1X4 Journals of Henry Dearborn [1778 

his Division Consists of three brigades viz: Poors, Hunt- 
ingtons 2 " 2- & Varnoms. 2 " 3 — 

2.0 th we Cross. CorrelP ferry & Proceeded 3 miles & 

2.1* we Lay still, we hear the whole Army are on their 
way into the Jerseys, we hear the Enimy are on their 
way to New york, Govener Livingston 14 of Jersey has 
taken the field with 5000 millitia. 

X2_ d our Whole army Incamp.d about 3 miles from Cor- 
reels Ferry in Jersey. 

X3 d the army march'd to Day towards the Enimy 10 
miles, without Baggage, & Incamp'd at Hopewell. 2 - 5 

i4 th a Detatchment of 1500 Pick'd men was taken to 
Day from the army to be Commanded by Brigadier Genr! 
Scot 2 " 6 who are to act as Light Infantry Dureing the stay 
of the Enimy In Jersey. Col? Cilley & I am in one Reg* of 
the Light Infantry — Genr! Scot march'd to Day to- 
wards the Enimy, who are at Allin Town 2-7 14 miles from 
Prince Town, we march'd thro Prince Town & Pro- 
ceeded 3 miles towards allin Town & Incamp'd we have 
no Tents or baggage — l8 

12.. Jedediah Huntington (1743-1818) of Connecticut was made a brigadier-general 
in May, 1777. Diet. Am. Biog., IX, 416-7. 

2.3. James M. Varnum (1 748-1 789) of Rhode Island was made a brigadier-general 
in February, 1777. He was under Sullivan at Newport in 1778. He resigned in March, 
1779, but was commissioned a major-general of Rhode Island militia. Ibid., XIX, 2.2.7. 

14. William Livingston (1713-1790), a lawyer and Whig, commanded the New 
Jersey militia in 1776 and the same year was elected first governor of his state, which 
office he held for 14 years. Ibid., XI, 32.5-7. 

15. Hopewell, Mercer co., N. J., 10 miles from the ferry and 14 miles north of 

16. Charles Scott ( d. 1813) was colonel of the 5th Virginia regiment and a brig- 
adier-general. He was captured at Charleston in 1780 and was a prisoner on parole 
when the war ended. Heitman, op. cit., 485. 

17. Allentown, Monmouth, co., N. J., 10 miles southeast of Princeton. Washing- 
ton's main body was then about 19 miles from Howe's army. 

z8. On June n, Washington issued orders from Coryell's Ferry regarding the bag- 
gage. Anticipating a rapid march and an early engagement with the enemy, he ordered 
the tents and heavy baggage separated from the army for a few days. Every able man 

I 77^H The Middle Colonies 115 

15 th this morning we march. d within 5 miles of the 
Enimy — & Halted & Drew Provision. Sent a small Party 
of Horse to Reconoightir the Enimy. at 12. O Clock we 
ware Inform. d that the Enimy ware on their way to 
Monmouth Coart House. 2 " 9 Which is Towards Sandy 
Hoock. Our main army is Near Prince Town, we are now 
Prepared to Harress the Enimy. Genr! Scot 1500 men 
Genr! Maxwell 30 1000 Col? Morgan 500 — Genr! Dicker- 
son 31 1000 — Millitia; & xoo Horse, the above Detatchm ts 
are on the Flanks & Rear of the Enimy. Genr! Washing- 
ton is in our Rear with 12.000 men to support us — at 4 
O Clock P: M we march d to Allin Town & Incamp.d. — 
the Enimys Rear is 5 miles from us — 

2.6 th we march 'd Early this Morning after the Enimy. 
the weather is Extreemly Hot, we are Obliged to march 
very Modirate. the Enimy Desert very fast, we are Join' d 
to Day by the Marquis De lefiette with a Detatchment of 
1000 men. we advanced within three miles of the Enimy, 
& Incamp'd. the Enimy are about Monmouth Court 
House, on good Ground — 

2.7 th we march. d Early this morning within one mile of 
the Enimy & ware ordered by an Express from Genr! 
Washington to Counter March to where we Incamp'd 
Last night, & from thence to file off to English Town 32- 

was to prepare for battle. Only the sick and wounded were to be left behind to guard 
the baggage. J. C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington . . . (Wash- 
ington, 1934), XII, 105. 

2.9. Monmouth Court House or Freehold, Monmouth co., N. J., is 17 miles north- 
east of Allentown and 2.2. miles southeast of Princeton. The town contained about 40 
houses; the two most prominent buildings were the court house and the old English 
church. Myers, op. cit., 113, ff. 

30. William Maxwell ( d. 1798) was colonel of the rnd New Jersey regiment and 
in 1776 was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. He resigned from the army in 
1780. Heitman, op. cit., 385. 

31. Philemon Dickinson (1739-1809) was a major-general in the New Jersey militia. 
He worked with Gen. Maxwell in destroying bridges so as to delay Clinton's march 
while the main army came up. Diet. Am. Biog., V, 301-3. 

31. Englishtown, Monmouth co., N. J., is 5 miles northwest of Freehold. 

iz6 Journals of Henry Dearborn [1778 

(which Lay 7 miles on Our Left as we followed the En- 
imy) & their Join Genr! Lee Who was there with xooo 
men. the weather Remains very Exceeding Hot. & water 
is scarce we ariv.d at English Town about the middle of 
the Day & Incamp'd. the Enimy Remain at Monmouth. 
Genr! Washington with the Grand army Lays about 5 
mile in our Rear. Deserters Come in in Large numbers. 
2.8 th haveing Intiligence this morning before sun Rise, 
that the Enimy ware mooving, we ware Ordered, to- 
gether with the Troops Commanded by the Marquis & 
Genr! Lee (in the whole About 5000) to march towards 
the Enimy & as we thought to Attact them, at Eleven 
o Clock A. M. after marching about 6 or 7 miles we 
ariv'd on the Plains Near monmouth Court House, Where 
a Collumn of the Enimy appeard in sight, a brisk Can- 
nonade Commens'd on both sides, the Collumn which 
was advancing towards us Halted & soon Retired, but 
from some moovements of theirs we ware Convince 'd 
they Intended to fight us, shifted our ground, form.d on 
very good ground & waited to see if they Intended to 
Come on. we soon Discovered a Large Collumn Turning 
our Right. & an other Comeing up in our Front With 
Cavelry in front of both Collumns Genr! Lee was on the 
Right of our Line who Left the ground & made Tracks 
Quick Step towards English Town. Genr! Scots Detatch- 
ment Remaind on the ground we form.d on until we 
found we war very near surrounded — & ware Obliged to 
Retire which we Did in good order altho we ware hard 
Prest on our Left flank. — the Enimy haveing got a mile 
in Rear of us before we began to Retire & ware bearing 
Down on our Left as we went off & we Confin'd by a 
Morass on our Right, after Retireing about 2. miles we 
met his Excelency Genr! Washington who after seeing 
what Disorder Gen^ 1 Lee. s Troops ware in appeer'd to be 


»>. >./*/. 

I 77^H The Middle Colonies 12.7 

at a Loss whether we should be able to make a stand or 
not. however he order'd us to form on a Heighth, & In- 
devour to Check the Enimy, we form.d & about 12. 
Peices of Artillery being brought on to the hill with us: 
the Enimy at the same time advancing very Rappedly 
rinding we had form.d, they form.d in our front on a 
Ridge & brought up their Artillery within about 60 Rods 
of our front. When the brisket Cannonade Commenced on both 
sides that I Ever heard . Both Armies ware on Clear Ground. 
& if any thing Can be Call.d Musical where their is so 
much Danger, I think that was the finest musick, I Ever 
heared. however the agreeableness of the musick was very 
often Lessen 'd by the balls Coming too near — Our men 
being very much beat out with Fateague & heat which 
was very Intence, we order. d them to sit Down & Rest 
them Selves, — from the time we first met the Enimy un- 
til we had form.d as above mentioned several sevear 
scurmishes hapened at Different Places & Times, — Soon 
after the Cannonade became serious a Large Collum of 
the Enimy began to Turn our Left. Some Part of our Ar- 
tillery Play'd upon them very Briskly & they finding 
their main Body ware not advancing, halted, the Can- 
nonade Continued about i^ Hours & then the Enimy 
began to Retire from their Right. Genr! Washington be- 
ing in front of our Reg? when the Enimy began to Retire 
on their Right he ordered Col? Cilley & me with ab* 300 
men to go & attact the Enimies Right wing, which then 
was Passing thro an orchard, but when they found we 
ware about to attact them they formed & stood Redy to 
Receive us, when we ariv'd within xoo yards of them 
we form.d Batallion & advanc'd but having two Rail 
fences to take Down as we advanced, (the Last of which 
was within 60 yards of the Enimy) we Could advance but 
slowly, the Enimy when we ware takeing Down the 

1x8 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1778 

Last fence, give us a very heavy fire which we Did not 
Return, after takeing Down the Last fence we march 'd 
on with armes shoulderd Except to men who we sent on 
their Right to scurmish with them while we Pass.d the 
fences, the Enimy finding we ware Determined to Come 
to Close quarter, fil.d off from the Left & Run off upon 
our Right into a swamp & form'd in the Edge of it. we 
Wheel, d to the Right & ad vane, d towards them, they 
began a heavy fire upon us. we ware Desending toward 
them in Open field, with Shoulder'd armes until we had 
got within 4 Rods of them when our men Dress 'd very 
Coolly & we then gave them a very heavy fire from the 
whole Batallion. they had two Peices of artillery across 
a small Run which Play'd with grape very briskly upon 
us but when they found we ware Determin'd to Push 
upon them they Retreetd to their main body which was 
giving way & ware Persued by some Parties from our 
Line, we Persued until we got Possesion of the field of 
Battle, where we found 300 Dead & a Conciderable num- 
ber of wound, among the Dead was Col? Mungton 33 & a 
number of other officers, the Enimy Retire'd across a 
Morass & form'd. Our men being beat out with heat & 
fateague it was thought not Prudent to Persue them. 
Great numbers of the Enemy Died with heat & some of 
ours, we Remain'd on the field of Battle & ware to attact 
the Enimy Early Next morning but they Prevented us by 
a Precipitate Retreet in the middle of the night, they 
Left 5 Officers wounded at Monmouth Court House the 
Enimies Whole Loss in the Battle of Monmouth was 

32.7 kill'd 

500 wounded 
95 Prisoner 

33. Lt. Col. the Honorable Henry Monckton of the 45th regiment, who was in com- 
mand of the second battalion of British grenadiers. Myers, op. cit., 2.96. 

I 778!3 The Middle Colonies 12.9 

Our Loss — 63 kill'd 

-lio wounded 
here Ends the famous Battle of Monmouth. 34 

19 th we Lay Still to Recrute our men there being no 
Probibility of Coming up with the Enimy before they 
take Possession of the Heights Near Sandy Hoock 35 where 
their shipping Lay, it being but about 12. miles from 
Monmouth — 

30 th we Lay still to Day — ■ 

July i* our whole Army March. d this morning (Except 
the Jersey Troops.) to Spots wood 36 10 miles towards 
Brunswick, the weather Remains Extreemly Hot. vast 
numbers of our men fell Down with the Heat to Day & 
some Died. — 

i. d we March 'd this Morning atiO Clock in the morn- 
ing. Proceeded to Brunswick 10 miles & incamp.d. Genr! 
Lee is Arested to Day by Genr! Washington for Disobe- 
dience of orders in not attacting the Enimy & for making 
an unnessesary & shameful Retreet &c 37 A General 

34. When the British began moving from Philadelphia to New York, Washington 
marched his army north of them along a line which would eventually cross their 
route. As the enemy approached Freehold, Washington decided to attack before the 
long column could get to the coast. He sent Lee on ahead with orders to engage the 
enemy as soon as possible while the main army was brought up. On June z8 Lee ap- 
proached the enemy, but instead of attacking, he tried to surround the British force, 
meanwhile issuing positive orders to Wayne and Lafayette not to attack. Washington 
rode up in time to stop a chaotic retreat as the British line wheeled and advanced on 
Lee's command. After reprimanding Lee, Washington himself took command, order- 
ing Lee to the rear. As the main body of Washington's troops came up the British 
were driven back. During the night they retreated in haste to join their right wing 
at Middletown. For a comprehensive account of the battle, see Myers, op. cit. 

35. Sandy Hook is a sandy peninsula 6 miles long extending northward on the New 
Jersey coast, 16 miles south of New York city. It separates Sandy Hook Bay from 
the Atlantic ocean. 

36. After the battle of Monmouth, Washington made preparations to march north- 
ward, cross the Hudson and join Gates in the highlands of New York. The first day's 
march brought the army to Spotswood, Middlesex co., N. J., 10 miles northwest of 
Freehold. Writings of Washington, XII, 131 ff. 

37. Washington, himself, described it as "an unnecessary, disorderly, and shameful 
retreat." The court-martial found Lee guilty on three counts and suspended him from 
the army for one year. Ibid., XII, 133. 

130 Journals of Henry Dearborn £1778 

Coart Marcial is ordered to Set to Day for his tryal I 
Obtaind Leave to go to Morris town 38 to Day to see after 
my Baggage which Came from New hampshire together 
with some slate stone & vunegar) — 

3 d I am at Morris Town, this Day. 

4 th was Celibrated as being the Anniversary of the Dec- 
laration of the amarican Indipendince By the whole army 
being turnd out under armes. & the Artillery bing Inter- 
spers'd thro the whole army Excipt thirteen Peices which 
ware Placed on the Right of the army, the Celebration 
began with a Descharge of the 13 Cannon on the Right of 
the army Seconded by a Running fire first thro the front 
Line of Cannon & musketry & then the second Line, suc- 
seeded by three Cheers from the whole army after Pro- 
claiming Perpetual & undisturb.d Independence to the 
united States of America. 39 

5 th the Left wing of our Army marches to Day towards 
kings ferry — I go to to New Ark to Day — 

6 th the Right wing March 'd to Day. 

7 th the Rear Line March 'd to Day I Joined the Reg? at 
Springfield 40 6 mils from Elizebeth Town to Day. 

8 th we march'd 10 miles to Day to Crab Orchard 41 5 
miles from New Ark & Incamp'd. 

9 th we Lay Still to Day — 

10 th we march'd 10 miles to Slawterdam — 4X 

38. About 30 miles north of Spotswood. While Dearborn was on this errand, 
Washington moved the army to Brunswick. Ibid., XII, 148. 

39. This form of military celebration was known as a feu de joie, and the details of 
its execution were outlined in Washington's General Orders of July 4. The army was 
first paraded by the commander-in-chief. The feu de joie ended with a running fire 
throughout the ranks, followed by three cheers. 

40. Springfield, Union co., N. J., one mile from Milburn Station. 

41. Crab Orchard was situated near the 18th century settlement called Second 
River, up the Passaic River on the west side. 

41. Slawterdam, Sloterdam or Slaterdam, stood on the east bank of the Passaic 
River near the present site of Dundee Dam in Bergen County. 

I 77^H The Middle Colonies 131 

11 th March'd 10 mils to Parammus 43 & Incamp'd. 

i2_ th we Lay still to Day. we hear that a french fleet is 
on our Coast. 44 

13 th we Lay Still — 

14 th we March'd to kakaate — 45 we have the Cear- 
tenty of the french fleets being at Sandy Hoock — 

15 th we March'd to kings ferry — 

16 th we Cross 'd kings ferry — 

17 th we March'd to Peeks kill 

18 th we March'd 12. mils to Croten bridge 46 

19 th we Lay still 

xo th we March'd ix miles within 4 mils of White 
Plains 47 & Incamp.d. 

2.i c we Lay still 

2.2. d as yesterday 

2.4 th we March'd to White Plains & Incamp'd. 

15 Nothing new — 

2.6 the york Regiments are taken from Genr! Poors Bri- 
gade & Col? Hasons 48 is Put in their stod — 

2.7 th Nothing new 

2.8 th Deserters Come in Conciderable numbers 

43. Paramus, Bergen co., N. J., 1 miles from Rochelle Park. 

44. Comte D'Estaing, with 18 ships and a land force of 4,000, had reached the 
mouth of Delaware Bay on July 8. From there he sailed up to Sandy Hook. John 
Fiske, The American Revolution (Boston & New York, 1891), II, 72.. 

45. Washington spelled it Kakiate. It is now New Hempstead, Queens co., 
N. Y. 

46. The bridge spanned the Croton River near its mouth, on the road from Peekskill 
to Tarrytown. 

47. Near the present site of White Plains, in White Plains township, N. Y. It was 
here that Washington fought the British on October 2.8, 1776. 

48. Moses Hazen (1733-1803) was a French and Indian War captain of rangers. He 
settled in St. Johns, Quebec, and at the beginning of the Revolutionary War was 
suspected of Loyalist sympathies. However, he joined Montgomery's force in Canada 
and in 1776 was made colonel of the ind Canadian regiment. He helped plan a second 
invasion of Canada in 1778 which was abandoned. His regiment fought around New 
York, Philadelphia and Yorktown. Hazen was made a brigadier-general in 1781. 
Diet. Am. Biog., 477-8. 

132. Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1778 

2.9 we hear an Expedition against is form'd by Genr! 
Sulivan & Count De Stange 49 against Rode Island 50 two 
Brigades have march 'd from here for that Place — 

30 th nothing new 

3i t we hear the french fleet have taken a Large number 
of Prises & sent in to Different Ports — 

August i l Nothing new — 

2. d we hear the Enimy are block' d up in New port 51 & 
that they had been Oblig'd to burn several frigates & 
other vessels — 

3 d Nothing Extreordinary — 

4 th as yesterday 

5 th D? 

6 th D° 

7 th D° 

8 th D? 

9 th I got a fine dinner of Quohogs & Oisters to Day — 

10 th we are Dayly Expecting to hear that Newport has 
fall? into our hands with the garrison — 

11 th Nothing New — 

i2_ th as yesterday. 

49. Charles Hector, Comte D'Estaing (1719-1794), served in the East Indies as a 
brigadier-general before he entered the navy. In 1777 he was made a vice-admiral 
and the next year commanded the French fleet sent to assist the colonies. In July, 
1778. he arrived with his fleet off Sandy Hook, but being unable to get at the British 
fleet anchored in New York harbor, he sailed off to attack Newport, Rhode Island. 
A storm disrupted his plans and after making repairs, he sailed off to the West Indies. 
Following his drawn battle with Admiral Byron in 1779, D'Estaing co-operated with 
the Americans in an unsuccessful attempt to retake Savannah. He returned to France 
in 1780. Biograpbie Universelle (Paris, 1855), XIII, 90-1. 

50. The island of Rhode Island, including the city of Newport, near the mouth of 
Narraganset Bay. The British had fortified Newport and environs in 1776. Major- 
General Pigot was in command of the defences of the city, and a small fleet guarded 
the harbor. 

51. D'Estaing with his fleet, and the Continental troops under General Sullivan 
were to make a joint attack on the British defences at Newport. The British fleet 
refused to leave the harbor, so D'Estaing began to send ships in. The British then 
began to scuttle their fleet, and would have lost all of it if Admiral Howe had not ap- 
peared off the coast. D'Estaing then abandoned his efforts in Newport harbor and put 
out after the fleet under Howe. Winsor, op. cit., VI, 593-4. 

th D o 

I 778 H The Middle Colonies 133 


15 th we hear Lord How 52 " has gone from N york to Pay 
Count De Astange a visit — 

16 th we hear that when Lord How Made his appear- 
ence off Rhode Island, the Count Waid anchor & stood 
after him. Lord How Put to see & the Count followed 
him & how they will make it nobody knows but Minis- 
ters, they have had very high Winds since they Put to 
sea for several Days. 

17 th at 9 O Clock this Morning 11 men ware to be Exe- 
cuted in Camp for Different Crimes. One of them was 
shot & the others Repreiv'd until fryday — 

18 th we have had a Long spell of fowl weather & high 
winds — 

19 th we hear a british frigate & Roegalley 53 has got on 
shore in Jersey — ■ 

1.0 th Nothing Extreordinery — I am Officer of the 

2.1 z . we hear there has been a battle at Sea between the 
French & British fleets, & the British fleet is worsted & 
Return 'd to N. York. 

X2_ d Nothing New — 

2.3 d I have a fine Dinner of Quohogs &c &c &c &c &c 
&c &c, to Day. 

14 th we hear to Day from Rhode Island that Count De 
Asstange has Returnd there; with a bum Cetch [bomb 

52.. Richard Howe, Earl Howe, (172.6-1799), was vice-admiral and commander-in- 
chief on the North American station in 1776. He transported his brother's forces from 
New York to Philadelphia in 1777. His fleet moved up to Rhode Island in August, 
1778, to engage D'Estaing, but a strong gale drove both fleets far apart and caused 
extensive damage. Howe returned to England the next month and declined further 
service. Diet. Nat. Biog., X, 95-6. 

53. Row-galleys were long single or half-decked boats with a low free-board. 
Usually they were propelled by oars, but they also carried spars and sails. Some of 
the larger galleys mounted two six pounders, fore and aft. 

134 Journals of Henry Dearborn [1778 

ketch] & Several Other Prises, — & that Genr! Sulivan 
has taken several Redouts from the Enimy — 54 

2-5 th Nothing new 

2.6 D° 

2.7 th we hear Count Destange has gone to boston. 

x8 th we hear Lord How has gone out to sea — 

19 th a Conciderable fleet is in the Sound supposed to 
[be] bound to Rhode island — 

30 th I am Summoned as an Evidence upon a Genr 1 . 
Court Marcial for the Tryal of Maj" Genr! S* Clear — 55 

31* nothing new — 

Septem r i c a skurmish hapen'd to Day near kings bridge 
between a Party of our Indiens & a Party of the Enimys 
foot & Hors, where Nine Indiens ware surrounded & 
killd. a Party of Light Troops of ours Came to support 
the Indiens & Drove the Enimy within their Lines after 
killing a number & takeing several Prisoners— 

i d we hear Genr! Sulivan has had a battle on Rhode is- 
land he was attact as he was Indevouring to Retreet off 
of the Island, a Conciderable heavy Battle Insued. Suli- 
van Recovered the field & forc'd the Enimy within their 
strong Holds with Cornsiderable Loss on both Sides — 
the Next Day Genr! Sulivan made a safe Retreet from the 
Island & brought his Baggage & Every other matter of[f] 
with him — 56 

54. On the 19th, after three hours of heavy bombardment by Sullivan's artillery, 
the British abandoned one redoubt. The following day they were forced to abandon 
their entire outer line of defence. H. W. Preston, The Battle of Rhode Island (Providence, 
192.8), 30-1. 

55. Arthur St. Clair (1736-1818) served in the British army from 1757 to 1761 
and then settled in western Pennsylvania. A colonel in the Continental army in 1775, 
he rose to the rank of major-general in 1777 and was placed in command of Ticon- 
deroga, which post he abandoned as Burgoyne advanced on it. For this retreat he was 
court-martialed, but completely exonerated. Yet he was never given an important 
command thereafter. Following the war he was a member of the Continental Congress, 
and later the first governor of the Northwest Territory. Diet. Am. Biog., XVI, 2.93-95. 

56. The first skirmish took place on August 2.9, near Butts Hill, at the middle of 
the island, to which Sullivan had retired after the untimely departure of the French 

1778] The Middle Colonies 135 

3 d wehearan Inglish Fleethas Lately ariv'dat New york 
— & that Count Destange is in Boston harbour. & that 
Genr! Sulivan has made a safe Retreet from Rhode island. 

4 th the Committee of Congress are now in Camp for the 
Purpose of New arraingeing the army nearly upon the 
brittish Plan — 57 

5 th we hear Admirell Byren 58 has ariv'd with a Learge 
Fleet & has Block'd up Count De Astange in Boston har- 
bour — 

6 th Nothing New — 

7 th we hear that an English fleet is Laying off New 
London — 

8 th the Enimy March'd a Learge body from New york 
into the Country about six miles & toock 5 of our Light 
Horse & 2.0 waggon Horses which ware feeding in a 

9 th a small Party of our men in boats went across the 
sound Last night & burnt 3 vessels toock 10 men & killd 
11 & toock a Large Quantity of Baggage. Genr! Poors, 
Pattersons & Learnards Brigades are Ordered to be Redy 
to March to Morrow morning at Nine o Clock. 

10 th we are Redy to march but Due not. 

11 th we march this morning at sun Rise towards Dan- 
bury 8 mils & incamp. 

fleet from Newport. The British and Hessians under Gen. Pigot pursued Sullivan 
and made three determined attacks against the Continental lines, the last being sup- 
ported by the cannon of two British ships of war which moved up the channel to 
enfilade the rebel lines. The battle lasted from seven in the morning to four in the 
afternoon, when the British forces were driven back to their entrenchments around 
Newport. Preston, op. cit., 37-45. 

57. The Committee of Arrangement consisted of Joseph Reed and Francis Dana. 
Writings oj Washington, XII, 163. 

58. Vice- Admiral John Byron (172.3-1786) straggled into Sandy Hook Bay with 
the remnants of a poorly equipped fleet manned by a motley crew, after a stormy 
passage from England. It took him nearly two months to assemble his squadron and 
make repairs. He put to sea again in October, but D'Estaing had moved off" to the 
West Indies. Byron followed him, and in 1779 two indecisive actions occurred off the 
West Indies. Byron returned to England the same year. Diet. Nat. Biog., Ill, 613-5. 

136 Journals of Henry Dearborn £1778 

i2_ th we March 8 miles & incamp. 

13 th we Lay Still to Day. 

14 th Our main army marchd to Day from White Plains 
towards fish kill — 

15 th Nothing New. 

16 th we march'd to Ridg field 59 7 miles & Incamp'd. 

17 th we Lay still by Reason of a sevear storm. 

18 th we March'd to Danbury 10 miles & Incamp 4 ? our 
main army is incamp'd at & Near fredricksburge 6 ° be- 
tween this & fish kill — 

19 th Nothing Extreordinery to Day. 

xo th Genr! M c Doogels 6T Division arivd to Day & In- 
camp'd at Danbury, his Division Consisted of Nixons 6z 
& the N Carolina Brigades — 

xi € We are ordered to hold our selves in Rediness to 
march at the shortest Notice. 

X2_ d Nothing new. 

13 d a heavy Storm to Day— 

2.4 th From all acounts, it appears, that the Enimy are 
about Leaving New York. Some Conjecture they are go- 
ing to Boston, Others that they are going to Canada, 
Hallifax & the West Indies. 63 

X5* h Nothing new. 

59. Washington's plan was to divide his army for the winter. One division, equal 
in size to Clinton's force, was left in the vicinity of White Plains, and in communica- 
tion with the Hudson; the others were to be distributed at intervals towards the 
Connecticut River, in order to cover any movement of the enemy from Long Island 
Sound or a possible assault on Boston. Meanwhile all divisions would be within a 
sphere small enough to allow combined movements or the support of any one division 
in the event of a concerted enemy advance. Writings of Washington, XII, 4x6-7. 

60. The ground selected for winter quarters was on the heights around Fredericks- 
burgh, N. Y., between Fishkill and Danbury, Conn. Ibid., XII, 460, ff. 

61. Alexander McDougall ( d. 1786), a colonel of the 1st New York regiment, 
was commissioned a major-general October 1.0, 1777. Heitman, op. cit., 368. 

6x. John Nixon (17x7-1815) of Massachusetts had been a brigadier-general since 
August, 1776. He served until September, 1780. Diet. Am. Biog., XIII, 530. 

63. The British had no intention of leaving New York City. The cause of this 
rumor was probably the redistribution of the army which the commander-in-chief 
ordered at this time, in order better to defend the city. Clinton Papers, Clements Library. 

I 77^H The Middle Colonies 137 

7.7 we have a Report that there has been an Ingage- 
ment between A French Fleet of 3 1 sail & a British fleet 
of 33 sail, the Latter Commanded by Admiral Keppel, 64 
who it is said was killed in the action. & his fleet beat & 
Oblige'd to Return into Port. 

18 th I Dined with Genr! Gates to Day. who shew me a 
Letter he had Receivd from the Adjatant Genr! of the 
french Troops at Boston giving an account of the above 
mentioned Action — 

X9 th Nothing Extreordinery. 

30 th as yesterday, we have very fine weather. 

Octob- i l Nothing Extreordinery to Day — 

2_ d as yesterday. 

3 d D? 

4 th weather very fine for the Season. 

5 th we are in a state of suspence Respecting the Enimys 
Leaving N. York. 

6 th this Day two men belonging to N. Hampshire (one 
by the Name of Blare, belonging to Holderness, the other 
Farnsworth of Hollis,) were taken up within the Lines 
of our Army, with a Learge sum of Counterfit Money 
which they brought from N. York, we hear that the 
french have takernj Domoneak & [have saijl' d f or Jamaka . 65 

7 th A Special Coart marcial was ordered to sit to Day 
for the Tryal of the two men above mentioned, of which 
I was a member, they ware tryed for beings spys & have- 
ing a Learge sum of Counterfit money with them Which 
they brough[t] from N. York, they Confess 'd they ware 

64. Admiral Augustus Keppel, Viscount Keppel (172.5-1786), was made commander 
of the channel fleet in 1776 and of the grand fleet in 1778. With 30 ships he engaged a 
French fleet of 32. sails under D'Orvilliers on July 17, off the French coast. Both fleets 
were badly damaged and the action was indecisive, but the French were forced back 
to port. Diet. Nat. Biog., XI, 39-40. 

65. Dominica, one of the Leeward Islands, British West Indies, was captured by 
the French from the neighboring island of Guadaloupe early in September. Writ- 
ings of Washington, XIII, 12.0. 

138 Journals of Henry Dearborn [1778 

Guilty of bringing the Counterfit money & that they 
ware to send word to the Enimy: viz. Col?s Holland & 
Stark, & Esq' Cummins 66 & others what situation our 
army & Country is in, as Near as tha could; they ware 
both Condemn'd to suffer Death as Spys — our men had 
a Gill of Rum Extr? to Day on account of its being the 
anniverciry of the Glorious victory Obtaind over the 
british army at bemus s Heights. — & the Officers in Gen- 
erel had a Meeting at Evining had a social Drink & gave 
several toasts sutible for the Occasion. — & our men had 
a Grand sham fight. 

8 th Nothing Extreordinery to Day. 

9 th as yesterday. 

10 th we have a heavy & bold storm to Day. 

11 th We are ordered to be in the greatest Possible Redi- 
ness for marching, it is Said the Enimy are imbarcking as 
fast as Possible. God grant it may be True. 

12.^ Nothing New 

13 th as yesterday 

14 th D? 

15 th D° 

16 th we are Prepareing for keeping up to Morrow. 

17 this being the first Anniversary of the Glorious 17 th 
of Octob r 1777. the field Officers of this Division Make 
an Entertainment for all the Officers of the Division, & 
Gentlemen of the Town. — we Eat Dinner on a small 
hill between two of the brigades. — after the officers of 
the three Brigades had assembled, on the hill by march- 
ing in Divisions 13 in Each, thirteen Cannon ware Dis- 

66. The two officers were not in the regular army. Among the provincials attached 
to the British army were a Capt. Stephen Holland of the Prince of Wales American 
Volunteers and a Maj. William Stark of the New Hampshire Volunteers on half pay. 
Capt. Holland was directing espionage work in 1780, but whether Maj. Stark is 
the person to whom Dearborn refers, has not been determined. Mr. Cummins appears 
to have been a Tory civilian in New York City. A List of the General and Staff Officers 
. . . under . . . Clinton (New York, 1779), passim. 

1778] The Middle Colonies 139 

charg d from Each Brigade at which time Gen^ 1 Gates 
arivd with a number of other Gen" 1 Officers, there was 
then three Cheers from the whole Division, at Dinner we 
had about 350 Officers & other gentlemen, after Dinner 
there was 13 toasts Drank. & a Cannon Discharged for 
Each. — at Evining we Retire'd to the Town, & spent the 
Evining very agreably. 

18 th we are geting sober.— & Genr! Poors Brigad is or- 
dered to march to Morrow. 

19 th we march at 10' O Clock towards Hartford. I Re- 
ceiv'd News this Day by Express that my wife Lay Dan- 
gerously sick with a Nerveous Fever. In Consequence of 
which I got Leave of absince & set out for home this 

2.4 th I ariv'd at my House at 7 O Clock in the Evining. 
found my wife Senceless & almost Motionless, which was 
a very Shocking Sight to behold, at half after Eleven she 
Expired, much Lamented not only by her Relation but 
by all her Neighbours. — 6? this was a very Trying Scene 
to me. I seem'd to be Quite alone in the world. Except 
my two Little Daughters who are two small to feel their 
Loss, or offer me any Comfort. — 

15 th the most Malloncolly Sunday I Ever Experiencd. 

x6* h the Remains of My Deceas'd wife was this Day In- 
terr.d, on which Occation there was a very Great Number 
of People assembled from several Neighbouring Towns 
who universally seemd Heartely to Mourn my Loss. — 

17 th 

67. Dearborn's wife was Mary Bartlett (1751-1778), to whom he was married in 
1771. Their two daughters were Sophia, born in 1773, who married Dudley B. Hobart; 
and Pamela, born in 1775, wno married Allen Oilman in 1798. Pamela died the fol- 
lowing year, shortly after the birth of her child. Maine Historical and Genealogical 
Recorder, III, 3; Levi Bartlett, Genealogical and Biographical Sketches of the Bartlett Family 
. . . (Lawrence, 1876), 17. 

140 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1778 

Novem! ix th 1778 

I sett out from home to Join the army. — went by 
Boston stayd 4 Days with Genr! Gates & went to Rhode 
Island. Tary'd 3 days with Genr! Sulivan, & the 2.6 th 
ariv'd at Hartford, found Col° Reid 68 & several of our 
Officers who set out with me the 2.8 th for Danbury where 
Genr! Poors Brigade is Desten'd. after marching to Hart- 
ford & back to Danbury where I ariv'd the 30 th — in a 
heavy storm of Rain Hail & Snow & to my Great morti- 
fycation found we ware order 'd to Hut once more. I find 
that the 2. men who ware try'd as spyes the 7 th of octobr 
at Danbury, ware hang'd at Hartford Novem' 4 th 

Decern^ i l we are Loocking out ground to Hut on. 
Genr! Burguoyns army from Cambridg have Cross'd the 
North River on their way to virgenia, where they are to 
be station' d — 69 

2. d we March 'd 6 miles toward the Sound & Incamp ed 
Near where we are to build our Huts. — 7 ° 

3 d we are Laying out our Ground to Hut on. — ■ 

4 th we began this Day to build Huts, we hear that 
Genr! Green 71 & Col. Beedle 72 " ware taken a few Days 

68. Col. George Reid ( d. 1815) of the znd New Hampshire regiment. Heitman, 
op. cit., 46Z. 

69. Burgoyne's captured troops, the "convention army," were first interned around 
Cambridge, Mass., then removed to Rutland, Vt., for fear they might be rescued by 
the British from Newport, R. I. Congress next ordered them moved to the vicinity 
of Charlottesville, Va. Winsor, op. cit., VI, 3x1. 

70. Part of Washington's army was to winter at West Point and vicinity; another 
part was sent to Middlebrook, N.J. Dearborn's brigade was to be stationed at Dan- 
bury, Conn., which town had been burned the year before. Writings of Washington, 
XIII, 179. 

71. Nathanael Greene (1741-1786) of Rhode Island was a brigadier-general at the 
siege of Boston and then commanded the defences of New York. He was commissioned 
a major-general in August, 1776. He served in the attack on Trenton, and in the 
engagements around Philadelphia. While at Valley Forge, he was appointed quarter- 
master general. He saw action at Monmouth and assisted Sullivan in the Rhode 
Island campaign. He was still engaged in procuring supplies at this time. Diet. Am. 
Biog.. VII, 569-72.. 

7Z. Dearborn probably meant Col. Clement Biddle (1740-1814) of Pennsylvania, 
who as commissary-general of forage was associated with Greene. Heitman, op. cit., ioz. 

I 77^H The Middle Colonies 141 

Since by a Party of Tories in Jersey where they ware 
Loocking out for Quarters for his Excellency. — we 
Likewise hear that Col Alden 73 was not Long since 
killd & Inhumanely butcher'd by the Savages & Tories at 
Cherry valley, 74 & his U Col° & Maj' made Prisoners. — 
5 th at twelve at Night we ware alarm'd by hearing 
that the Enimy are at Terry Town (below Peeks kill) in 
force, in Consequence of which a Detatchment of 1500 
men from the three Brigades under Genr! Putmans 75 
Command ware ordered to march, we marched two Hours 
before Day for bedford 76 which is 2.0 miles from our 
Camp. Where we ariv'd the afternoon of the same Day. 
Where we had a Maggazeine of Provision Collecting, 
when the Enimy found we ware Like to meet them they 
Immediately Retired on board their ships & Return 'd to 
york. we Remained at bedford to night, we hear to Day 
that the Report of Genr! Green's being Taken is not 
True but Col? Ward 77 Commissary Genr! of Musters was 
taken at the Place where we heard Genr! Green was 

73. Col. Ichabod Alden commanded the 7th Massachusetts regiment. Lt. Col. 
William Stacey and Maj. Samuel Darby were taken prisoners. The former was detained 
for four years. Ibid., 65, 185, 513. 

74. On November 10, a party of Tories and Indians under Walter Butler and Joseph 
Brant, the Indian, had destroyed the village of Cherry Valley, N. Y., burning the 
houses and killing about 50 inhabitants. Fiske. op. cit., II, 90. 

75. Israel Putnam (1718-1790), a distinguished veteran of the French and Indian 
War, was appointed a major-general in June, 1775. He saw action at Bunker Hill, 
the siege of Boston, the battle of Long Island, and the engagements around Phila- 
delphia. In May, 1777, he was given command of the highlands of the Hudson; here 
he was unable to obey orders. A paralytic stroke ended his military career in Decem- 
ber, 1779. Diet. Am. Biog., XV, z8i-x. 

76. Washington had received intelligence that 51 vessels including a bomb ketch 
were proceeding up the Hudson River. Messengers were despatched to all units of 
the army, ordering immediate preparations to march. Bedford, Westchester co., on 
the route from Danbury, Conn., is about 15 miles from Tarrytown, on the Hudson 
River. Writings of Washington, XIII, 365-6. 

77. Col. Joseph Ward ( d. 1812.) had been aide-de-camp and secretary to Gen. 
Artemus Ward. He became commissary-general of musters early in 1777, and commis- 
sary-general of prisoners in 1780. Heitman, op. cit., 568. 

142. Journals of Henry Dearborn [1778 

7 th we Remain' d at bedford — 

8 th we march cd to Ridgfield on our way to Camp. — 

9 th we Return'd to Camp — I understand Genr! Wash- 
ington with the Grand army are Huting in Jersey at a 
Place Call'd Midle Brook between Morristown & Bruns- 
wick. — Genr! Putmans Command is Poors, Parsons-s 
& Huntingtons Brigades, Stationed about Danbury. 

10 th we have a very Sevear Storm of Snow & Rain to 
Day & we living in Tents. — 

11 th the weather very Cold, the Snow about 6 inches 
Deep. — 

ix th we are very busy at work upon our Huts, amongst 
the Snow. — 

13 a very heavy storm of Rain, — & no bread for two 
Days. — 

14 th good weather — 

15 th we are Covering our Huts. — 

16 th we begin to git into our Huts. — 

17 th a heavy Rain — 

18 th fine weather — 

19 th we are in our Huts. — 

2.0 Eight of our men appeard to be Poisened by Eating 
Chees. I have sent for the People who sold the Chees. — 

n* the Brigade is Mustered to Day 

x.2. a sevear snow Storm. — 

13 d Genr! Poor Col? Cilley & a number of other officers 
set out for home to Day. the weather is very Cold, 
the New arraingement of the army toock Place in our 
Hampshire Troops yesterday. — we have Try.d the 
People who sold the Cheese to our Soldiers which 
I suspected was Poisond but they ware thought to be 
Innosent — 

Z4 th we had a snow Last night & very Sevear Cold to 
Day. — our men are well Cloath'd & well Hutted. — 

1779] The Middle Colonies 143 

Christmas Day. the weather is so very Cold we take 
but very little notice of the Day — 

2.6 th we have a very Sevear Snow Storm 

2.7 th the weather seems more like Canada, then Con- 
necticut. — the Honb! Sylas Dean 78 has made a voyolent 
attact upon the Lees — : (viz : Richard H. Lee in Congress, 
Arther Lee agent at the Court of Madrid, & William Lee 
our agent at the Courts of viane & Barlain.) — in the Fish 
Kill Paper, taxing them with unfaithfulness to the 

xS th there is a general uneaseyness among the soldiers 
of Genr! Putmans Division, on account of the Depresia- 
tion of our Currency the Consequences of which I fear 
will Prove unhappy 

2.9 th we have nothing new to Day. — 

30 th this is Thanksgiving Day throughout the Conti- 
nent. — 79 our men have Half a Pint of Rum Each to keep 
it with. — 

3i t we hear the Enimy have releas'd all the Prisoners 
they had at Rhode Island by reason of their being scant 
of Provisions. — 

January i l 1779. — 

Old time keeps on her Coars, we find another year has 
Commens'd. thro the Coarse of which it is highly Prob- 
able from the Present situation of affairs in the Different 
Quarters of the world Many Important Events will turn 

2. Nothing new to Day. — 

78. Silas Deane (1737-1789) had been sent to France as diplomatic agent for the 
colonies in 1776. Later he joined Benjamin Franklin and Arthur Lee, and together 
they negotiated the alliance with France. Deane was recalled in 1778 on insinuations 
made by Lee. He appeared in Congress on December zz and Z3 in defence of his con- 
duct abroad. Diet. Am. Biog., V, 173-7. 

79. The Continental Congress established December 30, 1778, as a day of thanks- 
giving by a resolution passed on November 17. Journals of the Continental Congress, 
XII, 1139. 

144 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1779 

3 d we have fine weather. — 

4 th we have a Detatchment of 2.00 men sent off to to 
Day who are to be Concidered as an advanced Post to 
this Division, they are Stationed Near the Sound. — 

5 th the face of the Earth is again Cover'd with Snow. — 
we have receiv'd a supply of Cloathing for the Hamp- 
shire officers from the board of war for that state. — 

6 th nothing Extraordinery to Day. — 

7 th I am Pr.s.d* of a Brigade Coart Marcial, which sets 
for the Tryal of Several Theives to Day — 

8 th on Coart Martial. — 

9 th Nothing new — 

10 th we hear to Day that there has been a Duel fought 
between Genr! Lee & Col? Lawrence 80 one of Genr! 
Woshingtons Aide de camps in which Genr! Lee receiv'd 
a wound in the bellay by a Pistol shot. — 

11 th Nothing new — but flanking 81 &c. 

11 th as yesterday. — 

13 th we have a fine Snow to night 

14 nothing Extreordinery. — 

15 we hear a Duel has been fought between between 
Genr! Arnold & a Cetisan of Phyladelphia. the latter, 
Receiv'd a wound — 8i 

16 Nothing but flanking. — 
17 th as yesterday. — 

18 Nothing new. — 
19 th flanking. — 

80. Col. John Laurens (1754-1782.). one of Washington's aides-de-camp, challenged 
Maj. Gen. Charles Lee to a duel over an abusive letter which Lee had written to 
Washington. The duel took place on December 13, 1778. Lee was wounded. Diet. 
Am. Biog., XI, 35-6. 

81. Flanking was a military maneuver in which a small party of men was detached 
from the advance column to cover the flanks of the main body against surprise. 

8z. This was a false rumor. From December 19, 1779, to January 2.6, 1780, Arnold 
was on trial by a military court in Morristown, N.J. Moreover, he still walked with 
difficulty and used a cane. I. N. Arnold, The Life of Benedict Arnold (Chicago, 1880), 149. 

1779 1 ^he Middle Colonies 145 

2.0 th very Cold. — 

2.i l the old Story. — ■ 

zi d I went to the sound for Oysters — 

X3 d Returnd from Norwalk — 83 

2.4 th Nothing new — 

2.5 th flanking 

2.6 we hear the Enimy are coming to Pay us a visit. — fl. 

2.7 we are making some preparations to meet the 
Enimy. — ■ 

x8 th Nothing new.— f!— 

2.9 th as yesterday ft— 

30 th fl.— 

3i t Nothing new. 

Febuary i l we have very fine weather 

2. d Nothing N — fl— 

4^ I am ordered to take Command of 400 men who are 
Detach'd from Gen' 1 Putnams Division, & March to- 
New London, to garrison that Town — 84 f! 

5 th I March 'd for New London as far as f airfield. — 

6 th March* d to Milford.— 

7 th March 'd to New Haven. — 

8 th March d to Gilford— 

9 th March'd to Killingsworth. — 

10 th March'd to Lime. — 

11 th March'd to New London — 

i2_ th I am Reconoyrting the fortifycations in & about 
Town, & Procureing proper Quarters for the Troops. — 

13 th we live very happy here — 

83. Norwalk, Fairfield co., Connecticut, 2.2. miles south of Danbury on Long Island 

84. The defences of New London consisted of Fort Trumbull on a point extending 
from the west shore into the harbor of New London, and Fort Griswold on the east 
side of the harbor. The latter fort occupied the heights back of the town of Groton. 
Small redoubts and temporary intrenchments were built to cover the land approaches 
to the city. 

146 Journals of Henry Dearborn Q 1779 

14 Nothing new — 

15 as yesterday. — 
16 th a fine Dance. — 
17 th Nothing new. — 
18 th a fine Dance & f! 

19 th Nothing important. — 

2.0 th I saw the British Tyrants Speech made at the Open- 
ing of his Parliment 85 — which appears more like a Dying 
speech] then otherwise. — 

2.1* nothing new — 

Z2_ d we had an Elligant Ball, at which was a Learge 
numbar of very fine Ladies — & fl. 

2.3 d I Dined with Genr! Parsons 86 at Esq. Mumfords at 
Groton. where I spent one of the most agreable after 
noons with x x x x x x I have had for some months. 

24 th nothing new — 

X5 th as yesterday. — 

2.6 th we have remarkable warm weather — 

2.7 th we hear a Spanish Imbassador has ariv'd at con- 
gress with a learge sum of hard money — Sj 

x8 th Sunday I go to meeting. — 

March 1 1 1779. — 

I was at a Dance on board the Confediracy frigate. — 
& f ! a Prize brigantine with salt was sent in here to 

85. The king's speech made at the opening of Parliament, November 2.6, 1778, 
reached this country early in February, 1779. It was printed in the New Jersey Gazette 
of February 10. The speech was brief and general, asking for renewed exertions to 
defeat Britain's enemies in North America and to restore to the Crown peace with 

86. Samuel H. Parsons (1737-1789) of Connecticut was commissioned a brigadier- 
general in August, 1776. During the year 1779 he was in virtual command of the 
Connecticut division, owing to the failing health of Gen. Putnam. Parsons was pro- 
moted to the rank of major-general in 1780. He was one of the directors of the Ohio 
Company, and was the first judge of the Northwest Territory. Diet. Am. Biog., XIV, 

87. This was a false rumor. No Spanish ambassador was sent to this country, nor 
was any loan granted at this time. However, even Washington heard in February 
that a large loan had been obtained from Spain. Writings of Washington, XIV, 12.9. 

1779!] The Middle Colonies 147 

Day — we are informd that a body of the Enimy from 
york made an attempt last week to Distroy Elesabath 
Town in the Jerseys but ware very Roughly handled by a 
body [ofj our troops [that] happend to meet them & 
Obliged [them] to make tracks back Quick step but not 
without a conciderable loss. — 88 the same day a body of 
the Enimy marched] from Kings bridg to Hors neck 89 
where we had a Guard of 100 men, the Enimy after 
Plundering the Inhabitants of their Houshold furniture 
& abuseing the women in a very shameful manner ware 
Oblig'd to make a Precepitate retreat finding they ware 
like to be cut of[f] by Genrt Putnams Division, our troops 
killd a number of them & made 52. Prisoners 

2_ d nothing new. — 

3 d fine weather & f. 

4 th we had an Elligent Dinner two miles from Town at 
M' Rogers. s — to Day 

5 th nothing new. — 


7 th D° 

8 th D° 

9 th f! had an Eligent ball. 

10 the Ship Defence of 18 guns ran on Shor near the 
mouth of this harbour & is Lost. Crew & Stores Save'd 
we are asured that Spain & the two Cissalees have ac- 
ceeded to the Independency of america, & Rushia has re- 
fused assisting Great briton with men or stores — 9° 

88. A detachment of British troops under Lt. Col. Stirling tried to surprise Elizabeth- 
town in the early morning of February 2.5. The enemy set fire to a few buildings, but 
was driven off by Brig. Gen. Maxwell. The Americans suffered one killed; the British 
two. New Jersey Gazette, March 3, 1779. 

89. Horseneck Point or Field Point, on the Connecticut coast, extends into Long 
Island Sound between Captain Harbor and Smith Cove, about 2. miles east of Port 
Chester, N.Y. 

90. Spain did not enter into an alliance with France against Great Britain until 
April, 1779, but as she had made known her sympathies for the American cause, a 
committee in Congress had recommended the draughting of a treaty of alliance for 

148 Journals of Henry Dearborn £1779 

11 th f! 

ix th I receive orders to march what troops are here (be- 
longing to Genr! Poors Brigade) back to Reading, 91 toot 
sweet. — on some important matters — 

13 th Genr! Parsons Receiv'd orders to March the whole 
Detachment back to Camp. — 

14 we have a severe Snow Storm to Day 

15 we are prepareing to march. — f! 

16 Cap? Lloyds 92 " Company from Col? Hazens Reg? 
March'd to Day for camp we had a fine Dance this 
Evining — 

17 Nothing new. — 
18 f! 

19 the troops from Genr! Poors Brigade are ordered to 
march to morrow morning, for Camp, a snow storm to 
Day — 

xo th the Hampshire troops march'd to day for Camp. — 

ii* Sunday went to meeting & f! receiv'd or- 
ders from Genr! Putnam to Join the Reg? 

2.2. nothing but — f.l. 

X3 I am to set out for Camp to Day — 14 of the En- 
imys transports ware stranded on Gardners Island 93 last 
night & one taken by one [of] our Privateers — 

2.6 th I ariv'd at Camp, found our Brigade under march- 
ing orders. 

her signature. It was probably this action of Congress which prompted Dearborn's 
observations. The two Sicilies: the island and the province of Naples, under Ferdinand 
IV, had already opened their ports to American commerce, though not participating 
actively. Russia had twice refused aid to Great Britain, and by 1779 was advocating 
the protection of neutral shipping against Britain's fleet. Journals of the Continental 
Congress, XIII, Z39, ff; George Bancroft, History of the United States (Boston, 1875) IX, 
X, passim. 

91. Reading or Redding, Fairfield co. s Connecticut, is on the Saugatuck River about 
6 miles from Danbury. 

9i. Capt. Richard Lloyd of New Jersey, attached to the znd Canadian regiment. 
Heitman, op. cit., 355. 

93. Gardiner's Island lies off the eastern end of Long Island, separated from the 
mainland by Gardiner's Bay. 

1 77 9 3 The Middle Colonies 149 

2.7 Col? Hazens Reg' has march'd for Springfield — . & 
one Hundred of the New Hampshire troops have march'd 
for Peeks kill. — 

z8 th Nothing new f! 

2.9 th we hear the Enimy are Preparing to attact New 
London — 

30 th I take Command of the brigade — 94 

31* fine weather. — 

Aprill i* I take Quarters at Col? Reads where Col? 
Hazen has Quarterd a very agreabl family. — 

x d weather Remarkable fine for the Season, fl. 

3 d all the Officers of the Brigade turn'd out & Play'd 
a game at ball the first we have had this yeare. — 

4 the brigade march'd to Reding meeting Hous to at- 
tend Publick worship. — 

5 th nothing new to Day. — 

6 th the brigade is marching by Divisions, viz 100 men 
in a day for Peekskill— 

7 th a Conciderable number of Masons had a feast to Day 
at Reading where a fine Collection of ladies attended — 3 3 3 . 

8 th the weather is very fine for the Season it is said by 
the old men so forwar'd a Spring has not been known — 

9 th we had a very Desent Dance at my Quarters which 
we concider as the last we shall have this year — 

10 th the Peech trees are beginig to blow 

11 the peech trees are in full blow — the last of our 
Brigade march'd to Day — 

i2_ th nothing new to Day — 

94. Poor's brigade at this time comprised the first three New Hampshire and the 
md Canadian regiments. That the command should devolve temporarily upon a 
junior lieutenant-colonel was owing to an unusual chain of circumstances. Brig. Gen. 
Poor and Col. Cilley were on leave. Of the three colonels, Hale of the md New Hamp- 
shire had been taken prisoner; Scammell of the 3rd New Hampshire had been promoted 
to adjutant-general; and Hazen of the ind Canadian had been sent north to build a 
military road to Canada. Among the lieutenant-colonels, Dearborn ranked below Reid 
and Antil, but the latter was a prisoner of war, and Reid was either on leave or 
detached on special duty. 

150 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1779 

13 th I Rais'd a Seeige this morning of 2. months & 
march for Peeks kill, we had a very heavy thunder 
Storm last night — 

14 th arivd at Peeks kill found our brigade Quartered in 
Huts in the Highlands where we have no neighbors but 
Owls, Hedghogs, & Rattle snakes, & them in plenty. 

15 th a Small guard of ours was Surprisd this week in 
Gersey by a party of Tories from N. York & every man 
put to the bayonet on the Spot under the cover of a dark 
night.— 95 

16 th I have been recornoyrtering the mountain to day. 
& have moovd into a Hut my Self. 

17 th we ware oblige'd to walk 4 miles to day to find a 
place leavel enough to play ball. 

18 we had a very severe frost Last night; I fear it will 
prove fatal to the fruit; 

19 th nothing new — 

uo 1 ' 


2* d? 

X3 d we [have] certain Intiligence today of the cap- 
ture of 8 of the Enimies vessels bound from N. york to 
Georgey: viz. one 2.0 gun ship one 16 gun Ship & 6 trans- 
ports Containing 800 men 5000 Barrells of provisions 
40000 Guineas — furniture for 2. Reg? of Hors, a very learg 
Quantity of English good[Sj & 14 British Officers — the 
above prises ware taken by the warren Frigate of 32. guns, 
the Ranger of 2.0 guns & the Queen of France of 2.0 guns. 96 

95. The only raid reported at this time in the New Jersey Gazette was one on a post 
at Little Ferry in Bergen County. A British detachment under Capt. Van Allen seized 
a party of two officers and eleven men; two of the Americans escaped, and the rest 
were taken prisoners to New York. New Jersey Gazette, April 2.8, 1779. 

96. The three American cruisers, with Capt. J. B. Hopkins as senior officer, left 
Boston on April 18 and captured a British privateer. From the crew they learned that 
nine British sail were leaving New York with supplies for the enemy in Georgia. 
The three American ships caught up with the transports off Cape Henry and captured 

th D o 


1779] The Middle Colonies 151 

i4 th nothing new 

15 we hear a body of the Enimy are Imbarking at york 
for the southward Maj? Norris 97 & several of our officers 
ariv'd in camp to day from N. H. — 

2.6 th nothing new. — 

2.7 th D° 

19 th D° 

30 th a Severe Snow Storm to day. 

i l May — very pleasent — 

2_ d we hear Col. Vanskoyk 98 has destroyed the OnOn- 
dogo tribe & Town of Indians we hear a body of the 
Enimy are in the Jerseys. — 

3 d we Expect to march from this the 8 th or 9 th Ins? 

4 nothing new. — 

5 th D?— 

6 th we are ordered to be hold our selves in redyness to 
march at the shortest notice — 

7 th Col? Cilleys Reg? is orderd to be redy to march to 

8 Col? Cilleys Reg? is order'd to march to morrow 
morning — 

9 th Col? Cilley Reg? march'd to day & crossd the North 
River to New Windsor opposite Fishkill & orderd to 
march to East Town in Penselvania — 

10 I am order'd to prepare to march 

11 we are Drawing Cam[p] Equippage to day for the x d 
& 3 d Batt lns — 

seven of them. Besides the cargo, twenty-four British army officers on board were 
captured. J. F. Cooper, The History of the Navy of the United States of America (London, 
1839) I, 188-9. 

97. Maj. James Norris ( d. 1814) of the 3rd New Hampshire (Dearborn's) regiment. 
He had been wounded and taken prisoner at Hubbardton, July 7, 1777. Heitman, 
op. cit., 415. 

98. Col. Goose Van Schaick ( d. 1787) of the 1st New York regiment received the 
thanks of Congress for his expedition against the Onondagas. Ibid., 557. 

152. Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1779 

i2_ th we are prepareing to march — 

13 th as yesterday — 

14 th D? 

15 d° 

16 th I am order'd to march to Morrow with the 2_ d & 3 d 
N. H. Battalions to Easton in Penselvania. — " 

17 th we march to Fish kill — 

18 th Cross the North River & march'd 9 miles. — 
Genr! Poor & Col? Cilley arive'd to day from N. Hamp- 
shire. — 

19 th we March 14 miles to day. 

xo th we march'd 12. miles & ware Stop'd by a Storm. 

-Li 1 Stormy to day, we lay still — sold both my Horses 
to day for 1800 dollers — 

Z2. d Stormy to Day — 

2.3 March'd to Sussex Court House — IO ° 

2.4 th March'd to Mount Hope, or Moravian village. 

X5 th March'd within 4 miles of Easton — 

x6 th Cross'd the Deliware to Easton & incamp'd 
in Tents — ■ found Genr! Sulivan & Genr! Maxwells 
Brigade. — 

2.7 th Col? Cilleys Reg? is order'd to march to wio- 
men — IQI where we all Expect to go soon — ■ 

2.8 Col? Cilleys Reg? March'd for wyomen to day — 

2.9 th I went to Bethleham — IOZ 

30 th Sunday I went to german Church — their manner 
of worship appears very Sollom — 

3 1 Nothing Extreordinery — 

99. Easton, Northampton co., Pa., on the Delaware River at the mouth of the 
Lehigh, had been designated as the place where the western expedition was to be 
organized and outfitted. Writings of Washington, XIV, 491.. 

100. Sussex, Sussex co., N. J. 

101. Wyoming, now Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne co., Pa., on the west bank of the 
Susquehanna, 18 miles west southwest of Scranton. 

102.. Bethlehem, Northampton co., Pa., on the left bank of the Lehigh River, 5 
miles east of Allentown. 


The Middle Colonies 


June i? I toock a touer round the country about 8 or 
ten mils from Camp to see what kind of inhabitents there 
was, & — f ! 

x d f f 

3 d I am on a genr! Court Martial for the tryal of some 
Tories who have been detected in Inticeing our Soldiers 
to desert to the Enimy — 

4 th as yesterday — 

5 th D° — we hear that Genr! Lincoln has gain'd a very 
Conciderable victory over the Enimy near Charles Town 
in South Carolina, it is said he kill.d & toock 1400 of the 
Enemy — . I03 we are likewise assur'd that Col? Clark of 
Virgenia with a body of troops has taken a small for- 
tress near Detroit. Garrison'd by L* Govener Ham 104 & 
101 men, 105 & the nexjtj day after takeing the fort, 10 In- 
dian warrier returning from a scout came up to the fort 
not knowing it had been taken: the virgenians fire'd 
upon them & kill'd 18 out of the xo the other two made 
their escape. 

6 th nothing new — 

7 th D? 

8 th d? 

103. This was a false rumor. Washington remained skeptical of the reports of a great 
American victory at Charleston, and waited in vain for confirmation of the story, 
which was printed in the newspapers. Gen. Prevost, in command of the British and 
Tories in Georgia, had marched on Charleston and demanded its surrender. The Amer- 
ican defenders refused, and being without the equipment to carry on a siege, Prevost 
withdrew. Meanwhile Gen. Lincoln, hurrying to the support of the defenders, 
engaged the British at Stono Ferry, but not until June io. Though the action was not 
decisive, the British withdrew to Savannah. David Ramsay, History of the Revolution 
of South Carolina . . . (Trenton, 1785), II, 2.4-31. 

104. This name is crossed out, rewritten and otherwise obscured in the original 
text. Dearborn was obviously trying to spell Hamilton. 

105. Col. George Rogers Clark (1751-1818) of Virginia had won over Vincennes 
(Indiana) to the American cause in July, 1778, without a battle, after he had subdued 
the Illinois settlements. He left a garrison of only two soldiers there. Lt. Gov. Henry 
Hamilton of Detroit easily captured Vincennes in December, 1778. Clark, who was 
at Kaskaskia, made a memorable winter march with his small force and recaptured 
the fort in February, 1779, sending Hamilton to Virginia as a prisoner of war. Winsor, 
op. cit., VI, 7iz-8. 

154 Journals of Henry Dearborn [ 1779 

9 two men Inhabitents a sentenced to Suffer Death by a 
Court Martial for Inticeing Soldiers to desert to the En- 
imy & affording them their assistence to git to the 

10 th Nothing new — 

11 th d? 

i2. th 3 penselvania Soldiers ware hanged to day for 
murder. — 

13 th nothing new. 

14 th we have the news from the southward confirmed, 
as follows viz. the Enimy made an attact upon the City 
of Charles Town in South Carolina & ware repuls'd, 
they made a second attact with fix'd Bayonets. Genr! 
Lincoln who was in the Rear of the Enimy came up & 
fell on the Enimy with great Sperit, put them to flight 
leaving 1483 dead & wounded, & 3000 of the tories laid 
down their arms — in Consequence of the above news, 
we fired a f ude Joy [feu de j oiej — Lady Washington came 
to town to day, on her way from Head Quarters to 
Virginia — 

15 th Genr! Sulivan, the other Genr! & field officers 
waited on Misses Washington this morning to Bethle- 
ham ix miles. — 

16 th All the Troops are order 'd to march to Morrow 
morning for wyomen 


Sullivan's Indian Expedition 

the demoralising effect of recurrent Indian raids on the settlers 
in western New York and the valley of the Susquehanna led to 
vigorous retaliatory measures in the summer of 1779. Acting un- 
der orders of Congress ', Washington directed Brodhead to march 
from Fort Pitt up the Allegheny River, while a larger expedition 
under Sullivan ascended the Susquehanna and Wyoming val- 
leys. Their instructions were to destroy all Indian villages and 
crops belonging to the Six Nations, to engage the Indian and 
Tory marauders under Brant and Butler whenever possible, and 
to drive them so far west that future raids would be impossible. 
These operations consumed three months, during which the main 
army remained for the most part inactive near the Hudson above 
New York, waiting for Clinton to make the next move. In the 
South Lincoln, with the support of D' Estaing s fleet, laid siege 
to Savannah, but failed to rout the British from the city. 

E ASTON June 17 th 1779 
Genrls Maxwells & Poors Brigades with Coif 
1 Procters 1 Reg? of Artillary ware order'd to march 
this day for Wyoming under the Command of the Honb? 
Maj^ Genr! Sullivan, on an Expedition against the Savages 
between Wyoming & at Niagara — 

1. Col. Thomas Proctor ( d. 1806) of Pennsylvania had commanded the 4th Continen- 
tal artillery since 1777. He resigned from the army in April, 1781. Heitman, op. cit., 453. 

J 55 

156 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1779 

18 th The Army march'd at Sunrise, proceeded iz miles 
to Hilliers Tavern, 2 - & encamp'd our course to day about 
north. — 

19 th March'd at 4 oclock, A.M. proceeded 7 miles to 
Brinkers Mills, 3 where there is a Magazine of Provisions 
kept, here we halted & drew provisions, we pass'd this 
morning what is Call'd the Wind Gap of the blue moun- 
tains, a narrow pass that appears as if Nature desin'd it 
for a rode into the country, as it is the only place that 
this ridge of mountains can be pass'd for a very great 
distence. after drawing provisions we march'd 9 miles 
to Learns Tavern 4 & incamp'd our course to day about 
North. — 

xo tn March'd at 9 oclock, pass'd the end of a mountain 
call'd Dogon point, 5 proceeded about 5 miles today & 
incamp*? 6 the hous we left this morning is the last we 
shall see until we git to Wyoming. — 

2.1* Enter 'd what is Call'd the Great Swamp, pro- 
ceeded 2.0 miles thro' a horrid rough gloomey country, 
the land cover 'd with pine, Spruce lawrel bushes & hem- 
lock, we eat breakfast at a streem call'd Tunkhannah, 
we pass'd an other call'd Tobehannah, & an other the 
Leahigh. 7 we likewise pass'd what is call'd the Shades 
of Death, a very gloomy thick part of the Swamp. — 

7.. The road to Wyoming had been surveyed by Lt. Benjamin Lodge, and opened "to 
allow the passage of waggons and carriages." The original manuscript maps of the 
Sullivan expedition are in the New York Historical Society. Facsimiles were printed 
to accompany Frederick Cook's Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General 
John Sullivan . . . (Albany, 1887). A comparison of the original survey with the U. S. 
Geological Survey indicates that the road ran along the route of the old Slate Belt 
Electric, through Belfast June, Belfast and into the town of Wind Gap. Hillier's 
Tavern stood in or near the present town of Wind Gap. 

3. Brinker's Mills was in the vicinity of Scioto, Monroe co., Pa., about 2.0 miles 
north by west of Easton. 

4. Learns Tavern stood at or near Tannersville, Monroe co., Pa. 

5. Dogon's Point was probably Camelback Mountain. 

6. The camp on the ioth was somewhere near Wiscasset, Pa. 

7. Tunkhannock, Tobyhanna and Lehigh Creeks. 

1 779 ^ Sullivan's Indian Expedition 157 

X2_ d we March'd but 5 miles to a dessolate farm 7 
miles from Wyoming. — 8 

2.3 d we March'd to the fort at Wyoming 9 7 miles, 
where we found several Reg c s incamp'd which are part 
of our army our course the 2. last days has been about 
N. West. — the whole Country from Easton to Wyoming 
is very poor & barren & I think such as will never be In- 
habited, it abounds with dear & Rattle Snakes. — the land 
at Wyoming on both sides the river is very fine, & was 
very thickly Inhabited before they ware cut off by the 
savages, 10 miles up & down the river, after the Battle 
at this place last year in which more than xoo of the 
Inhabitents ware kill'd. the Savages burnt & destroy'd 
the whole country & drove off the cattle & horses, 
& strip' d the women & children of every comfort of 
life — 

we are now incamp'd on the bank of Susquehannah river, 
this river is at this place about 50 rods wide, & abounds 
with fish of various kinds, such as Shad, Bass, pike, Trout 
&c &c— 

14 th we are laying still, some skettering Indians are 
skulking about us. — 

2.5 th Nothing new. — 

2.6 th as yesterday. — 

2.7 th the x d & 3 d N. Hampshire Reg*s cross' d the river 
& moov'd 3 miles up to a place call'd Forty Fort 10 on 
Abrahams plains & incamp'd here in the remains of a 
stockhead fort, about 3 miles above this Fort the 

8. Lt. Lodge labels this "Bullocks House." 

9. Fort Wyoming was rebuilt in 1778 on the river bank about 10 rods below the 
junction of Northampton and River streets in Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

10. Forty Fort was built in 1770 on the high west bank of the Susquehanna, on 
the site of River and Fort streets in the borough of the same name, above Wilkes- 
Barre. It derived its name from the forty settlers who were sent out by the Susque- 
hanna Company to take possession of the land in their behalf. Report of the Commis- 
sion to locate the site of the frontier forts of Pennsylania. (Harrisburg, 1896), I, 438. 

158 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1779 

Battle 11 was fought between the 1 Butlers, viz. Col? 
Butler of Wyoming & the more then savage butler 
that commanded the Indians & Tories. — in which -l$o 
men ware kill'd & skelp'd on our side & about 40 or 
50 on the Enimies side, the next day after the battle 
the Enimy contrary to their ingagements at the Ca- 
pitulation of Forty Fort (in which was about 500 
women & Children) burnt and destroyed the whole set- 

x8 th we are erecting some small works for the security 
of our guards. — 

X9 th as yesterday. — 

30 th nothing new 

July i* the two Tories 12 " who ware condemn'd at 
Easton war orderd to be executed to day. one of them was 
hung, the other was pardon' d under the Gallows. — a 
number of us discover'd a fine buck to day on an Island 
which we surrounded & kill'd. — the army is waiting for 
provisions that are coming up the River. — 

2. d I went with Gen! Poor & several other Gentle- 
men to day to vew the feild of action where the Battle 
between the two Butlers was fought; we found a great 
number of bones at & near the field of battle; among a 
number of skul bones that we found none was without 
the mark of the tommahok, — I saw one Grave where 
73 of our men ware buried, & ware shewn a place wher 
17 of our men after being taken ware made to set down in 

11. Dearborn here refers to the Wyoming massacre. Maj. John Butler, commanding 
about ixoo Tories and Indians, swept down on the valley, routing Lt. Col. Zebulon 
Butler and about 360 militia who tried to check the raiders. Many of the settlers 
were tortured and killed. The fort, containing women and children, surrendered 
next day. Houses were burned, and more of the settlers perished in their flight. The 
report of the massacre, somewhat exaggerated, spread rapidly throughout the col- 
onies. Fiske, op. cit., II, 88-9. 

12.. The two prisoners were Michael Rosebury and Lawrence Miller of Sussex 
county, N. J. The former was hanged. Cook, op. cit., Z15. 

I 779^ Sullivan's Indian Expedition 155 

a ring, 16 of whom they Immediately tommahawk'd, 
the other leap'd over the ring & made his escape. — 

3 d This is anniversary of the Battle of the two Butlers 
mentioned above. 

4 th this is the anniversary of the Declaration of Amer- 
ican Independence, but as it is Sunday we take no other 
notice of it then that of having a Sermon adapt to the Oc- 
cation. — Col? Cilleys & Courtlandts reg*s cross'd the 
river & Joind us to day. — several dear & wild turkeys 
have been kill'd within a day or two with which this 
Country abounds. — 

Monday July 5 th Gen! Poor made an Entertainment 
to day for all the Officers of his Brigade, to celibrate the 
Anniversary of the declaration of American Independ- 
ence. 87 Gentlemen ware present at dinner, after which 
the 13 following Patriotick Toasts ware drank. — 

1? 4th of July 76, the ever Memoriable Eara of 
American Indipendence. — 

2. d the United States. — 

3 d the Grand Counsel of America. — 

4 th Gen! Washington & the Army. — 

5 th the King & Queen of France. — 

6 th Gen! Lincoln & the Southern Army. — 

7 th Gen! Sullivan & the Western Army. — 

8 th May the Counsellors of America be wise, and her 
Soldiers Invincible. — 

9 th A Successful & decisive Campaign. — 

10 th Civilization or death to all American Savages. — 

11 th the Immortal Memory of those heroes that have 
fallen in defence of American Liberty. — 

11 th May this New World be the last Asylum for free- 
dom and the Arts. — 

13 th May the Husbandmans house be bless'd with 
peace, & his fields with plenty. — 

160 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1779 

the whole was conducted with such Joy & festivity as 
demonstrated an Independent Elevation of Spirit, on this 
Important & enteresting Occation. — 

6 th one Winslow a Soldier in the 3 d N. Hampshire 
Reg? was drown 'd this morning by going in to bathe — a 
very severe shower of thunder, hail, rain & wind came on 
at about 1 oclock P.M. many peices of the hail ware 
as large as hens Eggs but of a very erregular form. — 

7 th I eat part of a fryed Rattle Snake to day, which 
would have tasted very well had it not been snake. — 

8 th Nothing extreordinary. — 

10 th a detachment of 150 men was sent from the i d 
& 3 d N. Hampshire Reg*s under the command of Col? 
Reid, towards Easton to repare the rodes & to help 
forward some waggons with provisions. 

11 th we receiv'd our New Commissions upon the new 
Arrangement to day, which we have been expecting for 
eighteen Months past. — I receiv'd several letters from 
N. Hampshire to day in one of which I am inform'd of 
being Married, but have not learnt to whome. — 

IX th nothing new. — 

13 Col? Butler, Misses Butler 13 & a number of other 
ladies honour'd us with a visit from town this afternoon, 
with whome we spent a very agreable afternoon. — 

14 th nothing new. — 

15 we hear the Main body of the Enimy have retir'd 
from Kings ferry on the Hudsons river, but have left a 
post there. 

16 th I went with General? Sullivan, Maxwell, & Poor 
together with a number of other Gentlemen to vew the 
ground where the Battle of the Butlers was fought. 

13. Zebulon Butler (1731-1795) led a band of Connecticut settlers into the Wyoming 
valley in 1769. After the massacre he fled with his family, but returned after the invaders 
had departed. He remained in Wyoming until the end of 1780, when he was stationed 
at West Point. "Misses Butler" refers to his second wife. Diet. Am. Biog., Ill, 371. 

1779II Sullivan's Indian Expedition 161 

17 th we hear the Enimy are pursueing their savage plan 
of burning plundering & destroying defencless Towns, 
that they have burnt fairfield, Norwalk, & part of New 
Haven in Connecticut, & Bedford in N. York State. — I4 
these things we may thank our good friends the tories 
for, what will not those hell hounds doo, there was a 
very striking instance of their more then savage barbar- 
rity in the battle of the two Butlers, one Henry Pencel of 
wyomin who was fortunate enough to make his escape 
from the field of Battle onto an Island in the river, with 
one or two more without their arms; near night a small 
party of the Enimy came onto the Island, theforemust of 
which was John Pencel brother to s'd Henry, who upon 
discovering his brother call'd him a damn'd rebel, & 
threten'd to kill him. Henry fell on his knees & beg'd 
for his life, saying brother John I am in your hands I'll be 
your slave, I'll go with you, but pray spare my life, we 
have differ'd in sentiment & have met in the field of Bat- 
tle, but as I am now fully in your power for god's sake 
don't kill me. but his unnaturel & more then savage 
brother, Cain like, deef to all his cries & Intreeties, 
damn'd him for a rebel, deliberately charg'd his gun & 
shot his brother, then tommahawk'd and skelp'd him. 
Immediately some savages cam up and ask'd him what 
he had done, he told them he had kill'd his brother 
henry, a dam'd Rebel, these savages curs'd his unnatural 
behaveyer & threten'd to serve him the same way. the 
above account I have from on[ej M^ Slocum a young 
fellow belonging to Wyoming who lay in the bushes so 
near pencel as to hear all that passed. — 

18 th nothing extreordinery — 

14. Maj. Gen. William Tryon, Loyalist governor of New York, had led an expedi- 
tion into Connecticut, which plundered and burned the towns mentioned between 
July 3 and 11. Writings of Washington, XV, 401, passim. 

1 6x Journals of Henry Dearborn £1779 

19 th d°— 

i0 th D o_ 

-Li 1 , we are inform'd by a letter from one of Gen! 
Washingtons Aides, 15 that Gen! Wain with a body of 
light Infantry, on the night of the 15 th Ins? surpris'd & 
took a small Garrison near Kings ferry on Hudsons River, 
call'd Stoney point. 16 the perticulers have not yet come 
to hand, but it is said the number of men kill'd & taken 
is about 600 — & a quantity of Artillery & Stores &c. — 

xi d we have a confirmation of the news of yesterday, — 

2.3 d I went with several other Gentlemen 8 miles up 
the River, to an old settlement call'd Lachawanee. 17 to 
fish & hunt dear — where we stayed over night. — 

X4 th came home with but few fish. — 70 boats ariv'd 
from Sunsbury 18 with provisions & stores to day — 

X5 th 7 men belonging to what is call'd the German 
Reg" 9 ware sentenced by a Gen! Court Martial to suffer 
death for desertion. — 

2.6 we are Inform *d that Gen! Parsons has had an In- 
gagement with a body of the Enimy near Wilton 7 miles 
from Norwalk in Connecticut and finally repuls'd them. 2 - 

15. The aide was Major Caleb Gibbs (1748-1818) who commanded Washington's 
Guards. Cook, op. cit., z.z6; C. E. Godfrey, The Commander-in-Chief s Guard (Washing- 
ton, 1904), 170-1. 

16. Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne with ixoo light infantry took the fort at Stony 
Point in a brilliant assault with bayonets. The attack took place in the early morning 
of July 16. Fiske, op. cit., II, nz. 

17. Lackawanna: Dearborn here refers to Pittston, Luzerne co., which is on the 
Susquehanna River at the mouth of the Lackawanna, 9 miles northeast of Wilkes-Barre. 

18. Sunbury, Northumberland co., Pa. is on the east bank of the Susquehanna, 
one mile below the junction of its branches. 

19. The German regiment was raised in Pennsylvania and Maryland in accordance 
with a resolution of the Continental Congress. It was first commanded by Col. Nicho- 
las Haussegger, later by Col. Henry L. P. Baron d'Arendt, who went on leave in 
August, 1778, because of ill health. The commander of the regiment during Sullivan's 
expedition was probably Lt. Col. Ludowick Weltner. Heitman, op. cit., 2.7. 

2.0. Washington had sent Brig. Gen. Samuel H. Parsons into Connecticut, where he 
mustered some regulars and with the available militia routed the British who were 
raiding Norwalk. So effective was the American resistance that the British did not 

1779 H Sullivan's Indian Expedition 163 

2.7 th Gen! Poors Brigade moov'd down the river & 
Join'd the Main army at what is called the town. — " 
the above mention 'd deserters that ware orderd to be 
executed to day are pardoned by the Gen! — who has 
declar'd he never will pardon another man in like cir- 

x8 Col? Reid ariv'd with 80 waggons with pro- 
visions & Stores from Easton. the pack Horses are 
destributed in the several Brigades & Reg*s to day & 
mark'd. — 

X9 th we are inform'd that a party of Savages with 
some british troops have taken a small fort 2 " 2 " on the west 
branch of the Susquehannah near Sunsbury, have plun- 
der'd the Inhabitents of their cattle, horses & every other 
thing they could carry off. — & an other party has been 
down to a place call'd the Minnisinks 2 " 3 on the deliware 
river & have had an action with a party of our Millitia 
in which the Millitia ware rather worsted, & lost a 
number of men, but the Millitia being reinfors'd the en- 
imy ware oblig'd to retreet — we likewise are inform'd 
that Gen! Clinton has moov'd up from New York & 
taken possession at Kings ferry again with his main 

30 th the Army under Gen! Sullivan is order'd to March 
to Morrow Morning, towards the Indian Settlement, a 
very severe campaign I expect we shall have. 

Genr! Sullivans army at Wyoming consists of the 
Troops following viz: 

renew their operations along the coast. G. H. Hollister, The History of Connecticut 
(Hartford, 1857), II, 378-9. 

11. The town of Wyoming, or Wilkes-Barre. 

2.2.. The small fort was Freeland's Fort, which stood on Warrior Run, about 4 miles 
east of Watsontown, Northumberland co., Pa. The attack occurred about 9: A. M. 
on July 2.1, 1779. Report of the Commission ... I, 381-3. 

13. Minisink or Greenville, Orange co., N. Y., 5 miles east of Port Jervis on the 
Delaware River. 

164 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ *779 

Maxwells Brigade consisting of Ogdons, Datens, 
Shreefs & Spencers Reg's. — M 

Poors Brigade consisting of Cilleys, Reids, Scammells 
& Courtlands Reg's. — 

Hands Brigade consisting of the German Reg?, Shots 
Corps, Spoldens Independent Company, & Hubley's 
Reg? from penselvania. — X5 

Wyoming July 31* 1779 
this day the army Marches for Teogo, 2 " 6 in the following 
order : 

Head Quarters Easton May 24 th 1779 

When the army shall be fully Assembled the following 
Arrangements are to take place: — 

Light corps Commanded by 
Gen 1 . Hand 

Armandts corps 2 " 7 

Sholts D° 

6 companies of Rangers 

W"? Butlers Reg* 

Morgans Corps & all volunteers 

that may Join the army. 

Maxwell's Brigade \ Ogdons, Day tons, 1 Regt.s & form 

to consist of J Shreeves & spencers. khe left of the 

front line — 

14. Brig. Gen. William Maxwell's brigade consisted of the ist New Jersey regiment 
under Col. Matthias Ogden, the 3rd New Jersey under Col. Elias Dayton, the znd New 
Jersey under Col. Israel Shreve, and Spencer's regiment under Col. Oliver Spencer. 

2.5. Brig. Gen. Edward Hand's brigade consisted of the German regiment under 
Lt. Col. Ludowick Weltner, Capt. John Paul Schott's Independent Pennsylvania 
company from Ottendorf's corps, Capt. Simon Spalding's Wyoming Valley company, 
and Lt. Col. Adam Hubley's nth Pennsylvania regiment. 

2.6. Teoga is now Athens, Bradford co., Pa., on the west bank of the Susquehanna, 
z miles above the mouth of the Chemung River. 

17. Charles Armand Turin, Marquis de la Rouerie (1756-1793), came to America 
in 1777 and was commissioned a colonel. He raised a small cavalry corps of French- 
men and was active in several battles. After the death of Count Pulaski in 1779, the 
remains of his corps were incorporated into Armand's command. Armand fought 
under Gates at the battle of Camden, and took part in the Yorktown siege. He was 
made a brigadier-general in 1783 and returned to France the following year. Townsend 
Ward, "Charles Armand Tunn . . . ", in Pa. Mag. of Hist. & Biog., II, 1-34. Lt. 
Col. William Butler ( d. 1789) commanded the 4th Pennsylvania regiment. Heit- 
man, op. cit., 138. 

1779 H Sullivan's Indian Expedition 165 

Poors Brigade | Cilleys, Reids, 

to consist of }■ Scammells, & Courtlandts, Reg's 

I to form the right of the front line 

Clintons Brigade 18 1 late Livingstons Dubois. s Gainsworths, 
to consist of J & Oldens Reg's to form 2. d line or Reserve. 

The right of the first line to be coverd by ioo men 
draughted from Maxwells Brigade; The left to be coverd 
by ioo men draughted from Poors Brigade; Each flank of 
the 2. d line to be cover'd by 50 men draughted from 
Clintons Brigade: the Flanking division on the right to 
consist of Hartlies & Dattens Reg*s with a draught from 
the line of 100 men. the flanking division on the left to 
consist of the German Bat! n & 100 men draughted from 
the line. 

The order of Battle & the Order of March are repre- 
sented on the Annexed plan & are to be adherd to 
at all times when the situation of the Country will pos- 
sibly admit, & where a deviation takes place, it must 
be carried no further than the necessity of that time 

The Order of March, The light corps will advance by 
the right of Companies in files, & keep at least one mile in 
front. — Maxwells Brigade will advance by it right in 
files, sections, or platoons, as the country will admit. — 
Poors Brigade to advance by it left in the same manner. — 
Clintons Brigade will advance by the right of Reg*s by 
platoons, sections, or files as the Country will admit; all 

18. Brig. Gen. James Clinton's brigade consisted of the 4th New York regiment, 
formerly commanded by Col. Henry B. Livingston, but now headed by Lt. Col. Fred- 
erick Weisenfels; the 5th New York under Col. Lewis Du Bois; the 3rd New York 
under Col. Peter Gansevoort; the 7th Massachusetts, formerly commanded by the 
late Col. Ichabod Alden but now under Lt. Col. John Brooks. Heitman, op. cit., passim. 
Cook (j>p. cit.') states that the znd New York regiment under Col. Philip Van Cort- 
landt was attached to this brigade. 

166 Journals of Henry Dearborn C1779 

the covering parties & flanking divisions on the right 
will advance by the left, & those on the left, by the 
right; — the Artillery & pack horses will March in the 
Center, should the Army be attacked in front while 


Light Troops Commanded by General Hand 





i§ 5 

& o 





Clinton's Brigade 


Reproduced from the diagram in Dearborn s original manuscript journal 

on its march, the light Corps will Immediately form 
and repulse the Enimy. the flanking divisions will In- 
deavoor to gain the flank & rear of the Enimy, while 
the line is forming the pack horses will in all cases fall 
into the position represented in the annex'd plan, should 
the Enimy attack on either flank, the flanking division 
attacked will form a front & sustain the attack till rein- 
forced, in which case a part of the light corps is to be 
Immediately detach'd to gain the Enimies flank & rear. 

1 779 3 Sullivan's Indian Expedition 167 

the covering parties of the 2_ d line will moove to gain 
the other flank, should the Enimy attack our rear the 
2_ d line will face & form a front to the Enimy. the cov- 
ering parties of the 1* line will moove to sustain it 
while the flanking Divisions face about and Endeavour 
to gain their flanks rear. Shoould the light troops be 


Light Corps Commanded by General Hand 

100 Men 

Poor's Brigade Maxwell's Brigade 


^* _ 












100 Men 

Clinton's Brigade 





;o Men 

o Men 

Reproduced from the diagram in Dearborn s original manuscript journal 

driven back, they will pass thro the Intervals of the main 
Army & form in the rear; should the Enimy in an Ingage- 
ment with the army when form'd, endeavour to turn ei- 
ther flank, the covering parties will moove up to lengthen 
the line, & so much as may be found necessary from the 
flanking division, will display outwards to prevent the 
attempt of the Enimy from succeeding; the light Corps 
will have their advance & flank guards at a good distance 
from the Main body — 

1 68 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1779 

the Flanking Divisions will furnish flank guards & the 
2. d line a Rear Guard for the Main Army; when we find 
the light Corps engag'd with the Enimy in front, the 
front of the pack horses will halt and the rear close up, 
while the collumns moove in a small distance Close & 
display Columns, which will bring the horses in the po- 
sition represented in the plan for order of Battle, should 
the attack be made on either flank or Rear the horses 
must be kept in the position they are in at the commence- 
ment of the attack, unless other orders are then given. — 
July 31! 1779 

After passing the forenoon at very severe 
fatigue in loading the boats & pack horses, the army 
moovd from Wyoming at 2_Oclock P. M with 12.0 boats 
about ixoo pack horses & 700 beef cattle, we proceeded 
to Lachawanea (10 miles) & Encamp'd. here has been a 
very pleasant settlement, the land is very fertile & level, 
the Inhabitants being drove off, & the place dessolated by 
the Savages last year, it is now uninhabited, we have 
had a remarkable rainey time for 10 days past & still 
continues. — 

August 1? Sunday. — As the boats did not get up last night, 
the army did not march till 4 oClock. P.M. proceeded 7 
miles the way most horredly rough, we found great diffi- 
culty in giting forward the pack horses, it was late in 
the evining before we ariv'd at our incamping ground, 
our rear Guard did not arive till near day brake; we in- 
camp'd on a fine piece of Intervale, which has been In- 
habited, but shared the fate of Wyoming last year, this 
place was Formaly Inhabited by savages & is called 
Quilutimack. 2 " 9 — 

2.9. Quailutimack, signifying "we came unawares upon them." The encampment 
was made on the intervale two miles above Ransom, Lackawanna co., Pa., on the 
west bank of the Susquehanna. Cook, op. cit., 12.3. 

1779 1 Sullivan's Indian Expedition 169 

2. d the army lay still to repair the pack sadles &c &c. — 
we took a number of fine fish with a sean to day — such as 
bass, pike, chubs &c &c — 

3 d the army march'd at 7 oclock, proceeded 12. miles 
to some dessolated fields at the mouth of a creek call'd 
Tunkhannunk, 30 we had much better marching to day. 

4 th march'd at 6 oclock, proceeded 17 miles to a des- 
solated farm call'd Vanderlips, which is an excellent tract 
of land, we pass'd several dessolated farms to day, one of 
which was on a Streem 5 miles from where we incamp'd 
last night, call'd Meshoping; 31 the land we have march'd 
over to day is very Mountainous. — 

5 th march'd at 10 oclock, proceeded to Wyolusing 32 - 
10 miles, this has been an old Indian Town setuate on 
an Excellant tract of Intervale land, about 80 families of 
this town were Christianis'd by a Moravian parson & 
form'd into a reguler town, in the senter of which they 
had a Chappel. the land on this River being purchas'd 
by the Connecticut Company in the year 1770 or 71, the 
savages moov'd off further westward, & left this place in 
possession of a few Americans, who sence the commence- 
ment of this war have left it & Join'd the Enimy. this 
Town stood on a point of land round which the river 
makes a very learge bow or turn, above the town a learge 
streem emties into the river, called Wyolusing, the land 
here is cover 'd with a very learge burthen of English 
Grass; on the Intervale near this place are much the learg- 
est trees I ever saw, the growth is Black walnut & 

30. The encampment was made on the site of Tunkhannock, Wyoming co., Pa., at 
the mouth of Tunkhannock Creek, 3Z miles north by west of Wilkes-Barre. 

31. Meshoppen, Wyoming co., Pa., on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, 47 
miles north by west of Wilkes-Barre. 

3X. Wyalusing, Bradford co., Pa., on the east bank of the Susquehanna at the mouth 
of Wyalusing Creek. Lt. Lodge's map indicates that the encampment was on the west 
side of the river. 

170 Journals of Henry Dearborn H 1779 

6 th we remain at Wyolusing to day to recruit our 
horses & cattle. — 

7 th the weather being rainey we lay still — - 

8 th the Army march 'd at 6 oclock. I had the flank 
Guard, passed several high mountains, & several desso- 
late farms proceeded to what is call'd the standing stone 
bottom, 33 where there is a learge body of excellent land, 
that has been Improv'd; — Gen! Sullivan is so unwell that 
he is not able to command the army and is oblig'd to pro- 
ceed by water, — 

9 th march'd at 7 oclock, proceeded 3 miles to a desso- 
late farm, on the mouth of a streem call'd Wesawking, 34 
here we halted an hour, then proceeded 12. miles, to a 
learge body of clear Intervale cover'd with high Grass & 
incamp'd. — this place is within 4 miles of Tiogea & has 
been inhabited by both white People & Savages, & is 
Call'd Sheshekonunk; 35 the land we march'd over to 
day is very fine indeed. — Gen! Sullivan is not so unwell as 
he has been, & has resume'd the command of the army 
again. — the weather being very warm & our march very 
severe many of our men falter' d to day. — 

10 th the army lay still, the Gen! & a number of the field 
Officers are reconnoitering the country, and Indeavouring 
to find a place wher the army can ford the river; — the 
General Course from Wyoming to Tiogea is near North. 

11 th the Army forded the river where the water was 
so deep and rapped that we found great difficulty in ford- 
ing, after fording the river proceeded 3 miles & crossing 
the west branch of the river call'd the Tiogea branch 

33. The encampment was made on the west bank of the river, opposite the present 
site of Standing Stone, Bradford co., Pa. 

34. This stream is now called Wysox Creek. It empties into the Susquehanna from 
the north, 4 miles east of Towanda. 

35. Sheshequin, Bradford co., Pa., 9 miles north of Towanda and 2.5 miles southeast 
of Elmira, N. Y. The old Indian town of Sheshequin was on the opposite side of the 
river on the present site of Ulster. Cook, op. cit., 12.4. 

1779 H Sullivan's Indian Expedition 171 

ariv'd at Tiogea, setuate on the point where the west 
branch forms a Junction with the Sisquehannah; on 
both sides of the Tiogea branch are very learge bodies 
of clear Intervale, coverd with high grass, where there 
has been a learge Indian Settlement, & where Queen 
hester 36 (Queen of the Six Nations) resided until last 
fall, Col? Hartley 37 with a party of troops burn'd her 
palace: Gen! Sullivan has been fortunate enough to 
reach this place with his Army without any concider- 
able accident happening. 

i2_ th we are begining to erect works for the security 
of the troops & Stores to be left at this place. — the Gen! 
receiv'd intelligence this afternoon by a Small party that 
had been sent to make discoveries, that the Enimy appeer 
to be in great confusion & about mooving from Che- 
mong, 38 an Indian town ix miles up the Tiogea branch, in 
consequence of which the whole army fit for duty march'd 
at 8 oclock P.M. in order to surprise the enimy at Che- 
mong; — on our march we pass'd several very difficult de- 
files, & as the night was very dark, & the path but little 
use'd, we found great difficulty in proceeding. Gen! Hand 
with his Brigade was to go round & fall in to the rode 
that leads from the town up the river, while Gen! Poor 
moov'd directly to the town & made the attackt if he 
found the enimy in possession of the town, at day brake 

36. Queen Esther was the granddaughter of Madame Montour, a half-breed who 
married a Seneca chief. Esther's parents were French Margaret and Katarioniecha. 
With her husband, Eghohowin, a chief of the Delawares, Esther lived at Sheshequin 
until 1771. That year she and her people moved up the river to the mouth of the 
Chemung river. Queen Esther's village was burned by Col. Hartley in 1778 for her 
part in the Wyoming massacre. After Sullivan's expedition, no more is heard of her. 
Esther was a sister of Catherine of Catherine's Town. F. W. Hodge, Handbook of 
American Indians . . . (Washington, ifjix), I, 938. 

37. Col. Thomas Hartley (1748-1800) commanded the nth Pennsylvania regiment . 
He had resigned in February, 1779. Heitman, op. cit., 178. 

38. Chemung stood on the left bank of the Chemung River, 3 miles above the 
present village of Chemung, in Chemung co., N. Y. Cook, op. cit., 1x5. 

172. Journals of Henry Dearborn [[1779 

we ariv'd at the Town but found it deserted, only two or 
three scattering Indians ware seen running from the town, 
the Town consisted of about 30 houses, situate on the 
bank of the Tiogea. their houses ware built with split & 
hew'd timber, cover'd with bark, there ware two learge 
buildings which ware said to be publick houses, there 
was very little left in the houses except baskets, buckets, 
& skins, the houses had no chimneys, or flooers & ware 
very dirty & smookey: about sun rise all the buildings 
ware set on fire, on examination we found that a party 
of the enimy incamp'd about 60 rods from the town last 
night, & from all appeerences the enemy left the town 
last evining, Gen! Hand with his brigade pursu'd the 
enimy about 2. miles & was fired on by a party of Indians 
from the top of a hill, who run off as soon as the fire was 
return'd, Gen! Hand had 6 men kill'd & seven wounded, 
three of the latter ware officers; the enimy ware pursued 
by our troops but not overtaken. — -we found a number of 
very learge fields of corn, in the whole about 40 acres 
about fit to roast, which we cut down & destroy'd, — 
in doing which a party of our men ware fir'd on by a 
party of tories & Indians across the river, [who] kill'd 
one man & wounded 4; after compleeting the distor- 
tion of the corn, Town, &c. we return'd to Tiogea, 
where we ariv'd at dark, very much fategue'd having 
march'd not less then 30 miles, & the weather very 
warm. Chemong lays about N. West from Tiogea. — 

14 th nothing new. — 

15 th 1000 chosen men under the command of Gen! Poor 
are order'd to march to morrow morning up the river, 
to meet Gen! Clinton, who is on his way to Join us with 
his Brigade, & is in some danger of being attackt by the 
Enimy before he can form a junction with our main army; 
I am order'd on this Command. — 

1779 H Sullivan's Indian Expedition 173 

this afternoon a small party of Indians fir'd on some 
men who ware without our guards after horses & cattle 
kill'd & Scalp'd one man, & wounded another, a party 
was sent out in pursute of them but could not come up 
with them. 

16 th Gen! Poor march'd with his detachment at 10 
oclock A.M. proceeded in two columns 13 miles up the 
Susquehanna over very rough ground, we incamp'd near 
the ruins of an old Indian Town call'd Macktowanunk. 39 
the land near the river is generally good. — 

17 th we march'd early this morning, proceeded 12. 
miles to Owagea, 4 ° an Indian Town which was deserted 
last spring, after planting; about the town is a numbar 
of fruit trees, & many plants &hearbs that are common in 
our part of the country, here is a learge body of clear In- 
tervale cover'd with Grass; our march to day has been 
very severe & fategueng, especially for the left Column 
(to which I belong,) as we had to pass several difficult 
steep hills & bad Morasses. — 

18 th we march'd early this morning, proceeded 14 miles 
to Choconnut, 41 the remains of a learge Indian Town, 
which has been likewise abandoned this summer, here we 
found plenty of cucumbers, squashes, turnips, &c — we 
found about 2.0 houses, which we burnt our days March 
has been more severe than yesterday, as we had besides 
hills & common swamps, one swamp of about 1 miles 
so cover'd with learge pines, standing & lying, which 
appear'd as tho several hurricanes had been very busey 
among them, since which a tremendious groath of bushes 

39. Macktowanunck stood near the site of Barton, Tioga co., N. Y., which is on the 
north bank of the Susquehanna River at the junction of Butson Creek and Ellis Brook. 

40. Owego, Tioga co., N. Y., is on the north bank of the Susquehanna River, about 
a mile above the mouth of Owego Creek. 

41. This encampment was probably at Choconut Centre, Broome co., N. Y., about 
3K miles northwest of Binghamton. 

174 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ !779 

about 2_o feet high have sprung up, so very thick as to 
render passing thro' them Impracticable by any troops 
but such as nothing but death can stop. — at sunset we 
ware very agreably allarm'd by the report of a Cannon 
up the river which we suppos'd to be Gen! Clintons 
Evining Gun. 

19 th Our troops ware put in motion very early this 
morning after marching about one mile Gen! Poor re- 
ceiv'd an express from Gen! Clinton informing him that 
the latter expected to be here by 10 oclock A.M. this 
day, in consequence of which we return 'd to our old 
incampment, where Gen! Clinton Joined us at 10 oclock 
with xooo men Including Officers, boatmen, &c — he has 
2.08 bateaux with provisions, Ammunition &c. after 
mutial congratulations & Complyments, the whole pro- 
ceeded down the river to Owagea & incamp'd. this 
evining the town of Owagea was made a bone fire of to 
grace our meeting; our general course from Tiogea to 
Choconnut is about N. East. — 

xo th we have a very heavy rain to day & no tents, but 
we are obliged to ride it out. — 

zi* we march'd early, proceeded within 10 miles of 
Tiogea. — 

2_z d March'd at 6 oclock, & at 11 ariv'd in Camp, 
where we ware saluted with 13 Cannon & a tune on Col? 
Proctors band of Musick. — 

Z3 d we are prepareing to march with all possible ex- 
pedition. — about 5 oclock this afternoon a very shocking 
accident happened in our Brigade, a Soldier very acci- 
dentally discharge'd a musket charged with a ball & sev- 
eral buckshot, 3 of which unfortunately struck Cap? 
Kimbal 4i of Col? Cilleys Reg? who was standing at some 

42.. Capt. Benjamin Kimball of the ist New Hampshire regiment. Heitman, of. 
cit., 331. 

1779 3 Sullivan's Indian Expedition 175 

distence in a tent with several other officers, in such a man- 
ner that he expired within 10 or 15 minutes, as universelly 
lamented as he was esteem'd by all who knew him. — 
one of the shot wounded a soldier in the leg who was set- 
ting at some distence from the tent Cap? Kimbal was in. 

14 th the remains of the unfortunate Cap? Kimbal was 
Inter'd at 11 oclock A.M. with the honours of war, at- 
tended by Gen! Poor & almost all the Officers of the Bri- 
gade, with Col? Proctors Band of Musick; — the Army is 
very busey in prepareing to march. 

15 th we find great difficulty in giting ready to moove 
for want of a sufficiant number of horses, to Carry our pro- 
visions, Ammunitions, Stores &c. — however we are to 
moove to morrow with out fail, with 2.7 days flower & 
live beef, — our whole force that will march from here is 
about 5000 men, Officers included, with nine peices of 
Artillery. — 3 of the Anyda Warriers ariv'd in camp this 
afternoon who are going on with us, as guides. — two run- 
ners ariv'd from Col? Broadhead 43 at Fort Pitt, Informing 
that Col? Broadhead is on his way with about 800 men 
agains[t] the western Indians. 

2.6 th our Army March'd at ix oclock in the order laid 
down in the plan of order of March & Battle, a garrison 
of about 300 men is left at this place under the Command 
of Col? Shreeve. — The army proceeded about 4 miles & 
incamp'd. — M? Lodge 44 a Gentleman who survay'd & 
Measure 'd the rode from Easton to this place, goes on 
with [US] in order to take an actual survay of the country, 
who measures the rode as we go on. 

43. Daniel Brodhead (1736-1809) had raised a company of riflemen in 1775. He 
was made a colonel of the 8th Pennsylvania regiment, and after Valley Forge was sent 
to Fort Pitt. In April, 1779, he succeeded to the command of that post. With 600 men 
he marched up the Allegheny and subdued the Indians in one month. He raided the 
Delawares in 1781, but subsequently was removed from command at Fort Pitt. Diet. 
Am. Biog., Ill, 61-3. 

44. Lt. Benjamin Lodge ( d. 1801), detached from the 6th Pennsylvania regiment. 

176 Journals of Henry Dearborn C1779 

2.7 th the Army March'd at 8 oclock. our march was 
very much Impeeded by the Artillery & Ammunition 
wagons, which we have to clear a rode thro the thick 
woods & difficult defiles. — the army was obliged to halt 
7 hours at one defile to day for the artillery & baggage. — 
at 10 oclock P.M. we ariv'd [at] our incamping ground, 
a learg body of clear Intervale where we found about 
70 or 80 acres of fine corn. — our march has not been 
more than 5 miles to day. — 

x8 th as we had the corn to destroy before we could 
march, it was 2. oclock P.M. before we moov'd off the 
ground. — by reason of a high mountain that shuts down 
to the river so as [to] render passing with the artillery 
impractacable, we ware oblige'd to ford the river 45 twice 
before we got to chemong, with the artillery, pack horses, 
& one Brigade, the water was so high as render'd ford- 
ing very difficult & dangerous, a conciderable quantity 
of flower, ammunition & baggage was lost in the river. — 
at 10 in the evening the rear of the army ariv'd at Che- 
mong where we incamp'd, our march to day has not 
been more than 3 miles: — a small scout of ours return 'd 
to day which informs that they discover'd a learg in- 
campment about 6 miles from Chemong. — a small party 
of Indians fired on a party of our men to day that ware 
seting fire to some houses over the river, but did no 

2.9 th The army march'd at 9 oclock A.M. proceeded 
about 5 miles when our light troops discover'd a line of 
brestwork about 80 rods in their front, which upon re- 
conoytering was found to extend about half a mile in 
length, on very advantageous ground with a learge brook 
in front, the river on their right, a high mountain on their 

45. This mountain was probably Glory Hill, just northwest of Waverly, Tioga 
co.,N. Y. 

1779 H Sullivan's Indian Expedition 177 

left & a learge settlement in their rear call'd New Town; 46 
their works ware very artfully mask'd with green bushes, 
so that I think the discovering them was as accidental as 
it was fortunate to us. Skurmishing on both sides com- 
mence'd after we discover'd their works, which continued 
until our Disposition was made, which was as followeth 
viz : — the Artillery to form in front of their works, cover 'd 
by Gen! Hands Brigade, Gen! Poors Brigade & riflemen 
to turn the Enimies left, &fall in their rear, supported by 
Gen! Clintons Brigade: Gen! Maxwells Brigade to form 
a Corps dereserve; the left flanking division & light In- 
fantry to pursue the enimy when they left their works. — 
at 3 oclock P.M. Gen! Poor began his rout by Collumns 
from the right of Reg^ by files, we pass'd a very thick 
swamp, so cover 'd with bushes for near a mile that the 
Collumns found great difficulty in keeping their order, 
but by Gen! Poors great prudence & good conduct, we 
proceeded in much better order than I expected we pos- 
sibly could have done; after passing this swamp we in- 
clin'd to the left, cross' d the creek that runs in front of 
the Enimies works: — on both sides this creek, was a 
learge number of new houses, but no land cleared, soon 
after we pass'd this creek we began to assend the moun- 
tain that cover'd the Enimies left. 47 Immediately after 
we began to Assend the Mountain, we ware saluted by a 
brisk fire from a body of Indians who ware posted on this 
mountain for the purpos of preventing any troops turn- 
ing the left of their works, at the same Instant that 
they began their fire on us, they rais'd the Indian yell, 

46. Newtown stood on the left bank of the Chemung River about 5 miles below 
Elmira, and one mile above the site of the battle. 

47. The battle of Newtown was fought on Sunday, August z.% on the ground 
between the Chemung River and Baldwin Creek. Dearborn calls this creek "a learge 
brook." The mountain on the enemy's left was Sullivans Hill, later the site of a 
monument commemorating the event. The battle ground is six miles southeast of 
Elmira. Cook, op. cit., 117. 

178 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1779 

or war whoop: the rifle men kept up a scattering fire 
while we form'd the line of Battle, which was done ex- 
ceeding quick; we then advanced rappedly with fix'd 
bayonets without fireing a shot, altho they kept up a 
steady fire on us until we gain'd the summet of the 
Mountain, which is about half a mile, we then gave 
them a full volley which oblig'd them to take to their 
heels: Col? Reids Reg? which was on the left of the 
Brigade was more severely attackt then any other part 
of the Brigade, which prevented his advancing as far as 
the rest, after we had scowerd the top of the mountain, 
(in doing which U Cass 48 of our Reg? tommohawk'd an 
indian with the Indians own tommahawk that was 
slightly wounded) I being next to Col? Reid on the left, 
finding he still was very severely ingag'd nearly on the 
same ground he was first attackt on, thought proper to 
reverce the front of the Reg? & moove to his assistence. I 
soon discover 'd a body of Indians turning his right , which 
I turn'd about by a full fire from the reg? this was a 
very seasonable releaf to Col? Reid who at the very mo- 
ment I fir'd on those that ware turning his right found 
himself so surrounded, that he was reduce'd to the nesses- 
saty of retreeting, or making a desparate push with the 
bayonet, the latter of which he had began to put in exe- 
cution the moment I gave him releaf; the Enimy now all 
left the field of action with precepetation, & in great con- 
fusion, pursued by our light Infantry about 3 miles, they 
lef[t] a number of their packs blankets &con the ground. — 
half an hour before the action became serious with Gen! 
Poors Brigade the Artillery open'd upon their works 
which soon made their works too warm for them. — we 

48. Jonathan Cass ( d. 1830), who served as a private at Bunker Hill, was now 1st 
lieutenant of the 3rd New Hampshire regiment. At the end of the war he was a cap- 
tain of the znd New Hampshire regiment. He remained in the U. S. army until 1801, 
when he retired a major. Heitman, op. cit., 147. 

1779 3 Sullivan's Indian Expedition 179 

found of the Enimy on the field of action 11 Indian war- 
riers dead & one Squaw; toock one white man & one negro 
prisoners, from whome we learnt that Butler Commanded 
here, that Brant 49 had all the Indians that could be mus- 
ter'd in the five Nations, that there was about 2.00 whites 
a few of which ware British regular troops, it seems their 
whole force was not far from 1000. — these prisoners in- 
form us that their loss in kill'd & wounded was very 
great, the most of which they according to custom, 
carried off. — our loss in Gen! Poors Brigade, kill'd and 
wounded is 

kill'd wounded 

Ma)' o . . 1 Maj" Titcomb 

Cap? o . . 1 Cap? Clays 

L* o . . 1 died the same night 

Non commis'd) . . L? McCawley 50 
& privates J . . y 

our loss in kill'd & wounded in the whole Army ex- 
cept Gen! Poors Brigade was 

kill'd . o wounded ... 4 

at sunset the army Incamp'd on the ground lately oc- 
cupied by the Enimy. — 

30 th the Army remain'd on the ground to day, de- 
stroy'd a vast quantity of corn & about 40 houses. — the 
Army by a request of Gen! Sullivans agree'd to live on 

49. Thayendanegea, a Mohawk chief (1741-1807), received an education and was 
christened Joseph Brant. He served as secretary to the Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs in 1774, striving to keep the Iroquois on the side of the British. After a visit 
to England he commanded the Indians on St. Leger's expedition in 1777, and directed 
the Cherry Valley massacre in 1778. At the end of the war Brant became the spokes- 
man of the Indians who sought indemnities for their losses. Diet. Am. Biog., II, 604. 

50. Lt. Col. Benjamin Titcomb ( d. 1799) °^ tne 1st New Hampshire regiment was 
first wounded at Hubbardton in 1777. He retired from the army January 1, 178 1, after 
the New Hampshire line was rearranged. Capt. Elijah Clayes of the md New Hamp- 
shire regiment died of his wounds on November 30. Lt. Nathaniel McCauley belonged 
to the 1st New Hampshire regiment. Heitman, op. cit., 545, 159, 364. 

180 Journals of Henry Dearborn £1779 

half a pound of beef & half a pound of flower p^ day for 
the future as long as it may be found nessesary, our provi- 
sions being very short. — this night our sick & wounded 
together with the Ammunition waggons & 4 of our heav- 
iest peaces of Artillery are sent back to tiogea by water, 
which will enable the Army to proceed with much 
greater ease & rappidity. — our course from Chemong to 
here is about N. West. — 

31* we march'd at 10 o'clock, the right Column 
march'd on the hills some distencefrom the river, the left 
collumn & Artillery march'd by the river, the land we 
march'd over fine, found & destroy 'd several fields of 
corn & houses. — proceeded 4^ miles to where the Alli- 
ganer & kaiyugea branches of the river unite, on the 
point between these two streems was a very prety town 
call'd Kannawalohalla, 51 which from appeerances was 
deserted this morning, some boats ware seen by our ad- 
vanced parties going up the Allaganer branch, a number 
of feather beds ware emtied in the houses, our soldiers 
found several learge chests buried which ware fill'd with 
a great variety of houshold furniture & many other arti- 
cles; after halting here an hour we proceeded between 
the two rivers on a fine plain about 5 miles & incamp'd. 
a detachment was sent up the Allagana branch in pur- 
sute of the Enimy. 

Septem: 1* the detachment that was sent up the river 
in pursute of the Enimy return 'd this morning, they 
could not overtake the Enimy, but they found & des- 
troy'd several learge fields of corn — 

the Army march'd at 10 oclock, proceeded about 3 
miles on a plain then came to what is call'd bair Swamp 

51. Kannawaloholla stood on the present site of Elmira, at the junction of the 
Chemung River and the mouth of Newtown Creek. The two branches to which 
Dearborn refers may be the two divisions of the river as it passes on either side of 
Big Island, below the city. Cook, op. cit., 12.8. 

1779 H Sullivan's Indian Expedition 181 

which extends to French Katareens 51 9 miles, the growth 
is pine, Spruce & hemlock exceeding thick, a small river 
runs thro it which we had to cross about 2.0 times, on 
both sides of this Swamp is a ridg of tremendeous hills, 
which the collumns ware oblige'd to march on, having a 
rode to open for artillery, we proceeded very slowly, at 
dark when we had got within about 3 miles of katareens 
town we found ourselves in a most horrid thick Mirery 
swamp which render'd our proceeding so difficult that it 
was 10 oclock in the Evining before we ariv'd at the 
town, where we found fires burning & every other ap- 
peerence of the Enimies having left the town this after- 
noon, this Town consists of above 30 houses there is 
a number [of] fruit trees in this town. — the streem 53 that 
we cross 'd so often to day runs thro this Town & into 
the Seneca or kannadasegea Lake, the south end of which 
is but 3 miles from this town. 

2/? the Army lay still to day to recrute; & to destroy 
the Town corn &c : — a very old Squaw was found in the 
bushes to day who was not able to go off with the rest, 
who informs us that Butler with the tories went from 
this place with all the boats the day before yesterday, 
the Indian warriers moov'd off their fammilies & Effects 
yesterday morning, & then return'd here & stay'd till 
Sunset, she says the Squaws & young Indians ware very 
loath to quit the town but ware for giving themselves 
up, but the warriors would not agree to it. several 
horses & cattle ware found at & about this place. — a 
party of light troops ware sent this morning to indeavour 
to overtake some of the Indians who left this place last 
evining, but return'd without being able to afect it. 

51. Catherine's Town was an Indian village located on the high ground south of 
the present site of Havana, Schuyler co., N. Y., 19 miles north of Elmira. Ibid., 1x9. 
53. Catherine Creek. 

1 82. Journals of Henry Dearborn H 1779 

3 d the Army march'd at 8 oclock. after proceeding 
about 3 miles over rough ground, came oposite the end 
of the Lake & then found good marching, the land very 
fine, proceeded 9 miles & incamp'd at 4 oclock P.M. near 
the side of the lake. This Lake is about 40 miles in length 
& from 2. to 5 in wedth & runs nearly North & South. 

4 th the army march'd at 10 oclock. proceeded 4 miles to 
a small village, 54 where we found several fine fields of 
corn, after destroying the village & corn, march'd on 8 
miles further & incamp'd. the land we passed over 
to day is very fine. — 

5 th the Army march'd at 10 oclock. proceeded 5 
miles to an old Indian town Call'd Candaia or apple 
Town 55 — where there is a very old orchard of 60 trees, & 
many other fruit trees. — the Town consists of 15 or 2.0 
houses very beautifully situated near the Lake, in the 
Town are 3 Sepulchers which are very Indian fine, where 
I suppose some of their chief [S] are deposited . at this town 
we found a man by the name of Luke Sweatland, 56 who 
was taken by the savages at Wyoming last summer, & 
was adopted into an Indian family in this town, where he 
has liv'd, or reather stay'd about 12. months he appeer'd 
quite overjoy'd at meeting some of his aquaintences from 
Wyoming who are in our army, he says the savages ware 
very much straiten 'd for food from April until corn was 
fit to roast, that his being kept so starv'd prevented his 
attempting to desert, altho he had frequent oppertuni- 
ties, by being sent 2.0 miles to the salt springs to make 
salt, which springs he says affords salt for all the Savages 

54. This Indian village was called Condawhaw. It stood on the present site of North 
Hector in Schuyler co., N. Y., on the east shore of Seneca Lake. Ibid., 1x9. 

55. Kendaia, Seneca co., N. Y. 

56. Luke Swetland (17x9-18x3) wrote a narrative of his captivity among the 
Seneca Indians which was published for the second time in 1875. No record of the first 
edition exists. Joseph Sabin, A Dictionary of Books Relating to America . . . (New York, 
1934), XXIV, 380. 

1779!] Sullivan's Indian Expedition 183 

in this part of the country, he says the Indians ware very 
much allarm'd & dejected at being beat at New Town, 
they told him they had a great many wounded which 
they sent off by water — we destroy'd learge quantities of 
corn here, an express ariv'd this afternoon from Tiogea, 
by which I receiv'd a letter that inform'd me that Abnar 
Dearborn, a Nephew of mine about 16 years old, who was 
wounded in the Battle at New town, died of his wound 
the 2.4 Ins'— 

6 th the horses & cattle ware so scatter'd this morning 
that the army could not git redy to march until 3 oclock 
P.M. proceeded 3 miles & incamp'd. Oposite to where 
we incamp'd on the other side of the Lake we discovered 
a settlement where we could se[e] some Indians driving 
horses. — 

7 th we toock up our march at 7 oclock proceeded 8 
miles & came to the end of the Lake, where we expected 
the Enimy would give us an other battle, as they might 
have a very great advantage over us as we forded the out- 
let of the Lake, when we ariv'd in sight of the ford we 
halted, & several scouts ware sent out to reconoytir the 
adjacent woods, when we found the coast was clear, the 
army pass'd the ford, proceeded 3 miles by the end of 
the Lake and found a small settlement which we des- 
troy'd & then proceeded 2. miles from the Lake & ariv'd 
at a learge town call'd Kannadasegea 57 which is con- 
sider'd as the Cappital of the senecas & is call'd the Sen- 
eca Castle. — it consists of about 40 houses very erregu- 
larly situated, in the senter of which is the ruins of a 
Stockade fort & block house, here is a conciderable 
number of apple & other fruit trees & a few acres of 

57. Kanadaseaga (the grand village) stood on both sides of Kanadaseaga Creek, iK 
miles northwest of Geneva, N. Y. This was the capital of the Seneca nation. The 
ruins mentioned by Dearborn were all that remained of a stockaded fort built by Sir 
William Johnson in 1756. Cook, op. cit., 130. 

184 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1779 

land clear cover' d with English grass, their cornfields 
which are very learge are at some considerable distence 
from the Town. — we found in this Town a white child 
about 3 years old which we suppose was a captive. — in 
the houses was left a number of Skins, some corn & 
many of their curiosities. — 

8 th the Army lay still to day. the riflemen ware sent 
to destroy a town about 8 miles from hence on the west 
side of the lake Call'd Gaghsconghgwa : — 58 we found a 
number of stacks of hay not far from this town which we 
set fire to. — a Scout of ours burnt a town to day about 10 
miles N.-East from hence on the rode to the Kaiyugea set- 
tlement, call'd Skaigees or long falls. — 59 

9 th by reason of a rain last night the Army could not 
March till 12. oclock. — all our sick & Invaleeds ware sent 
back this morning to Tiogea, under an escort of 50 men. — 
we proceeded about 3 miles thro old fields cover'd with 
grass, then enter'd a thick swamp call'd the 10 mile 
swamp, we proceeded 4 miles in this swamp with great 
difficulty, crossed a conciderable streem of water, & 
incamp'd. — 

10 th the Army march'd at 8 oclock. proceeded thro 
the swamp & pass'd a learge body of clear land cover'd 
with grass, after leaving the clear land march'd one mile 
& came to a Small Lake call'd konnondaguah. we forded 
the outlet of this lake, proceeded about half a mile & 
came to a very prety town call'd kannandaguah, 60 con- 
sisting of about 30 houses, much better built then any I 
have seen before, near this town we discover'd very learge 
fields of corn, near which the Army incamp'd. — several 

58. This town was situated on what is now Kershong Creek, 7 miles south of 
Geneva, N. Y. 

59. Seneca Falls, Seneca co., N. Y., 10 miles east by north of Geneva, on the Seneca 
Outlet or River. 

60. Canandaigua, Ontario co., N. Y., at the outlet of Lake Canandaigua. 

I 779^1 Sullivan's Indian Expedition 185 

parties ware order'd out this afternoon to destroy the 
corn &c. — 

11 th the Army Moov'd at 6 oclock. march'd 14 miles 
to an Indian town call'd Anyayea, 61 situate on a body of 
clear intervale near a small lake of the same name, this 
town consists of 10 or 11 houses, near it was several 
learge cornfields. — the land we march'd over to day is 
very good & a great part of it very thinly wooded & 
cover 'd with grass. — it appeers as if it has been culti- 
vated heretofore. 

i2. th the weather being foul, the army did not march 
till ix oclock. a small post is establish'd here, wher we 
leave our provisions & Ammunition except what will be 
nesessary to carry us to Chenesee (2.5 miles) & back again, 
one piece of artillery is left at this post, the Army 
march'd 11 miles this afternoon over a body of excellent 

13 March'd at 7 oclock proceeded] \]4 miles to a town 
call'd Kanegsas or quicksea, 6z consisting of 18 houses 
situate on an excellent Intervale near a small lake, we 
found a learge quantity of corn, beens, Squashes, potatoes, 
water Mellons, cucumbers &c &c in & about this town : — 
the army halted here 4 hours, to destroy the Town & corn, 
& to build a bridge over a creek. — 63 at this town liv'd a 
very noted warrier call'd the Great Tree, who has made 
great pretentions of friendship to us & has been to Phyla- 
delphia & to Gen! Washingtons head Quarters since the 
war commenced, & has receiv'd a number of Presents, 

61. Hanneyaye was situated at the foot of Honeoye Lake about a half mile east of 
its outlet, and south of Mill Creek, in Ontario co., N. Y. One of the houses was 
used as a fort, surrounded by kegs and bags of flour, under the command of Capt. 
Cummings of the znd New Jersey regiment. Cook, op. cit., 130. 

6z. Adjutoa or Kanaghsaws stood between Lake Conesus and Hemlock Lake, 2. 
miles south of the town of Conesus, Livingston co., N. Y. Ibid., 131. 

63. The army, which was to march around the southern end of Lake Conesus, 
had to bridge one of the inlets of the lake. 

1 86 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1779 

from Genl Washington & from Congress, yet we suppose 
he is with butler against us. — 

A party of Rifle men & some others 2.6 in the whole un- 
der the command of D Boyd 64 of the Rifle corps was sent 
last night to a town 7 miles from here to make what dis- 
coveries he could & return at day brake — 4 of his men 
went into the town found it abandoned but found 3 or 4 
scattering indians about it, one of which they kill'd & 
Skelp'd & then returnd to U Boyd after sunrise who lay 
at some distence from the town. — he then sent 4 men to 
report to Gen! Sullivan what he had discoverd, & moov'd 
on slowly with the remainder toward camp, after he had 
proceeded about half way to camp he halted some time 
expecting the Army along, he after halting some time 
sent 2. more men to Camp who discoverd some scat- 
tering Indians & returnd to U Boyd again, he then 
march'd on his party towards camp, discover'd some 
scattering Indians, one of which one of his men kill'd 
he soon found himself nearly surrounded, & attackt by 
two or three hundred savages & tories he after fight- 
ing them some time attempted to retreet, but found it 
impracticable 6 or 7 of his men did make their escape, 
the remainder finding themselves compleetly surrounded 
ware determin'd to sell themselves as deer as possible, & 
bravely fought until every man was killed but 2. which 
ware taken one of which was L? Boyd, some of the men 
that made their escape came to camp & inform'd the 
Gen! of the matter, upon which Gen! Hand with the light 
troops was order' d to march to the place of the action, 
but tow late, they left all their packs, hats, baggage 
&c wher the action began, which Gen! Hand found. — 

64. Lt. Thomas Boyd of Thompson's Pennsylvania Rifles had been captured at 
Quebec in 1775 an< ^ was not exchanged until November, 1777. He was a first lieutenant 
of the 1st Pennsylvania regiment when he was killed at Genessee Castle. Heitman, op. 
cit. y 114. 

1779 H Sullivan's Indian Expedition 187 

after we had finish'd the bridge the army march'd on, 
proceeded 7 miles to the before mentioned Town & in- 
camp'd — this town consists of 2.2 houses situate on a 
small river, that falls into the Chenesse river 65 about 1 
miles below here, & is call'd Gaghchegwalahale. — 66 

14 th the Gen! expected to have found the great Chen- 
nesee town within i}4 mile of here on this side the river, 
but upon reconoytering found that the town is 6 miles 
from here & on the other side of the river; 67 the army 
was imploy'd until 11 oclock in destroying corn which 
was found in great plenty, at ix march'd, after fording 
the small river that the town stood on & passing thro a 
small grove, we enter'd upon what is called the great Che- 
nesee flats, which is a vast body of clear Intervale extend- 
ing ix or 14 miles up & down the river & several miles 
back from the river, & cover'd with grass from 5 to 8 feet 
high & so thick that a man can git thro it but very 
slowly. — our army appeer'd to very great advantage 
mooving in the exact order of March laid down in the 
plan — but very often we that ware on hors back could see 
nothing but the mens guns above the grass. — after march- 
ing about i. miles on this flat we came to the Chenesee 
river which we forded, passed over a body of flats on the 
other side & assended onto oak land, proceeded 3 miles 
& ariv'd at the town which we found deserted, here we 
found the bodies of L* Boyd & one other man Mangled 
in a most horred manner, from appeerences it seems 
they ware tyed to two trees near which they lay, & first 

65. The Genessee River. 

66. This town, also called Gathtsegwarohare, was 7 miles west of Kanaghsaws, on 
the east side of Canaseraga Creek, about x miles above its confluence with the Genessee 
River. The spot was later occupied by the "Hermitage," the ancestral home of the 
Carrols. Cook, op. cit, 13Z. 

67. The Genessee Castle, stronghold of the Senecas, was located between Cuyler- 
ville and the west bank of the Genessee River, in Livingston co., N. Y. It had vari- 
ous names, including Chenandanah and Little Beard's Town. Ibid., 133. 

1 88 Journals of Henry Dearborn [1779 

severely whip'd, then their tongues ware cut out, their 
finger nails pluck'd off, their eyes pluck'd out, then 
speer'd & cut in many places, & after they had vented 
their hellish spite & rage, cut off their heads and left 
them. — this was a most horrid specticle to behold — ■& 
from which we are taught the necessaty of fighting those 
more than divels to the last moment rather then fall into 
their hands alive. — 

this is much the leargest Town we have met with, it 
consists of more then 100 houses, is situate on an excellent 
piece of land in a learge bow of the river. — it appeers the 
savages left this place in a great hurry & confusion, as 
they left learge quantities of corn husk'd & some in heeps 
not husk'd & many other signs of confusion. — 

15 th at 6 o'clock the whole Army ware turn'd out 
to destroy the corn in & about this town which we found 
in great abundence. we ware from 6 oclock to 2. P.M. in 
destroying the corn & houses, it is generally thought we 
have destroy'd 15000 bushels of corn at this place. — the 
meathod we toock to destroy it was to make learge fires 
with parts of houses & other wood & then pileing the 
corn on to the fire ading wood as we piled on the corn, 
which effectually destroyd the whole of it. — a woman 
with her child came to us to day who was taken at Wyo- 
ming when that place was cut off. her husband & one 
child ware kill'd & skelp'd in her sight when she was 
taken, she informs us that butler & Brant with the to- 
nes & Indians left this place in a great hurry the 13 ins* 
& are gone to Niagara which is 80 miles from hence, 
where they expect we are going. — she says the Indians are 
very uneasey with Butler & their other leaders, & are 
in great distress. — we have now got to the end of our 
rout and are turning our face homeward, at 3 oclock 
we fac'd to the right about & march'd in high spirits, 

1779] Sullivan's Indian Expedition 189 

recross'd the Chenesee river & incamp'd on the Chenesee 
flats, this place lays about west from Tiogea. — 

16 th a number of fields of corn ware discover 'd this 
morning at different places which employ 'd the army un- 
til 10 oclock in destroying. — at 1 oclock P. M. we re- 
cross'd the streem at Gaghchegwalahale, & at 4 ariv'd at 
kanigsas or chockset & incamp'd — 14 of U Boyds party 
ware found this afternoon near to gether skelp'd. Hon- 
yose an onyda Indian of conciderable note that was 
with Li Boyds party was among the dead. — 

17* the army march'd at sunrise & at 12. oclock ariv'd 
at Anyaye where we left our stores, found all safe. — 

18 th the Army march'd at 8 oclock proceeded to kan- 
nandaguah & incamp'd — 4 Onyda Indians one of which 
is a Sachem, met us to day who say that 100 of the 
Onydas & Tuskorores set out with them to join us but 
meeting an Indian that left us sick at kannadasagea 
when we ware advancing, who told them we march'd on 
so rappedly that they could not overtake us so as to be 
of any service — they all return 'd but these 4. — 

19 th the Army march'd to Kannadasegea, an Express 
ariv'd from Gen! Washington to day, 68 by which we are 
assured that Spain has declare'd War with England, & 
that the Grand Fleets of France & Spain have form'd a 
Junction at Sea. — 

at several towns that our army has destroy' d we found 
dogs hung up on poles about 12. or 15 feet high, which we 
are told is done by way of sacrafice, that when they are 
unfortunat in war they sacrafice two dogs in the manner 
above mentioned, to appease their immaginery god. one 
of these dogs skins they suppose is converted into a Jacket 
& the other into a tobacko pouch for their god. — the 

68. Washington's letter to Sullivan was dated at West Point, September 3. Spain 
declared war on Great Britain May 9, 1779. Writings of Washington, XVI, xxx. 

1 90 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1779 

woman who came to us at Chenesee says the savages 
hung up dogs immediately after the Battle at New 
Town. — 

xo th 500 men are detach' d under the command of Col? 
Butler who is to march round the Kaiyugea Lake 69 & 
destroy the Kaiyugea Settlements on the East side of 
the Lake. — 100 men under the Command of Col? Ganse- 
wort are order'd to go & destroy the Mohawk Castle 
on the Mohawk River & to proceed from thence to 
Albany. — the Army march'd this after noon, cross'd the 
outlet of the Seneca Lake & incamp'd. — 

-li 1 I was orderd with 2.00 men to proceed to the west 
side of the Kaiyugea Lake, from thence by the side of the 
lake to the south end, to burn & destroy what Settle- 
ments, corn &c. I might find, at 8 oclock I march'd pro- 
ceeded an East course about 8 miles & found 2. or 3 wig- 
wams in the wood 70 with some small paches of corn 
Squashes, water mellons & cucumbers & about 14 or 
15 fine horses which we could not take, after destroy- 
ing this little village, proceeded 4 miles to the lake where 
I found a very prety town of 10 houses 71 & a concider- 
able quantity of corn all which we burnt, we discover'd 
another small Town about a mile above this which we 
likewise destroyd. this place is call'd Skannayutenate. 7i 
after destroying this Town I march'd on one mile & 
came to a new town 73 consisting of 9 houses which we 
destroy' d & proceeded one mile & found one learg house 

69. Cayuga Lake. 

70. A settlement in the present town of Fayette, Seneca co., probably on Sucker 
Brook. Cook, op. cit., 76. 

71. This town was on the west bank of Cayuga. Lake, in the northeast corner of 
Fayette, Seneca co., N. Y. Ibid., 76. 

72.. Skannayutenate stood about 40 rods from the lake on the south side of Canoga 
Creek, a half mile northeast of Canoga, Seneca co., N. Y. Ibid., 76. 

73. Newtown, an Indian village, stood on the west bank of Cayuga Lake, a mile 
south of the present Canoga. Ibid., 76. 

J 779^ Sullivan's Indian Expedition 191 

which we set fire to & march'd on 1 miles further & 
incamp'd the land we March'd over to day is exceeding 
fine. — 

12$ I march'd half an hour before sunrise proceeded 
about 5 miles & came to the ruins of a Town that a 
party of our men burnt when the army was advancing 
who mis'd their way & happen 'd to fall in at this Town, 
about half a mile from this town I found a learge field 
of corn & 3 houses, we gathered the corn & burnt it in 
the houses. — this Town is call'd Swahyawanah. 74 — we 
march'd from this place about 5 miles & found a wig- 
wam with 3 Squaws & one young Indian who was a 
cripple. I toock 2. of the Squaws who ware about 40 or 50 
years old & march'd on about 3 miles & found one hut 
& a field of corn which I burnt & proceeded about 4 miles 
& incamp'd — 

2.3 d March'd at Sunrise proceeded without any path or 
track or any parson who was ever in this part of the 
country before, to guide us, & the land so horredly rough 
& bushey that it was hardly possible for us to advance. — 
however with great difficulty & fategue we proceeded 
about 8 or 9 miles to the end of a long cape 75 which I ex- 
pected was the end of the lake, but found was not — from 
here we march'd off 2. or 3 miles from the Lake & then 
proceeded by a point of compas about 8 miles & came to 
the end of the lake & incamp'd. this lake is about 40 
miles in length, & from 1 to 5 miles in wedth, & runs 
nearly N. and S. parralel with the Seneca Lake, & they 
are from 8 to 18 miles apart. 

2.4 th March'd at Sunrise, proceeded about 3 miles on 
the high land & came to an old path which led us to 

74. Swahyawana stood in the northeast corner of the present town of Romulus, 
Seneca co., on the north bank of Sinclair Hollow Creek. Ibid., 77. 

75. Taghanic Point, formerly Goodwin's Point. Ibid., 77. 

152. Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1779 

two huts & some corn fields, which ware about one 
mile from where we first found the old path, after burn- 
ing these two houses & corn I sent several small parties 
different ways to loock for a learge Town that I had been 
inform 'd was not many miles from the end of the lake, 
the parties found 10 or 11 scattering houses & a num- 
ber of learge corn fields on & near a streem that falls 
into the Lake : after burning & destroying several houses 
& corn fields, a small party that I had sent out discover'd 
the Town about 3 miles from the lake on the above men- 
tion'd Streem. this town & its surbubs consists of about 
2.5 houses & is call'd Coreorgonet 76 & is the cappital of 
a Small nation or tribe called the .... my party was 
imploy'd from 9 oclock A.M. till sunset. — I expected 
to have met Col? Butler with his party at this town — 

2.5 th I march' d at sunrise for Katareens Town where I 
was order'd to join the main Army. I proceeded a due 
west point over a terible rough mountainous country 
about 18 miles & at 4 oclock P.M. ariv'd at Katareens, 
but the army was gone forward. I proceeded 6 miles in 
what is call'd the bair Swamp & incamp'd. — 

2.6 th March'd at Sunrise & at 12. oclock joined the army 
at Kannawalohala, which is 4 miles from where we 
fought the Enimy the 2.9 of August. — the army had a 
day of Rejoycing here yesterday in Consequence of the 
News from Spain. 

2.7 th some detachments ware sent up the Allegana river 
to destroy what houses & corn fields they might find. 

2.S th the same parties that went yesterday ware sent 
again to day further up the river to destroy a tory Settle- 
ment that a small party discover'd yesterday & a learge 

76. Coreorgonet stood on the west side of Cayuga inlet, about 3 miles from the end 
of the lake and 2. miles south of Ithaca. The tribe name left blank by Dearborn was, 
according to the Iroquois, Toderichroones. It was known to the English as Catawbas. 
Ibid., 77. 

1779] Sullivan's Indian Expedition 193 

detachment was sent off to compleet the destruction of 
the corn &c at & about Newtown, at 12. oclock Col? 
Butler with his party ariv'd in Camp, on their route 
round the Lake they burnt & destroy'd several towns 
& a vast Quantity of corn. 

2.9 th the Army march'd to Chemong. — 

30 th ariv'd at Tiogea, where we were saluted with 13 
Cannon which we answer'd with the same numbar. Col? 
Shreeve who commanded the Garrison made an enter- 
tainment for the Gen! & Field Officers this afternoon, 
the afternoon was spent in festevity & mirth joy ap- 
peard in every countinence. we now have finish'd our 
campaign & gloriously too. — 

OctoM i- we are begining to prepare to march for 

i. d Gen! Sullivan made an entertainment for all the 
Gen! & Field officers to day, this evening we had an In- 
dian war dance at Head Quarters, the Onyda Sachem 
was Master of cerimonies. — 

3 d the army is prepareing to March for Wyoming. 

4 the Army march'd 15 miles down the River. — 

5 the whole army Imbark'd on board boats, ex- 
cept what was nessassary to drive the pack horses & 
cattle. & the 7 th ariv'd at Wyoming in high spirits, 
during the whole of this Severe Campaign, our loss in 
kill'd, died of wounds, & Sickness, did not exceed 60 
men. — 

8 th Gen! Sullivan receiv'd an express this evining from 
Gen! Washington, 77 informing him that Count De Stang 
is on the coast near New York, with a fleet & Army, in 
consequence of which Gen! Sullivans Army is order'd to 
march the 10 th ins? for Head Quarters. 

77. Washington's letter to Sullivan was dated at West Point, October 3. Writings 
of Washington, XVI, 398-9. 

1 94 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1779 

10 th The Army March'd for Easton, & the 15 th ariv'd 
there. — this army has marchd from Tiogea to Easton (150 
miles, thro a mountanious rough Wilderness) in 8 days, 
with their artillery, & baggage : — an extreordinery march 

16 th 17 th & 18 remain at Easton — 

we are inform 'd that Count Destang has taken several 
ships of war, together with all the transports & troops 
the Enimy had at & near Georgea — he is expected dayly 
at New York. — 

15 th our army is to march the 27 Ins 1 : towards Head 
Quarters. — 

an express ariv'd this day from Head Quarters 78 which 
Informs that the Enimy have avacuated their posts at 
Kings ferry, & have retir'd to N. York. — 

78. Washington's letter to Sullivan of October 2.5, written from West Point. Ibid., 
XVII, x 5 -6. 


The Yorktown Campaign 

towards the end of iyyp the British invaded the South and 
laid siege to Charleston, which surrendered in May, ij8o. Clin- 
ton returned to New York, leaving Cornwallis in command of 
southern operations. Gates was unable to check the sweeping 
advance which followed, as Cornwallis overran the Carolinas. 
Late in iy8o Gates was replaced by Greene, who with Lafayette 
harassed Cornwallis and drew him northward and towards the 
coast, away from his supply base at Charleston. When Wash- 
ington, at his camp on the Hudson, heard that the French fleet 
had sailed north from the West Indies, he conceived and in rec- 
ord time executed the stratagem which brought into play the com- 
bined arms of France and the United States, climaxed by the 
surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. 

OCTOB? 2.8 th 1779— 
I we this day receivd the particulars of a most 
horrid piece of cruelty commited by a party of 
British hors, which is as follows: — 
a party of British hors under the [comjmand of Col? 
Simco, 1 made an excurtion into Jersey from Staten 

1. John Graves Simcoe (i75x-i8o6) came to America at the beginning of the war, 
and succeeded to the command of the Queen's Rangers in 1777. This raid into New 
Jersey resulted in his capture, but he was released by the end of the year. He was with 
Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781. From 1791 to 1797 he was lieutenant-governor of 
Upper Canada. His Journal (Exeter, 1787) states that he landed at Sandy Point with 
about 100 rangers early on October 2.6, and proceeded in a circuit to Boundbrook, 

J 95 

196 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1779 

Island,] took a circuitous rout of about 30 miles, in 
which they burnt a forrage yard, & plunderd several de- 
fencless houses, on their return a small party of Millitia 
collected under the command of Cap?s van Voras & Wool, 2 " 
tow Continental Officers who had been with Genr! Sulli- 
van on the western Expedition. — they form'd an ambus- 
cade which they drew the Enimy into, killd several of 
them & made several prisoners, among the latter was Col? 
Simco. — Cap^s Van Voras & Wool with several others on 
hors back pursu'd the Enimy some conciderable distance 
until they rallied & turnd upon their pursuers, who ware 
obliged to give way. Cap? Van Voras being further ad- 
vanced then any other, & his hors very much fatigued was 
overtaken by the Enimy & obliged to surrender himself 
prisoner; the party that took him conveyed him to the 
main party & after examining him, fell to hacking him 
with thier Swords in sight of Cap? Wool & others of his 
party, after satisfying their more then Savage Spite they 
left him expiring on the ground. Cap? Wool & some others 
immediately rode up to him & found him cut & hack'd 
in a most barbarous manner, his arms cut off, his head 
cut to pieces, & in fact appeerd to have been massacred 
by the most cruel Savages, this was done by the hu- 
mane Britons, let every Briton blush at the idea. — 

Novem? 1$ Gen! Sullivans army [page torn] at what is 
calld Smiths Clov 3 [torn] 18 miles from Kings ferry, w 
[torn] that the Enimy have left Rhodeisland — 

Somerset Courthouse, Brunswick and South Amboy. At Somerset he destroyed 
some stores and forage and released some Loyalist prisoners. On his return he was 
attacked near Brunswick. Diet. Nat. Biog., XVIII, x^. 

x. Capt. Peter Van Voorhees of the ist New Jersey regiment is listed as having 
been "taken prisoner and murdered by Tories near New Brunswick, N. J., 2.6th Octo- 
ber, 1779." Capt. Isaiah Wool ( d. 1794) °^ tne zn ^ Continental Artillery had been 
taken prisoner at Quebec and later exchanged. He resigned from the army in 1780. 
Heitman, op. cit., 561, 606. 

3. Smith's Clove was on the west side of the Hudson, in the highlands immediately 
behind West Point. Writings of Washington, VIII, 340. 

1779!] The Yorktown Campaign 197 

7 th we moovd 14 miles to a place calld Princton on the 
rode to Morristown — 

9 th His Excellency Gen! Washington paid us a visit — 

ix th Maj^ Clarkson 4 Adedecamp to Gen! Lincoln arivd 
from Georgey with the following intilligence : — on the 
9 th of octob 1 " 5 at day brake Count De Estang & Gen! Lin- 
coln with about [torn] French & American Troops made 
an ap [torn] imies works at Savanah in Georgey [torn] 
was obstinate on both sides. — the American Standard 
was three times planted on the Enimies ramparts, but by 
the strength of the works & the brave resistence the En- 
imy made our troops ware repulsed, after loosing about 
500 men among whom fell the brave Count Polasky. — - 6 
Count De Estang receivd two wounds but not danger- 
ous. — Count De Estang was about imbarking for the 
West Indies when Maj^ Clarkson left him. — it is said a 
learge imbarcation has lately taken place at N. York, 
suposd destind for Georgey or Carolina. — 

Nov^ 16 th I set out for home on furlough went the 
lower rode, the 7 th of Decern 1 ; arivd home, found all 
well. I spent a very agreable winter & spring. — in 
march I got married, 7 & after compleeting a settlement 

4. Maj. Matthew Clarkson ( d. 1815) had been aide-de-camp to Gen. Arnold, 
and later served in the same capacity with Gen. Lincoln from March, 1779, to July, 
1782.. He was taken prisoner with Lincoln at Charleston, S. C, on May 12., 1780. 
Heitman, op. cit., 159. 

5. For three weeks prior to the 9th, Gen. Lincoln with the support of Comte 
D'Estaing had besieged the British in Savannah. Fearing the approach of the autumnal 
gales, D'Estaing became impatient to move his fleet, and a sortie was planned. An 
informer revealed the plan of attack, and though a brave attempt was made to storm 
the fortifications, the Americans and their allies were repulsed with heavy losses. 

6. Count Casimir Pulaski (c.1748-1779) fled Poland after participating in an unsuc- 
cessful rebellion in 1772.. Franklin and Deane, who met him in Paris, sent him to 
America. He was placed in command of the Continental cavalry, but resigned in 
March, 1778. Congress then authorized him to raise an independent corps of cavalry. 
He was sent south to support Lincoln in the spring of 1779, was wounded October 9 
at the siege of Savannah, and died two days later. Diet. Am. Biog., XV, 159-60. 

7. Dearborn married Dorcas Osgood Marble, daughter of Col. Osgood of Andover, 
Mass., and widow of Isaac Marble. Their son, Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn, 
was named after Dearborn's colonel. Ibid., V, 176. 

198 Journals of Henry Dearborn [1780 

of the accounts of the army with the State respicting the 
depreciation of our wages, set out for camp the 16 th day 
of June, & the 2.3 d arivd at West Point wher the Hamp. 
Troops lay — 

West Point June 14 th 1780 
British fleet & Army that have been to the Southward 
& after a long Seage taken the City of Charles Town in 
South Carolina & the troops there under the Command 
of Gen! Lincoln, have return 'd to N York except a garri- 
son which is left there, — & have landed in Jersey had an 
action with Gen! Maxwell & a body of Millitia, after 
which they retired to Elizabeth Town Point near their 
Shipping ware there reinforc'd & marchd towards Gen! 
Washingtons Camp, 8 & at the same time their Fleet 
moov'd up the river towards West Point. — the Enimys 
front was attack 'd by the Rhodeisland Troops & a body 
of millitia at a place called] Springfield 9 about 6 miles 
from Elizabeth's Town, our troops behav'd with re- 
markable bravery, repulsd the Enimy several times, kill'd 
a very considerable number of them, the Enimy then set 
fire to the village & retired to their boats at Elizabeth 
Town Point & crossd over to Staten Island. 

2.7 th the Enimys fleet have moov'd down the river. 

2.8 th we are in dayly expectation of a French fleet & army 
on our coast to opperate with our army against N. York. 

July i t British Army are at Philips's Manner 10 about 2.0 
miles up the River from N. York on the East side. 

8. On his return to New York from the victorious siege of Charleston, S. C, Clinton 
sent an expedition into New Jersey to capture Washington's camp and stores at 
Rockaway. At Springfield the British were met by Gens. Greene and Dickinson, who 
with Maxwell's and Stark's brigades, Lee's cavalry and the available militia, turned 
them back. Writings of Washington, XIX, 64. 

9. Springfield, Union co., N. J., on the Rahway River. 

10. Phillipse Manor comprised a large part of Westchester, Dutchess and Putnam 
counties in New York. The Manor Hall is now surrounded by the city of Yonkers. 

1780] The Yorktown Campaign 199 

4 th this being the Anniversary of the declaration of 
American Independence, the officers of the garrison as- 
sembled at Gen! M^Dougal's Quarters after drinking 13 
toasts marchd in procession to Gen!s Poors & Pattersons 
Quarters &c and adjurned until Evining, at which time 
we met & took a social drink & retird. — 

14 th the weather is extreemly warm. 

17 th we are assur'd the French fleet with 6000 Troops 
have arivd at Rhodeisland, 11 the British soldiers desert 
in learge numbers. 

we hear an English Fleet has ariv'd at N. York, 12 " our re- 
cruits from New Hampshire are coming in. — 

xo th 2.i c we are very busey in driling our new lea vies. 

2.6 th one man from Connecticut & one from New Hamp- 
shire ware Shot here to day for desertion, 
we are told that Admirel Graves 13 with 15 or 16 men of 
war are laying not far from Rhode Island, & the French 
Fleet is block 'd in. — Gen! Clinton with 8 or 10000 
Troops is imbark'd & mooving up the Sound towards 
Rhodeisland, it is supposd they intend making a cope de 
main on the French Troops. — 

Z7 th Gen! Washingtons Main Army is crossing Hud- 
sons River at Kings ferry, & the troop are marching from 
West Point to join him. from appeerences we judge that 
he intends making an attack on New York while Grave 
& Clinton are absent. — 

11. The French expeditionary force under Comte De Rochambeau arrived off 
Rhode Island on July n. It numbered over 5500 men. Diet. Am. Biog. XVI, 61. 

ix. This was Admiral Graves' squadron, sent to reinforce Admiral Arbuthnot. 
Diet. Nat. Biog., VIII, 439. 

13. Thomas Graves, Baron Graves (i72.5?-i8o2.) grew up in the navy. He 
commanded a ship in American waters under Admiral Byron in 1778, but was 
recalled and made an admiral. He sailed to America in 1780 with reinforcements 
for Admiral Arbuthnot. If Graves did appear off Rhode Island at this time, he 
took no action. In March, 1781, he unsuccessfully engaged the French fleet off 
Chesapeake Bay. Graves became commander in American waters in July, 1781, 
and was defeated by the French in September. Before he could refit and transport 

xoo Journals of Henry Dearborn [1780 

August 1? we are inform'd the Enimy are Returning 
from Rhode Island, — we are likewise informd that a 
body of Savages & Tories have beseiged Fort Scheylar on 
Mohawk River, a body of Massachusets Millitia are or- 
derd to march for the releif of Fort Schylar. — 

x d the heavy Artillery & Stores are mooving from West 
Point down the River, a man was hanged here to day 
for a Spy & hors theaf . 

4 th Gen! Poor is orderd to take command of a Brigade 
of Light Infantry, the N. Hamp' Troops march from 
West Point to day to Kings firry where we find the main 
army crossing the river, Col? Hazens 14 Reg? joined our 
Brigade to day. he commands our Brigade. — 

6 th we cross the River & march toward dobs ferry. — I5 

8 th we incamp'd near dobs ferry at a place call'd Or- 
range Town on the west side of Hudsons River about 2.4 
miles above the City of N. York. — the Enimy have 
some arm'd vessels in the River in what is call'd Tarpon 
Bay, 16 which is a few miles above us. — 

9 th we have a fine rain which was very much wanted. — 

10 th the whole Army pass'd a revew of Inspection be- 
fore the Barren Stuben — I? 

reinforcements to Cornwallis at Yorktown, the latter was forced to surrender. 
Ibid., VIII, 438-40. 

14. Col. Moses Hazen of the xnd Canadian regiment had been supervising the 
building of a military road to Canada. Recalled to the main army, he succeeded to 
the command of Poor's brigade. Diet. Am. Biog., VIII, 478. 

15. Dobbs Ferry, Westchester co., N. Y., on the east side of the Hudson, zo miles 
north of New York City. 

16. Tappan Bay or Tappan Sea is an expansion of the Hudson River about twelve 
miles long between Rockland and Westchester counties. 

17. Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin, Baron von Steuben (1730-1794), 
a former staff officer and aide-de-camp to Frederick the Great, was sent to America 
by Franklin. He joined Washington at Valley Forge early in 1778 as a volunteer 
without pay, and was made inspector-general. He drilled the troops all winter and 
by the following summer he had built up a well disciplined army. He continued to 
drill the troops and wrote a manual of drill and field service for the United States 
army. He was sent south with Greene in 1780, and set up a base of supplies in Virginia 
for the southern army. Washington relied heavily on his advice in strategic and ad- 

1780] The Yorktown Campaign 2.01 

n* h ix* h 13 th 14 th 15? 1 i6* h the army is very buseyly 
imploy'd in instructing the new levies some of the 
Enimies armd vessels are daily passing & repassing up 
& down the River, indeavoring to prevent our small 
craft from coming down with provisions & Stores &c. 
there is more or less fireing from the Enimies vessels 
every day — 

18 th we are assured that a fleet of near 30 sail of Store 
Ships bound for Quebec have been dispers'd by a French 
Ship the greater part of which have been taken by the 
French & our privateers — & have arivd at Boston. — it 
is said a learge Imbarcatio[nj is taking place at New 
York, we have had 5 or 6 weeks of the most extreem heet 
that I ever experienc'd. — we are erecting works at dobs 
ferry in order to protect our boats in crossing. — 

2.1* the weather has very sudently changed from heat 
to cool. — 

2.2. d altho we have a very learge proportion of new lev- 
ies in our army, & the weather has been so remarkably 
warm, our troops are very healthy. — 

i3 d our army march'd at 7 oclock A.M. proceeded 10 
miles down the river to a place calld the Tene Flie 18 & 
incamp'd oposite Kings Bridg. our left wing \]4 mile 
from the River, the Light Infantry 2. miles in front, the 
weather has been very warm, which render'd our march 
very fatigueing. — 

Col? Hazen was arrested to day by Barren Stuben for 
halting his Brigade without leave. 

2.5 th the Light Infantry & three Brigades from the right 
wing march'd with 370 waggons down to Bergin point 19 

ministrative policy. He became a naturalized citizen and settled in New York. Diet. 
Am. Biog., XVII, 601-4. 

18. Tenafly, Bergen co., N. J., 16 miles north of Jersey City, and one mile west of 
the Hudson. 

19. Bergen Point, Hudson co., N. J., on Newark Bay. It is now a part of Bayonne. 

Z02. Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1780 

oposite the City of N. York, to collect forrage, & cattle, 
some cannonading hapen'd near Powlers hook, 2 - but the 
Enimy did not chuse to make a serious attack, after col- 
lecting a learge quantify] of forrage & zoo head of cat- 
tle, our troops returnd the 27- our Army has been 4 days 
without meat, which has occasion'd many licentious 
practices, among the Soldiery, one man was detected in 
Robing an Inhabitents house to day & was hang'd on a 
tree without tryal by order of his Excellency Gen! Wash- 
ington. — 

18 th we have a small supply of provision ariv'd. — the 
Country we now lay in is very pleasent & fertile, but a 
wors set of inhabitents never liv'd in any country. — we 
are assur'd that a very learge combin'd Fleet & army has 
gone against Jamaca. 

the Country here suffers very much for want of rain. — 
two duels have been fought here within two days in 
which two gentlemen ware kil'd, & one wounded; — 

Septf i. d the army is order'd to march to morrow 

3 d we have a very heavy rain. — 

4 th the Army march'd at 9 oclock A.M. cross'd Hacken 
Sack River & incamp'd about 8 miles to the westward of 
our late incampment; — XI 

5 th our army has not been supplied with more then six 
days meat for eighteen days past. — Col? Hazen is hon- 
ourably acquited by a court Martial 

8 th this evining ye Honb? Brigadeer Gen! Poor departed 
this life after labouring under a severe bilious fever 13 

1.0. Powles Hook, also Paulus Hook is now gone. It was a point of land which 
projected into the mouth of Hudson River, directly opposite the southern tip of 
Manhattan Island. 

ii. General Orders for the day were issued from Kendekamack, known also as 
Steenrapie. Washington's headquarters were in Andrew Harper's house on the road 
to Morristown, about 4 miles south of Ramapo Pass. Writings of Washington, XIX, 499. 

1780] The Yorktown Campaign 2.03 

days, very universally lamented by the Gen!s & other 
officers of the army. — zx 

10 th the remains of Gen! Poor was Interd at Hackin- 
sack, 2-3 attended by his Excellency Gen! Washington, all 
the Gen!s & most of the other officers of the army, to- 
gether with a Reg? of Infantry, detachments of Cavelry, 
Artillery, with a band of musick. the prosession was 
truly Solemn & well conducted. 

the death of so valuable an officer as the Gen! is a very 
great loss to the army & to his Brigade in particular. 

by accounts from the Southward it appeers that Gen! 
Gates has met with a defeat at a place calld camden, 2-4 in 
Carolina has lost about 500 men & the baggage of his 
army, it is said Barren De Calb 2 " 5 fell in the [battle?] 

ix th a man was hang'd to day for plundering the 
Inhabitents. — 

13 th the whole Army pass'd a revew to day before his 
Excellency Gen! Washington, about 1.0 Indian cheefs ac- 
companied the Gen! in the revew. — 

14 th from many reports it is expected that a Fleet from 
the West Indias is near our coast, to coopperate with the 
Fleet now at Rhode Island against N. York — . 

2.2.. The Dictionary of American Biography mentions that the "circumstances of his 
[Poor's] death are shrouded in uncertainty," and reports the rumor of a fatal duel; 
but there is no reason to doubt Dearborn's statement regarding the death of Gen. Poor. 

13. Hackensack, Bergen co., N. J., 12. miles north of New York City. 

14. Camden, Camden co., S. C. The battle took place August 15, on low land 
between two swamps, 5 miles outside the city. Cornwallis commanded the British 
force. Despite the gallantry of Kalb and other officers, Gates and his troops, largely 
composed of militia, were routed with heavy losses. 

2.5. Johann Kalb (1711-1780), a German who had served in the French army and 
adopted a title, came to America with Lafayette in 1777. He was given the rank of 
major-general and spent the winter at Valley Forge. In April, 1780, he was sent to 
relieve Charleston, S. C There he joined the unfortunate expedition under Gates. 
During the battle of Camden, Kalb was mortally wounded, and died August 19 at 
Camden. Diet. Am. Biog., X, 153-4. 

xo4 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1780 

17 th we are informd that Admiral Rodney 16 with 13 
Ships of the line has arivd at N. York, from the West 
Indias. — 

His Excellency Gen! Washington has set out to day 
to meet the Count Deroshambo, (Commander of the 
French army at Rhodeisland) in Connecticut to hold a 
conference. 2-7 

18 th at evining the Army was orderd to be in rediness 
to march Instantly. — 

19 th the weather being rainy the army did not march. 

2.0 the army marchd to our old Incampment at Orrange 
Town, 28 & incamp'd. 

xx d at day brake this morning 2. cannon & one Hoytres 
began to play briskly a [on?] a ship of war that lay in the 
river, the wind & tide being unfavorable for the ship 
she was not able to git out of reach for more then an 
hour — 

the French Minister Plenipotentiary 29 arivd in Camp to 
day on his way to Rhodeisland. Col? Pickering 30 ariv'd 

2.6. George Brydges Rodney, Baron Rodney (1719-1792.), after a long naval service, 
was in retirement in France from 1775 to 1778. He returned to England and was com- 
missioned an admiral, but was not given a command until the end of 1779, when he 
was sent to the Leeward Islands station. He had two indecisive actions with the 
French, then sailed for New York. Admiral Arbuthnot quarrelled with him, and he 
returned to the West Indies. In 1781 he seized the island of St. Eustatius, but the French 
retook it. Rodney resigned his command to Hood and sailed for England on August 
1, 1781. Diet. Nat. Biog., XVII, 81-7. 

2.J. Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau (172.5-1807), entered 
the French army in 1741 and served on the continent in the wars against England. He 
was made commander of the expeditionary force sent to America in 1780, and reached 
Rhode Island in July. Washington conferred with him at Hartford on September 2.1, 
and agreed that until France could gain superiority in American waters, nothing 
extensive should be attempted. Rochambeau's army wintered in Rhode Island. 
Diet. Am. Biog., XVI, 60-3. 

2.8. Orange, Essex co., N. J., 13 miles west of New York City. 

2.9. Cesar Anne de la Luzerne (1741-1791). He succeeded Conrad Gerard de Ray- 
neval, France's first minister, in September, 1779. J. B. Perkins, France in the American 
Revolution (Boston, 191 1), 194. 

30. Timothy Pickering (1745-1819) of Massachusetts had been adjutant-general 
of the Continental Army and a member of the Board of War before succeeding Greene 


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Dearborn's entry for September 2/, ijSi, concerning the 
discovery of Arnold's treason 


1780 J The York town Campaign 7.05 

also in camp, who supersedes Maj^ Gen! Green as Quar- 
ter Master General. — 
Septf x 5 th 

Treason of the blackest dy, is this day fortunately dis- 
coverd. 31 Maj^ John Andre 32- Adjutant Gen! of the British 
Army taken within our lines in disguise acting as a spy, 
upon which Maj' Gen! Arnold immediately deserted from 
his Command of West Point on board a British sloop of 
war that lay in the River be[l]Ow Kings Ferry, being con- 
vinced his hellish plot would soon be brought to light & 
his only safety was in flight, the plan was as follow[s:j 
he had agreed to put the Enemy in possession of the Im- 
portant Post call'd West Point together with the stores 
& garrison this night, & a body of the Enemy ware im- 
bark'd at New York for the purpose, & had not a super- 
intending providence almost miraculously interpos'd in 
our behalf by throing Maj? Andre into our possession 
after he thought himself quite secure, & out of our reach, 
the Enemy would undoubtedly soon been in possession 
of our most important Post, which would have been a 
capital loss to America; — as soon as this plan was dis- 
coverd two Brigads ware detach'd & sent to West Point. 

as quartermaster-general. Under Presidents Washington and Adams, he served as 
postmaster general, secretary of war, and secretary of state. Diet. Am. Biog., XIV, 

31. This sentence was copied from the official announcement of Arnold's defection 
published in General Orders dated at Orangetown, September 2.6, 1780. Writings of 
Washington, XX, 95. 

3Z. Maj. John Andre (1751-1780) was aide-de-camp to Sir Henry Clinton and had 
just been made adjutant-general of the British army in America. He directed much of 
the secret service, particularly the treason correspondence with Benedict Arnold. 
Before turning West Point over to the British, Arnold demanded a personal interview 
with some British officer. Andre met him up the Hudson River on September 2.1. 
Unable to return to New York by boat, Andre started overland in disguise, with 
plans in his boot. He was seized on September X3 by American soldiers, to whom he 
revealed his identity. A board of officers examined him and advised Washington 
that he was a spy rather than a prisoner of war. Accordingly he was hanged on Octo- 
ber z, after vain efforts on the part of Clinton to have him exchanged. Diet. Nat. 
Biog., I, 397-8. 

zo6 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1780 

2.6 th one Joshua Smith 33 was taken up on suspicion of 
being an accomplice of Arnolds — 

i9 th a Board of Gen! Officers set to day for the Tryal of 
Maj' Andre — 

30 th a Gen! Court Martial sits to day for the Tryal of 
Smith — 

OctoH 1? Maj^ Andre was orderd to be hanged at 5 
oclock P.M. but in consequence of a Flag from the En- 
emy the execution was put off 

2. d at ix oclock this day Maj* Andre was executed, he 
discoverd great firmness & candor on the occasion; he 
was one of the most promising yong Gentlemen in the 
British Army, had been an Aid-decamp to Genl. Clinton 
& was lately appointed Adjutant Gen! to the British 
army in America. — 

3 d we hear an other Arrangement of the Army is in 
contemplation . — 

7 th the Army march'd, when the following disposition 
was made. 

Gen! Washington with the main Army near Princton in 
Jersey — 

Gen! Green with the New Jersey, New York, New 
Hampshire troops & Starks Brigade 34 at West Point. 

9 th we took post at West Point. 

10 th the Massachusets & New Hampshire Millitia at 
this Post ware dismis'd. — 
the 1* & z d New Hampshire Reg*s posted on Constitution 

33. Joshua Hett Smith ( d. 1818), a lawyer, member of the New York state con- 
vention of 1775, and a brother of the chief justice, was implicated in Arnold's treason 
because his house was the meeting place of Arnold and Andre, and because he guided 
Andre part way on his return to New York. However, Smith was acquitted by a 
military court. He was later imprisoned by civil authorities, but escaped to New 
York City. He went to England after the war. F. S. Drake, Dictionary of American 
Biography CBoston, 1876), 843. 

34. Earlier in the year Stark's brigade had consisted of four regiments under Sher- 
burne, Angell, Webb and Jackson. 

1780] The Yorktown Campaign 7-o-j 

Isle, 35 the 3 d & Hazens Reg? on the Table at Nelsons Point 
oposite West Point. — 

17 th the Hono? Maj? Gen! Heath 36 takes command at 
West Point to day. Gen! Green is orderd to take Com- 
mand of the Southern Army. Gen! Gates is under an ar- 
rest, for his conduct at the Battle of the 16 th of August 
near Camdon. — 

18 th we begin to talk of Hutting. — 

19 th & 2.0 th we are loocking out ground to Hut on. — 

zi c Gen! Heath being informd of a large party of the 
Enemy coming out by way of Kings Bridg for the pur- 
pose of forrageing & plundering about crum pond, 37 our 
Brigad was orderd to march to oppose them, 
we marchd this afternoon & at 10 oclock in the evining 
arivd near croten bridg twenty miles from our camp, 
where we expected to meet the Enemy at day brake, but 
ware disappointed, we remaind there until the morning 
of the 2.3 d & returnd to Camp. — 

14 th we marchd to Soldiers fortune 38 about 3 miles to 
the Eastward of our camp to build huts for winter. — 
we are informed that the combind fleet of France & Spain 
have fallen in with & taken more then fifty English mar- 
chantmen bound from England to the East & West 

2.7 th we are begining to build huts 

2.9 th we are this day inform' d in Gen! orders of a very 
fortunate event that has taken place at the Southward. 

35. Constitution Island is on the east side of the Hudson, opposite West Point. 
It is separated from the mainland by a marsh. Nelson's Point is now Garrison, 
N. Y. 

36. William Heath (1737-1814) of Massachusetts was made a major-general in 
1776, but was employed for staff work. He was stationed in Boston in 1777-78 in 
command of the Eastern District. In 1779 he was transferred to the Hudson, and 
commanded West Point after Arnold fled. Diet. Am. Biog., VIII, 490. 

37. Crompond, N. Y. 

38. An outpost in the highlands opposite West Point. 

xo8 Journals of Henry Dearborn C 1780 

Col? Williams 39 of Carolina having receiv'd intelligence 
of a body of British Troops & tories consisting of about 
1400 — hundred commanded by Col? Fargarson 40 being on 
their way to Charlotte in North Carolina — rallied the 
country & mounted 1000 [1600?] on hors back in order to 
be able to meet the Enemy at a pass calld Kings moun- 
tain he there fell in with the Enemy & a severe action 
ensewed in which Col? Williams' party was finally suc- 
cessful, the British commander kill'd with 130 of his 
men, & 800 made prisoners of war together with 1500 
stand of arms. — but unfortunately for us the Brave & 
enterpriseing Col? Williams receiv'd a mortal wound the 
latter part of the action. — 4I 

Nove^ 8 th I was orderd on a Gen! Court Martial to act 
for the tryal of Col? Hazen at West Point. 42- 

19 th all the troops at this Post fit for duty are orderd to 
be prepar'd for a march with 4 days provision cook'd by 
the morning of the xi* — 

39. Col. James Williams of the South Carolina militia was killed in the battle of 
King's Mountain on October 7, 1780. Heitman, op. cit., 595. 

40. Lt. Col. Patrick Ferguson (1744-1780) joined the British army before he was 
fifteen. In 1776 he invented the first breech-loading rifle used in the army and formed a 
corps of riflemen equipped with this type of arm. Ferguson was severely wounded 
in the battle of Brandywine. In 1779 he dislodged the Americans from Stony Point 
and was then sent south. After the siege of Charleston, Ferguson trained the Loyalist 
militia of South Carolina. He was killed at King's Mountain on October 7. Diet. 
Nat. Biog., VI, IZ12L-4. 

41. Hearing that militia was advancing towards Augusta, Cornwallis despatched 
Ferguson to cut it off. But when Ferguson learned that a thousand "mountain men" 
were assembled at Watauga, bent on his destruction, he abandoned his pursuit of 
the militia and began a retreat towards Charlotte. He was intercepted, however, and 
forced to make a stand. On the night of October 6 he camped on the southern end of 
King's Mountain. Meanwhile the mountaineers, after a forced night march, reached 
the base of the mountain with reinforcements from the Carolinas. They surrounded 
Ferguson's position and began the attack the following day. After three charges and 
countercharges, during which Ferguson and many of his men were killed, the remain- 
der of the British force, under De Peyster, surrendered to the Americans. Winsor, 
op. cit., VI, 479, passim. 

4%. Col. Moses Hazen was involved in a dispute with Maj. James Reid over the date 
of the latter's commission, but there is no indication in Washington's papers that a 
court-martial was ordered. Writings of Washington, XX, 306. 

1780] The Yorktown Campaign xo^ 

-li 1 . six Batallions under the command of Brigadeer Gen! 
Stark march'd towards the Enemies lines as a covering 
party to several hundred teams that ware collected & sent 
down as a forrageing party near the Enemies lines. — 43 
we proceeded within about 10 miles of Kings Bridg on 
the several roads leading thereto, & remaind until the 
teams ware loaded, we toock every meathod to provoke 
the Enemy to come out & attack us but to no purpose. — 
after remaining out six nights without any covering but 
the heavens, (three nights & three days exposed to heavy 
rains & hard marching,) returnd to camp, the main Army 
under the Command of his Excellency Gen! Washington 
is mooving to winter Quarters. 

Decern^ 1^ this day receiv'd the account from Maj? Tal- 
mag 44 of Col? Sheldons Reg? of Horse, 45 who with 60 dis- 
mounted dragoons crossd the Sound in whale boats, & 
surpris'd Fort Saint George on Long Island, 46 brought 
of[f] 1 L* Col? 1 Cap? 1 L? & 60 men, dismantled the fort, 
burnt a Schooner ladend with wood in a harbour & re- 
turn'd without the loss of a man. — 

6 th his Excellency Gen! Washington arivd at New 
Windsor 47 8 mile above west Point & toock Quarter for 
the winter 
the Pencelvania & Jersey Troop are stationd in Jersey for 

43. The British lines included Fort Washington and the chain of fortifications in 
the vicinity of Laurel Hill, including Fort George. 

44. Benjamin Tallmadge (1754-1835) joined a Connecticut regiment in 1776 and 
became a major in 1777. He participated in the battles around New York and Phila- 
delphia and in the battle of Monmouth. He distinguished himself by destroying Fort 
St. George in 1780. From 1778 on he directed much of Washington's secret service. 
Diet. Am. Biog., XVIII, 2.84-5 • 

45. Col. Elisha Sheldon of Connecticut commanded the xnd Continental Dragoons. 
Heitman, op. cit., 493. 

46. The raid took place on the night of November 13. Tallmadge dated his report 
to Washington November 15. Fort St. George was on Smith's Point, Long Island. 

47. New Windsor, Orange co., N. Y., on the west bank of the Hudson, between 
Newburgh and West Point. Journals of Henry Dearborn [ 1781 

the winter — 48 the whole of New England troop at & about 
West Point, the New York troop at and about Albany — 

10 the New Hampshire Troop moovd into Huts, the 
best ever built in America — call'd New Hampshire vil- 
lage. — 49 we are informd that the most severe Hurricane 
hapen'd in the west Indias about the middle of Octob r 
last that was ever experiencd there, almost totally dis- 
troy'd many of the Islands, together with all the shiping 
there. — 

16. the New Hampshire line is arrangeed agreable to 
the New arrangement. Col? Cilley, L* Col? Titcomb & 
Cap? N. Hutchins retire. 50 

xo th I am about seting out on command to New 

x8 th ariv'd in New Hampshire & had the pleasure of 
rinding my fammaly well. 

May 10 th 178 1 after finishing the business I had to do 
with the State, 51 set out for Camp where I ariv'd the iy^ h 
found our troops at New Hampshire village. — 
the 14 th Ins? Col? Green & Maj? Flagg 5Z of the Rhode- 
Island Reg? being on the line ware surprised & most in- 

48. The Pennsylvania line was quartered about four miles from Morristown, and 
the Jersey line was in and around Pompton. Writings of Washington, XX, 418. 

49. The New Hampshire village was just above Peekskill Creek, Putnam co., 
N. Y., in the vicinity of Cat Hill. 

50. The retirement of these officers resulted in the transfer to the 1st New Hamp- 
shire regiment of Alexander Scammell as colonel and Dearborn as lieutenant-colonel. 
Heitman, of. cit., 41, 190, 483. 

51. By act of Congress on Nov. 4, 1780, the states were called upon to furnish 
specific quantities of provisions for the army. Washington wrote to Gov. Weare of 
New Hampshire on this head on December 10. Following the mutiny of the Penn- 
sylvania Line in January, 1781, Washington again addressed the governors on the 
pressing need of cash to pay the soldiers. New Hampshire Historical Collections, II, 172.-4. 
When Dearborn returned to camp in May, 1781, he brought with him cash for the New 
Hampshire troops. Provincial and State Papers . . . of New Hampshire, X, 543-4. His 
business in New Hampshire doubtless concerned the matters of food and money. 

52.. Col. Christopher Greene, who had been on the Quebec expedition with Dear- 
born, and Maj. Ebenezer Flagg of the 1st Rhode Island regiment. Heitman, op. cit. t 
Z2.9, z6o. 

178 1 ] The York town Campaign xii 

humainly butcher'd, together with 12. of their party, by 
a body of the Enemy consisting mostly of refugees. — 30 
of our party ware made prisoners. 

18 th we are inform'd that Gen! Philips 53 with about 3000 
troops has taken possession of Williamsburg in Virgenia. 
his Excellency Gen! Washington has gone to Hartford in 
Connecticut suppos'd to hold a conference with Gen! De 
Roch Shambault. 54 

2.6 th we hear Gen! Green has taken Possession of Cam- 
don in South Carolina where Lord Corn Wallis has had a 
garrison for several months. — 55 

June 7 th Lord Cornwallis & a body of troops under the 
command of Gen! Arnold have form'd a Junction in 
Virgenia. — 

June i2. th we are assured that Gen! Green has taken sev- 
eral of the Enemies Posts in South Carolina, & has a pros- 
pect of confining the Enemy in that State to Charles 
Town. — 

-Li 1 . 2.2.*? & X3 d Our Army took the Field near Peeks 
Kill. — we are in expectation of being Join'd by the 
French Troops from Rhode Island in a few days — 

July 1? I was appointed D[eputyj. Q[uarterj. M[asterj. 
General]. & Joind the department. 56 

53. Maj. Gen. William Phillips (i73i?-i78i) commanded the artillery under Bur- 
goyne in 1777, and was held a prisoner of war until he was exchanged for Gen. Lincoln 
early in 1781. He died of a fever at Petersburg, Va., on May 13. Diet. Nat. Biog., 
XV, 1 106-7. 

54. The conference was held at Wethersfield on May 2.1. The French were repre- 
sented by Rochambeau, Chastellux and Jacques Melchior. Comte Barras St. Laurent, 
Chef d'escadre of the French navy, was unable to attend because of the sudden appear- 
ance of the British fleet off" Newport, Rhode Island. Writings of Washington, XXII, 
100, passim. 

55. This rumor probably refers to Greene's siege of the village of Ninety-Six, near 
the Saluda River. Camden was evacuated by the British under Rawdon on May 10, 
1781, it being untenable. 

56. The appointment was made at the request of Col. Timothy Pickering, quarter- 
master-general. Dearborn succeeded Maj. Richard Piatt, resigned. H. P. Johnston, 
The Yorktown Campaign . . . CNew York, 1881), 112.. 

xix Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 178 1 

July 2. d our whole Army march' d at 3 oclock A M. 
without baggage, towards New York. 57 

3 d at Sun rise we arriv'd near Kings Bridg, where a 
scurmish happend between a detachment of our troops 
consisting of about 800 men & a body of the Enimy, in 
which we had three commission' d officers & 55 non com- 
mission 'd & privates kill'd & wounded. 1 officer & 5 pri- 
vates only of the former — the loss of the Enemy was 
about equel to ours according to the best accounts we 
can procure. — the intentions on our side was to have 
drawn the Enimy out so far from their works as to 
enabled us to cut of[f] their retreat,— but they ware 
tO[Oj caucious. — after Gen! Washington had had suf- 
ficiently reconoiter'd their work &c. we moovd back 
about two miles & lay until next morning. — it ap- 
peerd from many circumstances that the Enimy ware 
very much allarm'd at our sudent appeerence before 
their works. — 

The Duke Delason 58 with his legend [legion] of French 
Troops joind us near kings Bridg this morning — 

4 th we march 'd towards White Plains & incamp'd 
about 3 miles to the southward of them, — & sent for our 

5 the French Army under the command of the Count 
De Rochambo arriv'd near White Plains, & the 6 th they 
joind us & incamp'd on our left, a body of as fine Troops 
as the world can bost of (I beleave) a few hours after 
their joining us our army was paraded & revew'd by the 
Count De Rochambo. — 

57. An elaborate plan for attacking New York City had been discussed at Wethers- 

58. Armand-Louis Gontaut Biron, Due de Lauzun (1747-1793), arrived in America 
with a cavalry corps in 1780, as part of the French force under Rochambeau. He spent 
the winter at Lebanon, Conn., and was later active in the Yorktown campaign. 
Rochambeau sent him back to France with the news of Cornwallis' surrender. E. M. 
Stone, Our French Allies (Providence, 1884), 308, -passim. 

178 1 3 The Yorktown Campaign 112, 

18 th several of the Enemies ships (that went up the 
rivejT] some days agoe in order to interrupt our transpor- 
tation of Stores & provisions by water) find their situa- 
tion reather uncumfortable return'd, & at dobs ferry our 
battery (of 2. eighteens, two twelves & 2. hoytrers 59 ) gave 
them a very handsom salute, one of their largest ships 
was set on fire by a shell from our hoytrers, after being 
shot through in near twenty places, which put the crew 
into such confusion that about 2.0 jumpd overboad some 
of which reach'd the shore. 

2.1? at 9 oclock in the evining the whole of our army, 
together with the French march 'd (except a sufficient 
numbar to guard the Camp) & at day brake ware paraded 
before the Enemies work at Kings bridg, — a party of 
our horse, with some Millitia from Connectut, went on 
to Frogs neck, 6 ° (a nest of tories) & the Duke Delozen 
with his Legion & Col? Scammell, with a corps of Light 
Infantry, went onto Morissenia 61 (the place of randis- 
voos for Delensees Infamus Corps of horse theives, & 
murderers) 62 " a considerable numbar of horses, Cattle, & 
sheep, together with about twenty of the above men- 
tioned corps ware taken & brought off, & the remeinder 
dispers'd, except what ware killd. 

after remaining two days in front of their works, & 
making use of every meathod in our power to induce 
them to give us Battle, & having had a sufficient opper- 

59. Howitzers. 

60. Throg's Neck or Throg's Point, Westchester co., N. Y., extending into Long 
Island Sound. It is the present site of Fort Schuyler. 

61. Morrisiana, at the junction of the Bronx and East rivers. The action occurred 
on July 3. Washington had planned a joint action with De Lauzun, but it failed. 
Writings of Washington, XXII, 330, passim. 

6-l. Col. James De Lancey (1746-1804) commanded a troop of Loyalist horsemen, 
nicknamed "Cowboys" because of their cattle raids in Westchester county. Washing- 
ton sent out an expedition on July 2.1 to reconnoiter the enemy's posts at Kingsbridge 
and to cut off De Lancey's raiders, but few of the horsemen were captured. J. C. Fitz- 
patrick, ed., Diaries of George Washington (Boston, 19x5), II, 2.41-3. 

2.14 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 178 1 

tunity for reconnoitering every part of their works & the 
country adjacent, we returnd to Camp without the loss 
of one man. — 

by a letter from the Marquess De Lafiatte we are informd 
of an action that hapened near Williamsburgh in Vir- 
genia between Genl Wain with about 800 men & Lord 
Cornwallis.s main army, in which we lost about 100 
killd & wounded, & one piece of artillery, the Enemies 
loss was conciderable, 63 the Enemies numerous posts in 
South Carolina & Georgey, established at such an amaz- 
ing expence of men & money, are at last by that excellent 
officer Maj^ Gen! Green intirely reduced, except barely 
Charles Town, & Savanah; in which two places the re- 
mains of their shatterd & worn out army are confined; 
after all the boastings of the British Ministry of their 
glorious conquests of the Carolinies & Georgey. 
the British Army in Virgenia under the Command of the 
Celibrated Lord Corn Wallis, who was to compleet the 
conquest of all the States to the Southward of the Hud- 
son River this Campaign is now confined to the Town of 
Portsmouth wher[e] he can be covered by ships of War. — 64 
Pensacola the cappital of West Florida is captured by the 
Spainyards & the whole Provinc put under Spanish gov- 
ernment. 65 Tobago, a british west India Island is taken 
by the French, & by various accounts, it appears that the 
British affairs in the Est Indies ware a very bad aspect. — 

63. Generals Wayne and Lafayette engaged Cornwallis at Jamestown Ford, Va., 
near Green Spring Farm. On July 6, with a small reconnoitering party, they forced 
the British army back across the James River. Jared Sparks, ed., Correspondence of 
the American devolution . . . (Boston, 1853), III, 347-50. 

64. Portsmouth, a seaport of Norfolk co., Va., stands on the left bank of the 
Elizabeth River. By blockading the mouth of this river or the entrance to Hampton 
Roads, the British source of supplies could be cut off. At the same time, an attacking 
French fleet could sail up the river within range of the city and bombard the British 

65 . Gov. Galvez of New Orleans, with a land and sea force, captured Pensacola on 
May 9, 1781. Winsor, op. cit., VI, 739. 

178 1 ] The Yorktown Campaign 115 

our old Friend the old Continental money is at last dead, 
very great pains has been taken by many ranks & orders 
of People for many years past, to take the life of our said 
friend, which has been performd after a strugle of more 
then six years. — 66 
August 10 th 

we remain near Dobs Ferry, nothing extraordinery 
hapened. — 

18 th there is preparations for mooving, but when or 
where is uncertain. 

n* the French Army, with a detachment of the Amer- 
ican Army consisting of about 2.500 together with our 
Park of Artillery march'd towards Kings Ferry, with 
Gen! Washington at thier head, — from the xz d to the 
2.7 the Army & baggage was crossing the Hudson at 
Kings Ferry — as soon as the Army was over the River 
the line of march was taken up, — the distination of 
this Army being an intire secret, it occasioned a great va- 
riety of conjectures, but an attack on Staten Island was 
more generally expected, by the Country & Army. 67 our 
Troops after marching 9 miles in one Column, & then 
proceeded in two columns until we arrivd at Prince 
Town, from thence to Trenton in one column — at Tren- 
ton vessels ware collected to receive our Artillery, heavy 
baggage, & some part of our troops, which proceeded 
down the Delliware to Christiania creek, then up said 

66. In 1780 Congress began to retire the depreciated paper issued earlier in the war 
by means of a tax on the states payable in the old bills. Silver was exchanged at the rate 
of 1 to 40. A new paper issue was offered of less than one twentieth of the face value 
of the old. Although the new bills were redeemable in specie after five years, actually 
they were not exchanged until 1790. D. R. Dewey, Financial History of the United 
States (New York, 1903), 36-40. 

67. The march to the Chesapeake was begun on the 19th. The destination of the 
army was kept secret, and the enemy under Clinton logically expected an attempt on 
New York by way of Staten Island. By the time Washington's combined forces began 
to head directly towards Princeton and Trenton, on the 30th, it was too late for 
Clinton to intercept the move against Cornwallis. 

zi 6 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 178 1 

creek to Christiania bridg, from whence the Artillery & 
Stores ware transferd by land to the Head of Elk, about 
12. miles, & there reship'd. — 68 our Troops that march'd 
by land pass'd Philadelphia the x d of Sep- by this time 
it is generally supposed that Lord Corn Wallis & his 
Troops in Virginia is our object. — the 2.9 th ul* a Fleet 
of British Men of War arriv'd at New York consisting of 
ix ships of the line & some Frigates, under the command 
of Admiral Whood, — 69 A large French Fleet is hourly 
expected on our coast, on the 6 th the American Troops 
arriv'd at the Head of Elk, & began to imbark our Artil- 
lery & Stores, the 7 th the French Troops arriv'd & began 
to imbark their Artillery & Stores. — we have certain 
intilligence of the Arrival of A French Fleet in the Ches- 
opeak bay consisting of 2_8 Ships of the line & some Frig- 
ates, & that they have landed 3000 men. — 7 ° the French 
Fleet captured on their passage a Frigate on board of 
which was Lord Rawden 71 on his way from Charles Town 
to England; the 9 th and 10 the French Granidiers, light 
Infantry & artillery, together with the American Artil- 
lery, light Infantry, & one Battalion of Jersey Troops im- 
bark 'd on board vessels & the 11 th proceeded down the 

68. Washington ordered the route of march from Philadelphia to the head of Elk 
River by way of Darby, Chester, Wilmington on Christiana Creek, and Christiana 
Bridge. Elk River rises in Chester co., Pa., flows south to Elkton, Maryland, and enters 
Chesapeake Bay in Cecil county. Writings of Washington, XXIII, 13, 68, ff. 

69. Admiral Samuel Hood, Viscount Hood (172.4-1816), was inactive in the war 
until 1780, when he was sent to the West Indies. The next summer he took his ships 
to New York to reinforce Admiral Graves. Together they were defeated by a superior 
French fleet off Chesapeake Bay, and failed to help Corn wallis. Hood then returned 
to the West Indies. Diet. Nat. Biog., IX, 1157-63. 

70. The French fleet arrived off Chesapeake on August 31. Fiske. op. cit., II, 2.78. 

71. Francis Rawdon-Hastings, znd Earl of Moira and 1st Marquis of Hastings 
(1754-18x6), came to America in 1773 and took part in most of the Revolutionary 
campaigns. In 1778 he was appointed adjutant-general with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. He fought in the siege of Charleston in 1780, and defeated Greene at Hobkirk's 
Hill in 178 1. He left America because of ill health. On his way to England his ship 
was captured, and he was taken to Brest, but was exchanged in a short time. Diet. 
Nat. Biog., IX, 117-2.Z. 

178 1 ] The Yorktown Campaign ii7 

Bay as far as Annapolis, where we remain'd until the 15 th 
& then put down the bay. 

i2_ the other Battalion of Jersey Troops, Hazins Reg? 
& the Rhode Island troops imbark'd in flat Bottom boats 
(which we transported from Hudsons River,) & pro- 
ceeded down the Bay. the main body of the French 
Troops, & the two New York Reg's march' d on to Balti- 
more & from thence to Annapolis, & there imbark'd on 
board vessels (sent up from the French Fleet,) & pro- 
ceeded to James River. — the first division of our Troops 
arriv'd in James River the xo th & the remainder the z^ h 
we proceeded up the River about 40 miles & landed. — (I 
was attack 'd with a Billious fever the day before we left 
Annapolis which continud very severe until after I 
landed. — ) 

we found the Enemy at York Town strongly fortified & 
about 5000 strong exclusive of a large body of negros 
which they had stolen from the Inhabitents. York Town 
is situate on York River, twelve miles from Williams- 
burg where we found the Marquiss De Lafiate with the 
Troops under his command, our Troops landed about 
five miles from Williamsburg, march 'd & found the Army 
near that Town . — the French Fleet consisting of 3 6 sail 
of the line with a numbar of frigates, lay in the mouth of 
the bay & in the mouths of the rivers. 72- the th a Brit- 
ish Fleet under Admiral Graves appeer'd of[f] the Bay 
consisting of 2.1 ships of the line & a numbar of Frigates. 73 

72.. Comte De Grasse stationed his fleet so as to blockade all possible approaches to 
York and Gloucester by sea. These included (i) the passage between the "Middle 
Ground" and Cape Henry (2.) the passage from Lynhaven Bay into the James River 

(3) Burwell's Ferry across the James River from the Williamsburg Road to Suffolk 

(4) the passage between "The Spit" and the shoals of the "Middle Ground" which 
cut off the mouth of Chesapeake Bay as well as the mouth of York River. The York 
peninsula was blockaded by the combined land forces under Washington. 

73. The British fleet under Admiral Graves appeared off Chesapeake Bay on Sep- 
tember 5, and was routed by the French fleet the same day. Fiske, op. cit., II, 2.79. 

2. 1 8 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 178 1 

the French slip'd their cables & 7.4 ships put to sea came 
up with the British & had a parcial action the British 
made off. the French took two frigates & return' d to 
their Station. — 

Z7 th L* Col? Connaway 74 of the british was taken near 
york Town. — 

2.8 th the whole Army march'd from Williamsburg to 
york Town, & incamp'd near the Town; — we have au- 
thentic accounts from the Southward of an action be- 
tween Gen! Green & the Enemy in that Quarter, in 
which the Enemy lost 300 kill'd 400 taken prisoners & 
ware totally defeated; our loss was ±^0 kill'd & wounded, 
among which was a numbar of officers of distinction. — 75 
we are inform'd the Enemy have lately burn'd New Lon- 
don & New Haven in Connecticut, it is said the Infamous 
Arnold headed the party that perform 'd those brilliant 
exploits. — ?6 

Octo^ r 1 our army is carrying on their opperations 
against York, have Obliged the Enemy to abandon their 
out works. — 77 Col? Scammell (being Officer of the day) 

74. The prisoner's name is given as Lt. Col. John Connolly in The Pennsylvania 
Gazette for Oct. 10, 1781, which adds that he was "paroled in Hanover in Virginia." 
As there is no such name in the British Army List, he must be Dr. John Connolly, 
who held this rank in the provincial forces of Sir Henry Clinton. Connolly was Lord 
Dunmore's agent at Fort Pitt, and helped to foment "Dunmore's War" in 1774. He 
was captured the following year and kept a prisoner until early in 1781. R. G. Thwaites 
andL. P. Kellogg, eds., Documentary History of Dunmore s War 1774 CMadison, 1905), 42.. 

75. This was the battle of Eutaw Springs, S. C, fought September 8 between 
Greene's southern army and a British detachment under Lt. Col. Stuart. Winsor, op. 
cit., VI, 493-4, passim. 

76. When Clinton learned that Washington had marched south, he ordered a raid 
into Connecticut in the hope of diverting part of the allied armies. Arnold invaded 
and burned New London, his boyhood town. Forts Griswold and Trumbull were 
taken, and some shipping was destroyed. New Haven was not attacked. This was 
Arnold's last military exploit. Fiske, op. cit., II, 2.81-z. Arnold's letter to Clinton, 
in N. Y. Gazette & Weekly Mercury, Sept. 14, 1781. 

77. From the day of its arrival, Washington's army had worked steadily on the 
construction of redoubts and approaches to the enemy lines. On September 2.9, the 
British outposts were abandoned, as well as the advanced redoubts, and Cornwallis 
withdrew to the security of his main line of defense. The abandoned works were imme- 
diately taken over by Washington's troops. 

1 78 1 J The Yorktown Campaign xicj 

was reconnoitering the Enemies works this morning 
when a small party of their Hors sallied out, & took him 
prisoner, & after having him in possession, one of the 
horsmen came up in his rear, put his pistol near his back 
& shot him. the ball enter'd between his hip bone & his 
ribs & lodg'd in him. he was carried into Town, & the 
next day came out on Parole, his wound appeers rather 

6 th New Hampshire has met with one more cappital 
loss, the unfortunate Col? Scammell this day expired, in 
consiquence of his wound receiv'd the i st ins? univer- 
sally lamented by all who knew him. the loss of so great 
& good an officer must be very severely felt in the Army 
at large; but in the New Hampshire line, in perticular. — 

9 th I have so far recover'd my health as to be able to go 
into Camp & do my duty this day. 

our batteries Open'd this day on the Enemies works, 
& our approaches are going forward briskly. 

10 th and 11 th we burn't a 50 gun Ship of the Enemies & 
two smaller ones with our shells. — ?8 this night we broke 
ground within about Z50 yards of the Enemies works, 
where batteries will be erected immediately. — 

i2. th a very heavy fire is kept up on both sides to day. 
but our men continue at work in the advanced works. — 
we have not had as much as one man p^ day kill'd on an 
average since we began our approaches, (very fortunate 

15 th last evining two of the Enemies redoubts ware 
taken by assault between seven & eight oclock; — one by 
the American light Infantry, the other by the French; 
without firing a gun, the bayonet alone was used — about 
100 prisoners ware taken in both, & about forty kill'd, 

78. The Charon, anchored off shore at Yorktown, was burned by a hot shot from 
the French land battery. Two transports anchored close to her were also burned 
Johnston, op. cit., 140. 

Z2.o Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 178 1 

our loss about 70 kill'd & wounded; 79 immediately after 
those works ware carried (every thing being previously 
prepared) a third parallel was began which included the 
two redoubts taken, & by morning the trenches ware 
nearly compleet, together with a cover' d way from our 
first parallel to the last, our men continued at work this 
whole day in compleeting the trenches, & in prepareing 
for erecting several batteries. — the Enemy kept up a 
brisk fire of small royals & such cannon as they had 
(which wair mostly nines & twelve pounders,) but did 
very little dammage, altho our works are within xoo 
yards of their main lines. 

16 th the Enemy made a faint sortie last night, but ware 
soon repulsed, a small party pass'd our right & spiked up 
six cannon in a battery in our first parallel, where there 
hapen'd to be but a few men, but ware immediately 
drove off by the french who ware nearest the battery 
with the loss of eight kill'd & six taken prisoners; 80 

sixteen deserters came out this morning who say the 
Troops are very much fatigued, with excesive hard duty, 
& that they are very sickly. — 8l 

17 th four years this day since Gen! Burgoyne & his 
Army surrendered to the American Armies at Sarratoga — 

we had a numbar of very warm Batteries opend this 
morning in our advanced Parallel, which made the En- 
emies situation so very disagreable. — that about the 

79. The two redoubts were on the extreme left of the British fortifications, near the 
river. No. 9 redoubt was taken by a detachment under Col. William Deuxponts. No. 
10 redoubt was assaulted by a force under the command of Lt. Col. Alexander Hamilton, 
and was captured in ten minutes. Ibid., 141-7. 

80. The object of this sortie by the British was to cripple some unfinished batteries 
being erected very close to their lines. The detachment was led by Lt. Col. Abercromby. 
He was opposed by Comte de Noailles, who had command of the supports that 
night. Ibid., 148-9. 

81. Illness, more than enemy fire, reduced the number of Cornwallis' effectives 
and influenced his decision to capitulate, according to a letter from Cornwallis to 
Clinton dated Oct. xo, 1781. Clinton Papers, Clements Library. 

1 781] The Yorktown Campaign 2.2.1 

middle of the day his Lordship was induced to send out a 
flag, with some proposels for a Capitulation. — soon after, 
a Cessation of Hostilities took place, & the evening was 
taken up in negotiation between two Officers of our Army, 
& two of the Enemies, on the Terms of capitulation. 


the Treaty between Gen! Washington & his Lordship 
ended this fournoon by a Capitulation being agree'd 
on & rattified by both parties, & this afternoon the 
Troops march'd out & laid down their Armes, both at 
York & Gloster, 82 - amounting in the whole (including 
those in the Hospital,) to 7,054 including Officers, one 
hundred Ships & vessels of different kinds ware at York 
when the Seige commenced the whole of which ware di- 
stroyd & taken, about 1000 seamen ware made prison- 
ers. — our troops took possession of the Enemies princi- 
ple works previous to their marching out, their Troops 
ware very sickly. 2.000 ware in the Hospitals of Sick & 
wound 'd at York & Gloucester was taken 74 pieces of 
Brass ordnance, between two & three hundred pieces of 
Iron, 8000 stands of armes & very conciderable quanti- 
ties of ammunition, Quarter Masters Stores, clothing; & 
provisions. — 

The Prisoners ware sent to the back parts of Virginia 
& Maryland, except a large proportion of the Officers 
which went on Parole to New York. — 

2.8 th after collecting the different kinds of Stores, leav- 
eling our works, & making the necessary arrangments, 
we are now prepareing to leave this Place. The French 
troops which came from the West Indeas have imbark'd 
& joined the Fleet. — the Army under the Gen! Count 
Roshambau is to winter in Virginia. — 

82.. Now Gloucester Point, on the left bank of the York River, directly opposite 

XZ2. Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 178 1 

A large British Fleet appeered off the mouth of the 
Bay this afternoon, 83 the French are prepareing to go out 
to see them. — 

all the Troops belonging to the Eastward of Pennsil- 
vania are to return to the North River, & the others to 
join Gen! Green in Carolina. — 

I am severely handled by the ague & fever. — 
we find our selves embarresed for want of teams to trans- 
port our baggage, as very nearly the whole of our oxen 
are dead & sick (of which a large proportion of our teams 
ware composed) with a distemper not known yet, to the 
Northward of this State, it is not uncommon for cattle to 
die within two days after the first appeerence of the dis- 
order, it is call'd (by some) the bloody murren. The urine 
of the cattle appears bloody immediately after they are 
taken, & continues so until they die, if cattle are brought 
only fifty miles from the northward to the sea coast, in the 
months of August or Septem^ they are generally more or 
lessaffected by this distemper, it is said here, that thehides 
of cattle that die with it cannot be made into leather. — 
no remedy or relief has yet been found out for it. — 

Novem^ 6 th from the 18 ul* we have been busily ingaged 
in collecting vessels, & Imbarking Troop, Artelliry, 
Stores &c. our sick & invaleads ware first imbark'd & 
sent off for the head of Elk. this day nearly all the Troops 
will Sail for the same place. — 

our waggons go by land, the greatest part of which go to 
the Southward with the Troops & Stores that are to Join 
Gen! Green.— 8 4 

Articles of Capitulation, Settled, Between His Excel- 
lency Gen! Washington, Commander in chief of the com- 

83. This was Admiral Graves' fleet of 35 sail, bringing Clinton's delayed rein- 
forcements to Cornwallis. 

84. The war did not end with the defeat of Cornwallis. The British were still active 
in the Carolinas and in Georgia, where Gen. Greene carried on against them. 

1 781] The Yorktown Campaign 2.2.3 

bined Forces of America & France, His Excellency the 
Count De Roshambeau L* Gen! of the Armies of the King 
of France, great cross of the Roial and Military order of 
Saint Lewis, Commanding the Auxillery Troops of his 
Most Christian Majesty in America, and His Excellency 
the Count De Grass, 85 L' Gen! of the Naval Armies of 
His Most Christian Majesty, com' of the order of Saint 
Lewis, Commander in Chief of the Naval Army of 
France in the Chesapeek, on the one part, & the Right 
Honorable Earl of Corn Wallis, U Gen! of His Britan- 
nick Majesties forces, Commanding the Garrisons of 
York & Gloucester, & Thomas Simmons 86 Esq' Com- 
manding His Brittanick Majesties Naval forces in York 
river in Virginia on the other part. — 

Article i st — 

The Garrisons of York & Gloucester, including the Offi- 
cers & Seamen of his Britannick Majesties Ships as well 
as the Marines, to Surrender themselves Prisoners of 
War, to the combined Forces of America & France, the 
land Forces to remain Prisoners to the United States, the 
Navy to His Most Christian Majesty.— 

Article x d — 

The Artiliry, Armes, accoutrements, Military chest, & 
Public Stores of every denomination, unimpaired to the 

85. Francois Joseph Paul Grasse, Comte de Grasse-Tilly (172.3-1788), commanded 
a squadron in the West Indies in 1779 and 1780, and again in 1781. On September 5 
he defeated Admiral Graves off Chesapeake Bay and began a blockade which later 
prevented Cornwallis from receiving reinforcements and supplies. De Grasse was 
captured by Admiral Rodney in 1782.. Biographie Universelle, XVII, 374-5. 

86. Capt. Thomas Symonds ( d. 1793) obtained post rank in 1771 and commanded 
Admiral Montagu's flagship on the American station until 1774. Later he served 
under various admirals along the American coast. In December, 1780, he transported 
Arnold's force to Virginia and remained in the Chesapeake all winter. There he was 
trapped with the land forces of Cornwallis by De Grasse's fleet. His ship was burned 
and sunk by a hot shot from a French land battery. B. F. Stevens, Clinton-Cornwallis 
Controversy (London, 1888), II, 459. 

2.2-4 Journals of Henry Dearborn Q 178 i 

Heads of departments appointed to receive them, — 
Granted. — 

Article 3*?— 

at ix oclock this day the two redoubts on the left Flank 
of York, to be delivered, the one to American Infantry, 
the other to a detachment of French Granadiers. the 
Garrison of York will march out to a place to be ap- 
pointed in Front of the Post at i oclock precisely with 
Shouldered Armes, colours cased, & drums beating a 
British or German march. 87 they then are to ground their 
Armes, & return to their Encampment, where they will 
remain until they are dispach'd to the place of their des- 
tination, two works on the Gloucester side will be de- 
livered, at one oclock, to a detachment of French & 
American Troops appointed to possess them; the Garri- 
son will march out at 3 oclock in the afternoon; The 
Cavalry with their swords drawn, Trumpets sound- 
ing, & the Infantry in the manner prescrib'd for the 
Garrison of York, they are likewise to return to their 
incampment, to remain until they can be finally march'd 
off. Granted 

Article 4 th — 

Officers to retain their side Armes, both officers & sol- 
diers to keep their private property of every kind, & no 
part of their baggag or papers to be at any time subject 
to a search, or inspection, the Baggage & papers of offi- 
cers & Souldiers taken during the seige to be likewise 
preserved for them, it is understood that any property 
obviously belonging to the Inhabitents of these States in 
the possession of the Garrison shall be subject to be re- 
clamed. — Granted — 

87. The tune selected was "The World Turned Upside Down." Johnston, op. cit., 155. 

178 1 ] The Yorktown Campaign 1x5 

Article 5 th — 

the Soldiers to be kept in Virginia, Maryland, & Pennsil- 
vania, & as much by Reg' s as possible, & supplied with 
the same rations of provisions as are allowed to soldiers 
in the service of America. A field officer A field officer 
from each Nation, Viz British, Anspack, & Hessian, 88 
and other Officers in proportion of one to fifty men to be 
allowed to reside near their respective Reg" to visit them 
frequently & be witness of their Treatment, & their Offi- 
cers may receive & deliver clothing & other necessaries 
for them, for which purpose pasports are to be granted 
when applied for. — Granted 

Article 6 th — 

The Gen! Staff, and other officers not imploy'd as men- 
tioned in the above article, & who chuse it, to be per- 
mited to go on parole to Europe, to New York, or to any 
American maretime Port, at present in possession of the 
British forces, at their own option, & proper vessel to be 
granted by the Count De Grasse to carry them under flag 
of truce to New York within twenty days from this date 
if possible, & they to reside in a district to be agreed 
upon hereafter until they embark, the Officers of the civil 
department of the Army & navy to be included in this 
article, pasports to go by land to be granted to those for 
whom vessals cannot be furnished. Granted — 

Article 7 th — 

Officers to be allowed to keep soldiers for servants ac- 
cording to the common practice of the service, servants, 

88. Among the German provinces represented by the British mercenaries were 
Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Hanau, Brunswick, Waldeck, Anhalt-Zerbst and Anspach- 
Bayreuth. E. J. Lowell, The Hessians . . . in the Revolutionary War CNew York, 1884), 

2.2.6 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 178 1 

not soldiers not to be considered as prisoners, & be al- 
lowed to attend their masters. — 

Granted — ■ 

Article 8 th — 

The Bonetto sloop of war to be equiped & navagated 
by its present Cap? & crew, & left intirely at the dis- 
posal of Lord Cornwallis, from the hour the capitulation 
is signed, to receive an Aid Decamp 89 to carry dispaches 
to Sir Henry Clinton, & such soldiers as he may think 
proper to send to New York, to sail without examina- 
tion when his dispaches are ready his Lordship ingaging 
on his word the ship shal be delivered to the order of 
Count De Grasse, if she escapes the dangers of the seas, 
that she shall not carry off any Public stores, any part of 
hur crew that may be deficient on hur return, & the sol- 
diers passengers to be accounted for on hur returning, 

Granted — 

Article 9 th — 

The Traders to preserve their property & to be allowed 
three months to dispose of, or remoove them, & these 
Traders are not to be considered as prisoners of war. — 
The Traders will be allowed to dispose of their goods; 
the Allied Army having the right of preemtion; the 
Traders to be concidered as prisoners of war on parole 

Article 10 th — 
natives or inhabitents of different parts of this country 

89. The bearer was Lt. Col. Robert Abercromby (1740-1817), of the 37th regiment. 
He fought in America during the French and Indian War and throughout the Revolu- 
tion. He later distinguished himself in India and rose to the rank of general. Diet. 
Nat. Biog., I, 47-8. 

178 1 2 The Yorktown Campaign uirj 

at present in York & Gloucester are not to be punished 
on account of having join'd the British Army 

(this Article cannot be assented to, 
\ being altogether of civil resort. 

Article 11 th — 

/proper Hospitals to be furnished for the sick and 
\wounded. they are to be attended by their own Sur- 
geons on Parole, they are to be furnished with medicine 
& Stores from the American Hospital.} — {The Hos- 
pital Stores now in York & Gloucester shall be de- 
livered for the use of the British sick & wounded; pass- 
ports will be given for procureing them, & other supplies 
from New York as occation may require proper Hospi- 
tals will be furnished for the reception of the sick & 
wounded of the two Garrisons} 

Article i2_ th — 

Waggons to be furnished to carry the baggage of the 
Officers attending the Soldiers, & two Surgeons when 
traveling on account of the sick, attending the Hospi- 
tals, at Public expence. Answer they will be furnished if 
possible. — 

Article 13 th — 

the shiping & boats in the two garrisons with all their 
Stores, guns, tackling, & riging shall be delivered up in 
their present state to an officer of the Navy appointed to 
take possession of them, previously unloading the pri- 
vate property, part of which had been on board for se- 
curity during the seige. — Granted — 

Article 14 th — 
no article of Capitulation to be infringed on, on pretence 

Z2.8 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 178 1 

of reprisal, if there be any doubtful expressions in it they 
are to be interpreted according to the meaning and com- 
mon acceptation of the word. 
Granted — 

Finished at York in Virginia 
this 19 th day of Octob' 178 1— 
and in the 6 th year of our 

Independence 90 

Nov? 13 th I arrived at the Head of Elk but few of our 
vessels have yet arriv'd. the winds have been remarkably 
unfavorable; we have snow & cold weather. — 

X4 having nearly compleeted the transporting of the 
Artillery & stores from the head of Elk, to Christiania, 
where they are ship'd & convay'd to Philadelphia, I set 
out with the first division of troops towards Hudsons 
River, our troops had a very fatiguing march, the 
weather very unfavorable, frequent storms of both rain & 
snow. — I arriv'd at Hudsons River the 3 d of Dec? the 
Troops arriv'd the y th — Gen! Heaths Army had got 
into winter Quarters when we arrived. — 
the N. York & Jersey Troops together with the Park of 
Artillery winter in Jersey, the Rhode Island troops in 
Philadelphia, where Gen! Washington will remain some 
part of the winter. — 

the New Hampshire Troops winter above Albany, on the 
Hudson & Mohock rivers, — 

Decern? 10 th we have a deep snow. — have taken Quar- 
ters at New Windsor. — 9I 

90. Dearborn's copy of the text of the capitulation follows the official version, 
with only a few changes in words and punctuation. The original was signed by Corn- 
wallis, Symonds, Washington, Rochambeau, Barras and Grasse. 

91. The upper half of this page of the original manuscript is missing. It probably 
contained an entry dated between December 7 and December 10. 


Peace Negotiations 

the surrender of Corn wall is was folloived by the resignation of 
the British ministry, and the king was forced to accept a cabinet 
■pledged to negotiate an immediate peace and ivilling to recognise 
the independence of the United States. Carleton replaced Clinton 
as commander-in-chief , and while skirmishes continued for a 
time in the South, the British finally withdrew their forces late 
in ij82. A preliminary treaty of peace was formulated in No- 
vember, but the final articles were not signed until September 3, 
1783. Carleton then evacuated the last of the British army from 
New York City. 

JUNE io th 1781 
after compleeting the Public business 1 1 was ordered 
to perform by the Commander in Chief, &c. — I set 
out for Camp. 
xc^ h I arriv'd at Head Quarters at Newburgh on the 
Hudson River. 2 - 

1. On January 31, 1781, Washington wrote a circular letter to the several states, 
urging them to recruit such men as would bring their draft quotas, fixed by a Reso- 
lution of Congress, up to their limits, thereby insuring a respectable fighting force 
in the field. Dearborn was ordered to deliver this message, addressed to the state of 
New Hampshire, and wait for an official statement regarding the exact number 
of men which could be counted on from that state. Writings of Washington, XXIII, 

2.. Washington's headquarters were at Newburgh, 8 miles north of West Point, 
in a stone mansion now owned by the state. Here the army was disbanded June 2.3, 


2.3 o Journals of Henry Dearborn £1782. 

July 9? 1 1 [sjet out from Newburgh to Join my Reg? at 

17* I Joind my Rega- 
in the month of April last Sir Henry Clinton Com- 
mander in Chief at New York, was recall'd and Sir Guy 
Carleton arriv'd to take command of the British Army in 
America, — who brought over some pretended terms for a 
peace or truce, which ware with propriety totally re- 
jected by Congress. 

A total change in the British Ministry having taken 
place 3 has flattered us to believe that we shall soon have 
a peace, but I fear it will only serve to enable Briton to 
act with more vigor against us. — 

a very severe and bloody navel ingagement hapened on 
the i2_? h of April in the West Indias, between Admiral 
Rodney & Cound De Grass, in which the french ware un- 
fortunate, not being able to bring but part of their fleet 
to action, after a very obstinate ingagement the Action 
terminated in favor of the English, the French having 
lost 6 ships of the line one of which was the Ville De 
Parris in which was Count De grass. 4 

July 19? 1 we hear that a conciderable body of the En- 
emy have appeerd on the Mohawk River, have kill'd some 
men, taken some, & drove off a learge numbar of cattle. 5 
July isfy I began to erect some fortifications at this 
Garrison for its better securety. — 

3. Lord North resigned as prime minister in March, 1782.. He was succeeded by 
Charles Watson- Went worth, ind Marquis of Rockingham (1730-1782.). a Whig who 
had opposed the war. Lord Shelburne was made home secretary and Charles James 
Fox foreign secretary. Shelburne Papers, Clements Library. 

4. The battle took place off the island of Dominica. Five thousand casualties 
resulted and De Grasse was taken prisoner. Fiske, op. cit., II, z88. 

5. Washington reported this incident in a letter to Congress dated July 9, 1781. 
Just before he paid a visit to the defences at Saratoga on June 2.9, a party of British, 
Loyalist Refugees and Indians came down the Mohawk, captured a guard of Conti- 
nental troops stationed at a mill, and destroyed the mill. Writings of Washington, 
XXIV, 405, ff. 

1781] Peace Negotiations 131 

30* altho we keep constant scouting parties at a con- 
ciderable distence, on different parts of the Lakes George 
and Champlain, no parties of the Enimy have yet been 
discovered. — more plentiful harvests ware never known 
in this Country than there is at present. — 

August 2.* we receiv'd accounts of the States of Hol- 
lands having declared the thirteen united States of Amer- 
ica independent. 6 

it is reported that a new set of Commissioners have ar- 
rived at New York from Briton with new and fresh par- 
dons for us Rebels : — 7 we hear that the French Army is 
on their march from Virginia to the Northward, it is 
hoped that the Campaign will not terminate in the man- 
ner we feared it would not long since. — 

8* h we are inform'd that a French Fleet has arriv'd in 
the Chesapeek Bay consisting of 13 sail of line of Battle 
Ships, — and likewise that the States of Holland have ac- 
knowledged the independency of these States, through 
the authority of their High Mightinesses, and have ut- 
terly refused to make a seperate peace with Briton. — 
All these things are for us. — 

a small scout of mine toock a new whale boat in Lake 
George belonging to the Enemy, which had been se- 
creted by a small party that had come over the lake for 
the purpose of plundering the inhabitents and carrying 
some poor defenceless man to Canada. 

2_o* h we are inform'd that the French Fleet that arriv'd 
in the Chesapeek Bay a few week[S] agoe has arrivd in 
Boston Harbour. — 

6. The Netherlands did not sign a treaty of amity and commerce with the United 
States until October 8, 1782.; but in April John Adams had been officially recognized 
as minister from the United States. S. F. Bemis, The Diplomacy of the American Revo- 
lution (New York, 1935), 169. 

7. There was no truth in this rumor. The United States now had ministers abroad 
with whom peace negotiations would be opened. 

2_32- Journals of Henry Dearborn [1781 

a general Peace is much talk'd of, 

2.2.4 went to Stillwater to an Ordination in the woods, 
&c &c 

Septf 1? we are informd from authority that the Enemy 
have left Savannah in Georgey — 8 

Sept- 2. we hear that our main Army have taken the 
field— 9 

15 the French Army have arriv'd from the Southward 
& incamp'd near our main army. 

xo Peace & the Enemies Leaving New York is all the 

2-5 we are informd from prety good authority that an 
action has happened in the East Indies between the 
French & British fleets in which the French ware victori- 
ous, the British Admiral by the name of Hughes, with 
several other ships fell into the hands of the French. — IO 

x8* h the Enemy in all parts of this Continent appeer to 
have no intentions of prosicuting the war any further, no 
fighting has happened for a long time. 

an other revolution has taken place in the British Min- 
istry, on account of the death of the Marquess of Rock- 
ingham, first Lord of the Treasury, to which vacancy Lord 
Shelborn 11 was appointed by y c King which occasiond 
the resignation of Charles Fox & some others, it is feard 
that this revolution in the British Ministry will have 

8. The British evacuated Savannah on July n, 1781. 

9. The main army, except the garrison at West Point, which was left intact un- 
der the command of Maj. Gen. Knox, was moved from West Point on August 31, 
178Z, to a camp at Verplank's Point. Writings of Washington, XXV, 100, ff. 

10. Admiral Sir Edward Hughes (i7zo?-i794) commanded the fleet in the East 
Indies from 1773 to 1777 and again from 1778 to 1783. He fought five indecisive 
battles with the French fleet under De Suffren in 1 782.-83. Diet. Nat. Biog., XX VIII, 171. 

11. Sir William Petty, znd Earl of Shelburne and 1st Marquis of Lansdowne (1737- 
1805), succeeded Rockingham as prime minister in July, 1782.. He had pledged himself 
not to grant independence to the United States, but his commissioners were forced 
to alter this policy. Charles James Fox (1749-1806) resigned as foreign secretary 
and formed a coalition with Lord North. Shelburne Papers, Clements Library. 

1782.]] Peace Negotiations 2.33 

a tendency to prolong the war, as those Ministers that 
ware for Peace are no longer in Office. — 
we have had various accounts of a Treaty for Peace, said 
to be on foot between Briton, France, Spain, Holland & 
America and that a congress of Agents from the different 
Powers has been seting at Paris several months, from 
which we expect much, a speedy & honorable Peace is the 
general cry of America, & I believe great Briton is far 
from being averce to Peace — 

Octofr 5^ having heard much said of several springs of 
an uncommon kind that are situate about twelve miles 
west from this garrison, I was induced to pay them a 
visit this day in company with several other Gentle- 
men. 11 I was much disappointed in rinding the quality or 
taste of the water as well as the very extreordinery situa- 
tion of it infinitely more curious then I expected, the 
water is clear, the taste is hard to describe; to me it ap- 
peered at first tasting to partake much of alkoline qual- 
ities, but on drinking freely it appeerd to be between 
good porter & cyder in taste and was not ungreatful to 
my taste, many are excessive fond of it. a frequent use of 
those waters have, as common report sais,) proov'd a 
cure for many different disorders, such as the rumetism, 
gout faking sickness, ague & fever, many cutanious dis- 
orders, scorbutic and venereal complaints, and for all 
kind of external ulcers, indeed those waters have proovd 
so effectual in curing many old & stubborn complaint[S] 
of vairous kinds, that people from many parts of the 
country flock to the spring, for almost all kind of disor- 
ders, there is three or four of the spring within a space 
of eighty rods, one of them is quite a curiosity, the 
water iscontaind in a stone that has without doubt, been 
formd from the water itself, of a conick figure resembling 

12.. Saratoga Springs, Saratoga co., N. Y. 

X34 Journals of Henry Dearborn £ 1782. 

a sugar Loaf in shape : it is abou* eighteen feet in circum- 
ference at the ground, about five feet in highth, and about 
two feet over at the top, at which place it has a cavaty 
in the senter about ten inches over, which remains nearly 
of the same bigness to the bottom of the stone, which 
cavaty contains the water, which boils not much unlike 
a pot over the fire constantly. & at the full of the moon 
boils over the top. but at other times the surface of the 
water is from six to twelve inches below the top of the 
cavaty. — it appeers very evident from many circum- 
stances that this stone has been formd by the over flow- 
ing of the water as those waters petrefy wherever they 
run, and forms large bodies of soft stone, around itp] 
courses. — one other of those springs is contained in a 
large body of stone of the above discription, not less then 
forty feet in circumference but not more then 4 feet above 
the surface of the ground. The water is contain 'd in a cav- 
aty of about three feet one way & six the other, & so deep 
that the bottom has not been found by any that I have 
heard of: from this there is a conciderable discharge con- 
stantly : another of those springs is larger & calculated for 
bathing. — there is such a constant fermentation in the 
water of those springs that it cannot be confind in any 
close vessel, & if it is but a few hours in an open one 
it looses all its medicenal quallities, & becomes quite 
insiped : — 

Octofr 17^ this being the Anniversary of the Capture 
of Gen! Borguoyn & his Army, we had an entertain- 
ment at which was all the Officers of the Garrison, & 
some other Gentlemen, we spent the day & Evening 
in festivity & mirth, the Soldiers had a gill of spirits 
over their allowence servd out to them, to enable them 
to keep the day with the spirit, as well as with the 

1781] Peace Negotiations 135 

a small scout from this Garrison toock up one Fifield 
from New Hampshire, in the State of Vermont, with En- 
listing orders from the Enemy in Canada, he is sent to 
Albany in Irons for tryal. 

Z4* h we are inform 'd that our main Army is about go- 
ing into winter Quarters, at and about West Point, & 
that the French Troops are going to winter Quarters in 
the State of Connecticut; — 

Octob- 2.5 - h we ware honoured by a visit of Count Vio- 
menel 13 a Maj^ Gen 1 in Count Roshambaus Army, after 
reconnoitering the different works that ware occupied 
by Gen 1 Burgoyns Army & ours, spent the Afternoon in 
shooting small game in the woods. — 

Nov^ 3^ 1781 we hear from Head Quarters that a gen- 
eral Peace is very nearly agreed on by the several contend- 
ing Powers: — M 

by a Flag of mine that has returnd from Canada, I am 
inform' d that the whole of our Prisoners in that Quarter 
are sent to New York, to be exchang'd, except about 300 
women & children which are sent over the Lake to this 
place, on their way to their respective homes, on parole. 

Nov^ 6' h I receiv'd orders to march to Join the Main 
Army, the 7^ I march 'd the same day I was relieved by 
the Rhode Island Reg' — I5 the 9^ imbarcked the Reg' at 
Albany & on the 12.^ arrived at Newburgh & Join'd the 

13. Antoine Charles du Houx, Baron de Viomenil (172.8- 1792.), was second in com- 
mand of the French army in America, under Comte de Rochambeau. Biographie Uni- 
verselle, XLIII, 583. 

14. The provisional treaty of peace was signed in Paris, November 30, 1782.. The 
House of Commons refused to accept it because the terms were too generous. As a result, 
Shelburne resigned in April, 1783, and the new cabinet composed of the Fox-North 
coalition promised to obtain better terms. The definitive treaty was thereby delayed 
another year, but when it was signed it read virtually the same as the provisional 
articles. Shelburne Papers, Clements Library. 

15. Washington ordered the relief of the New Hampshire troops in his letter to 
Lord Stirling dated October 30, 1781. They were to be relieved by the Rhode Island 
troops under Col. Olney. Writings of Washington, XXV, 307. 

Z36 Journals of Henry Dearborn £1781-83 

Main Army, about 3 or four miles back of Newburgh & 
New Windsor where they ware huting for winter, — 
the i d New Hampshire Reg? march' d from the Mohawk 
River & Joind the Main Army likewise. — 

Nov^ 1 4^ we began to build huts— 

2.0? 1 we hear that Gibralter has surrenderd to the Span- 
iards, & that a very large French & Spanish Armiment is 
proceeding against Jamaca. — l6 

Z5* h we are inform'd that a large imbarcation is taking 
place at New York, supposed for the West Indies. 17 it is 
said that Sir Guy Carleton is to command it — 

Decern^ 13? 1 1782. 

I set out for home on furlow and the 2.0 th arrived & 
found all well. — 

March 1* 1783 by a reformation in the new Hamp^ line 
in which the two Reg*s ware reduced to one Reg? & one 
Batallion, I being the Junier Col? was deranged; 18 & thus 
ends my millatery life, after almost eight years servus. I 
Joined the army 1- of June, & received my discharge the 
18 th of June 1783 so that my serveces exceeded 8 years by 
about 1 month. 

16. This rumor was false. Gibraltar was besieged by Spain from August, 1779, to 
February, 1783, when news of the preliminary treaty of peace was received. J. D. 
Bethune, A History of the Late Siege of Gibralter (Edinburgh, 1786), passim. 

17. Washington learned that many transports had been sent down to New York 
from Halifax and Quebec, and that four regiments had received embarkation orders. 
But no troops sailed from New York in November, and the city was not evacuated 
until November 2.6, 1783. Writings of Washington, XXV, 435. 

18. Lt. Col. George Reid was senior to Dearborn and consequently was retained as 
commander of the New Hampshire troops until November 3, 1783. Heitman, op. 
cit., 46-2.. 

Works Consulted 

-^HD «#• 

Works Consulted 


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Arnold, Isaac N., The Life of Benedict Arnold; His Patriot- 
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Babcock, Kendric C, The Rise of American Nationality 
1811-1819 (New York and London, 1906). 

Bancroft, George, History of the United States from the 
Discovery of the American Continent (Boston, 1859-75), 10 

Bartlett, Levi, Genealogical and Biographical Sketches of 
the Bartlett Family in England and America (Lawrence, 


Bassett, John Spencer, editor, Correspondence of Andrew 
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Bemis, Samuel Flagg, The Diplomacy of the American Rev- 
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Bethune, John Drinkwater, A History of the Late Siege 
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Biographie Universelle (Michaucf) ancienne et moderne . . . 
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Britton, N. L., and Addison Brown, An Illustrated Flora 
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Burpee, L. J., and A. G. Doughty, editors, Index and 
Dictionary of Canadian History (Toronto, 191 1). 

Coffin, Charles, compiler, History of the Battle of Breed's 
Hill . . . (Saco, 183 1). 

The Lives and Services of Major General John Thomas . . . 
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Cook, Frederick, editor, Journals of the Military Expedi- 
tion of Major General John Sullivan against the Six Na- 
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tions (Auburn, 1887). 

Cooper, James Fenimore, The History of the Navy of 
the United States of America (London, 1839), 1 vol- 

Currey, J. Seymour, The Story of Old Fort Dearborn (Chi- 
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The Cyclopedia of American Biographies (Boston, 1 897-1 903), 
7 volumes. 

Dearborn, Henry, An Account of the Battle of Bunker Hill. 
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adelphia, 1818). 

Dearborn, Henry A. S., Defence of Gen. Henry Dear- 
born Against the Attack of Gen. William Hull (Boston, 

Dewey, Davis Rich, Financial History of the United States 
(New York, 1903). 

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Dictionary of National Biography (London, 1908-09), n 

Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of 
New-York (Albany, 1853-87), 15 volumes. 

Drake, F. S., Dictionary of American Biography (Boston, 

Dunnack, Henry E., Maine Forts (Augusta, 192.4). 

Works Consulted 2.41 

Emmons, Richard, The Battle of Bunker Hill, or, The Temple 
of Liberty; an Historic Poem in Four Cantos (Boston, 1872.). 

Farrow, Edward S., Farrow's Military Encyclopedia . . . 
(New York, 1895), 4 volumes. 

Fellows, John, The Veil Removed; or, Reflections on David 
Humphreys' Essay on the Life of Israel Futnam (New 
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Fiske, John The American Revolution (Boston and New 
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Fitzpatrick, John C, editor, The Diaries of George Wash- 
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The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manu- 
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volumes to date. 

French, Allen, The First Year of the American Revolution 
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Frothingham, Richard, The Battle Field of Bunker Hill: 
With a Relation of the Action by William Prescott . . . 
(Boston, 1876). 

Godfrey, Carlos E., The Commander-in-Chiefs Guard 
(Washington, 1904). 

Goodwin, Daniel, The Dearborns; a Discourse Commemora- 
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Dearborn . . . (Chicago, 1884). 

Heitman, Francis B., Historical Register of Officers of the 
Continental Army During the War of the Revolution April, 
177 j, to December, 1783 (Washington, 191 4). 

Hildreth, Richard, The History of the United States of 
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Hodge, Frederick Webb, editor, Handbook of American 
Indians North of Mexico (Washington, 19 12.), Smith- 
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2.42. Journals of Henry Dearborn 

Hull, William, Defence of Brigadier General W. Hull. 

Delivered before the General Court Martial, of which Major 

General Dearborn was President . . . (Boston, 1814). 

Memoirs of the Campaign of the North Western Army of 

the United States, A. D. 18 12 . . . (Boston, 18x4). 

Report of the Trial of Brig. General William Hull; . . . 

Taken by Lieut. Col. Forbes . . . (New York, 18 14). 
Jacobs, James Ripley, Tarnished Warrior, Major-General 

James Wilkinson (New York, 1938). 
James, Marquis, The Life of Andrew Jackson (New York, 


Johnston, Henry P., The Yorktown Campaign and the Sur- 
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Journals of the Continental Congress 1JJ4-IJ89 (Washington, 
1904-37), 34 volumes. 

Kingsford, William, The History of Canada (Toronto, 
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Lowell, Edward J., The Hessians and the Other German 
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McMaster, John B., A History of the People of the 

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Nickerson, Hoffman, The Turning Point of the Revolution 
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Paine, Ralph D. , The Fight for a Free Sea; a Chronicle of the 
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Parker, Francis J., Could General Putnam Command at 

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Perkins, James Breck, France in the American Revolution 

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Preston, Howard W., The Battle of Rhode Island, August 

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Quaife, Milo M., Chicago and the Old Northwest (Chicago, 

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Ramsay, David, The History of the Revolution of South- 

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Sabin, Joseph, Bibliotheca Americana. A Dictionary of Books 
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Smith, Justin H. , Arnold 1 s March from Cambridge to Quebec; 
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Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony: Canada, and the 
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Sparks, Jared, editor, Correspondence of the American Revo- 
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Stevens, Benjamin Franklin, editor, The Campaign in 
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the Clinton-Cornwallis Controversy . . . (London, 1888), 
2. volumes. 

Z44 Journals of Henry Dearborn 

Stone, Edwin M., Our French Allies . . . (Providence, 

Swett, Samuel, History of Bunker Hill Battle (Boston, 

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, and Louise Phelps Kellogg, 
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Waldo, S. Putnam, The Tour of James Monroe, President 
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Wentworth, John, Early Chicago. Fort Dearborn; An Ad- 
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Wilkinson, James, Memoirs of My Own Times (Philadel- 
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Williamson, William D. , The History of the State of Maine 
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Winsor, Justin, editor, Narrative and Critical History of 
America . . . (Boston and New York, 1884-89), 8 vol- 


British Headquarters Papers of Sir Henry Clinton, including 
350 maps, in the William L. Clements Library of the 
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Papers of Lord Shelburne, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne, in the 
William L. Clements Library of the University of 

Dearborn, Henry A. S., The Life of Major General Henry 
Dearborn (Brinley Place, 182.2.), 7 volumes, in the Maine 
Historical Society, Portland, Maine. 

Secretary of War Military Letter Book, volumes I— II, War De- 
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Works Consulted 2.45 


Bulletin of the Fort Ticonderoga Museum, volume I, number 

5 O^)- 
Maine Historical and Genealogical Recorder, volume III 


Massachusetts Election! American Nomination. Major-Gen- 
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New Jersey Gazette, volume II (1779). 

The New-York Gazette: and the Weekly Mercury (178 1). 

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Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, volume 
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Royal Society of Canada, Proceedings and Transactions, se- 
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•^HD <&* 


Abercromby, Robert, 12.0, i.z.6 

Abraham, see Fort Abraham 

Abraham, see Plains of Abraham 

Abraham's Plains, 157 

Acland, John Dyke, captured at Free- 
man's Farm, 109 

Adams, John, Z31 

Adams, Winborn, 106 

Adjutoa (Kanaghsaws), 185 

Albany, N. Y., n, 100, 102., 103, in, 
190, 2.10, 135 

Alden, Ichabod, 141, 165 

Alder Stream, 47, 48 

Allegheny Branch, 180 

Allegheny River, 155, 191 

Allen, Ethan, 36, 98 

Allentown, N. J., British army at, 12.4; 
Washington's advance at, 12.5 

Allentown, Pa., 151 

Amherst, see Fort Cumberland 

Amherst, Sir Jeffrey, rumor of arrival at 
New York, 79 

Amwell, N. J., 12.3 

Andre, John, 36; sketch of, 105; capture 
of, 105 ; trial and execution of, 2.06 

Andrews, Ammi, captured at Quebec, 76 

Androscoggin River, 39, 95 

Angell's regiment, 2.06 

Anhalt-Zerbst, 2.2.5 

Annapolis, Md., 2.17 

Annapolis, N.S., 89, 90 

Anspach-Bayreuth, Z2.5 

Arendt, Baron Henry L. P., 162. 

Apple Town, see Kendaia, N.Y. 

Arbuthnot, Marriot, 199 

Arnold, Benedict, 9, 35; sketch of, 36; 
ordered to Quebec, 37; his troops 
reviewed by Washington, 37; orders 

batteaux, 39; 46, 49, 5Z, 54; orders sur- 
render of Quebec, 57; goes to Jacques 
Carrier, 60; his quarters struck by shells, 
64; wounded at Quebec, 67; 70; leads 
attack on Quebec, 71; 73; 75; with 
Gates, 97; takes Fort Ticonderoga, 98; 
marches to Fort Stanwix, 100; 101; at 
Fort Stanwix, 103; with Gates at Bemis 
Heights, 105; wounded at Freeman's 
Farm, 109; at Valley Forge, 12,1; rumor 
of his duel with a citizen, 144; 197; 
treason of, discovered, 2.05 ; 2.1 1 ; attacks 
New London, 2.18 

Arnold River, 50, 51 

Arnold's Hospital, 45 

Arnold's troops disguised, 68 

Arrowsic Island, 39 

Articles of Capitulation, see Capitulation 

Artillery, at Quebec, 70; at Monmouth 
Court House, 1x7, 118; at Newtown, 
177-80; 196, 2.00, 115, 2.16; at York- 
town, 7.19 

Aswald, Aliezer, see Oswald, Eleazer 

Athens, Pa., see Teoga 

Atlantic Ocean, 12.9 

Ayres, Capt., 50, 5Z, 53 

Bag Pond, 48 

Baldwin Creek, 177 

Baltimore, Md., 98 

Barker's Tavern, 94 

Barras, Comte de, in 

Bath, Me., 94, 95 

Batteaux built, 39 

Baum, Friedrich, 102., 103 

Bayonne, N.J., see Bergen Point 

Bear Swamp, 192. 

Beauce, seigneurie of, 55 




Bedford, N.Y., 141, 14Z; burned by Brit- 
ish troops, 161 

Belfast, Pa., 156 

Belfast June, Pa., 156 

Bell, Frederick M., 106 

Bemis Heights, 105; battle of, 105, 106; 
anniversary of, celebrated, 138 

Bennington, Vt., 4, 99; battle of, 103, 
104, 105, no, nz 

Bergen Point (Bayonne, N.J.), zoi 

Berlin, court of, 143 

Bethlehem, Pa., 151, 154 

Bic Cl'Islet au Massacre), 85 

Biddle, Clement, 140 

Big Island, 180 

Bigelow, Timothy, 37; sketch of, 54; at 
Quebec, 71, 76 

Binghamton, N.Y., 173 

Bishop, Reuben, 40 

Blair, a spy, 137 

Board of War, 102., 104 

Bog Brook, 46 

Bonaventura, 86 

Books, for American prisoners at Quebec, 

Boston, Mass., 5, 17, 2.9, 30, 33, 35, 36; 

British troops arrive at Quebec from, 

83; 136; 140; siege of, 141; 2.31 
Boundary Portage, 49 
Boundbrook, N.J., 195 
Boyd, Thomas, sketch of, 186; 187, 189 
Brandy wine, 117, izi, zo8 
Brant, Joseph (Thayendanegea), 141, 155; 

sketch of, 179; 188 
Breed's Hill, 5, 6, 7, 36 
Brest, France, zi6 
Brewin, Peter, see Bruin, Peter 
Breymann, Col. von, 103 
Brinker's Mills, 156 
British army, in Virginia, Z14 
British fleet, at New York, 2.16; arrival 

of, at Chesapeake, zzz 
Broad Bay, schooner, 40 
Broad Bay, see Broad Cove 
Broad Cove, 94 
Brodhead, Daniel, 155, 175 
Brooks, John, 165 
Brown, John, 71 

Brown, Samuel, captured at Quebec, 76 
Brown's Ferry, 95 

Bruin, Peter, captured at Quebec, 75 
Brunswick, ZZ5 

Brunswick, Me., 95 
Brunswick, N.J., 1Z9, 14Z, 196 
Bullen, Dr., vaccinates prisoners at Que- 
bec, 77 
Bullock's House, 157 
Bunker Hill, battle of, 4, 5, 7, 9, 30; 


Burget, Charles, 48, 54, 55, 6z 

Burgoyne, John, n, 18, 36; sketch of, 86; 
97; campaign of, 97; 101, ioz; at Still- 
water, 104; 107; at Freeman's Farm, 
109, no; capitulation of, in; at Sara- 
toga, nz; 140; anniversary of his sur- 
render celebrated, Z34 

Burnett, William, 17 

Burr, Aaron, 9 

Burr conspiracy, 18-zz 

Burwell's Ferry, Z17 

Butler, John, 155, 158, 179, 181, 186, 

Butler, Richard, sketch of, 105 

Butler, Walter, 141 

Butler, William, 164, 190, 19Z, 193 

Butler, Zebulon, 158; sketch of, 160 

Butler, Mrs. Zebulon, 160 

Butson Creek, 173 

Butts Hill, 134 

Byron, John, sketch of, 135; 199 

Cabisaconty, see Gardinerston, Me. 
Caldwell, Henry, 57, 60 
Cambridge, Mass., 35, 37, 140 
Camden, S.C., ioz; Gates defeated at, 

Z03; zn 
Camelback Mountain, 156 
Campbell, Donald, sketch of, 7Z 
Canada, 35, 136, 143; road to, projected, 

149; 2-35 
Canadian troops, 149 
Canadians, welcome Continentals, 58; aid 

in attack on Quebec, 71 
Canandaigua, N.Y., 184 
Canaseraga Creek, 187 
Canoga Creek, 190 
Canso, Gut of, 86 
Cape Breton, Island of, 86 
Cape Diamond, 67, 70 
Cape Henry, 150, Z17 
Cape Sable Island, 88 
Capitulation, terms of, at Yorktown, 

zzi; articles of, ZZ3-8 
Captain Harbor, 147 



Carlcton, Sir Guy, 35, 36, 46; commander- 
in-chief in Canada, 77; orders funeral 
for Montgomery, 78; orders Dearborn 
paroled, 84; commander-in-chief in 
America, 2.2.9, 1 3°i z 5& 

Carlcton, Osgood, 92. 

Carritunk Falls, 44 

Carrying-Place Mountain, 46 

Casco, 95 

Casco Bay, 92., 93 

Cass, Jonathan, 178 

Castleton, Vt., 99 

Catawba Indians, 192. 

Catherine Creek, 181 

Catherine's Town, 171, 181, 191 

Cat Hill, no 

Catlin, Benjamin, captured at Quebec, 76 

Cayuga Branch, 180 

Cayuga Indians, 184 

Cayuga Inlet, 191 

Cayuga Lake, 190 

Chambly, 58 

Champlain Canal, 100 

Charleston, S.C., 153, 154, 195; siege of, 
198; 2.11, 114 

Charlestown, Mass., 37 

Charlotte, N.C., 2.08 

Charlottesville, Va., 140 

Charon, H.M.S., burned at Yorktown, 

Chastellux, Marquis de, m 

Chaudiere, 48 

Chaudiere Pond, 50 

Chaudiere River, 35, 44, 51 

Chaudiere Valley, 48 

Cheeseman, Jacob, 71, 71, 74 

Chemung, N.Y., 171, 171, 176, 180, 193 

Chemung River, 164, 177 

Chenandanah, 187 

Cherry Valley, N.Y., 141 

Chesapeake Bay, 199; Washington's march 
to, 115; 2.17 

Chestnut Hill, skirmish at, 116 

Chicago, 17, 2.5, Z7, 33; see also Fort Dear- 

Chicago River, 16 

Chignecto Bay, 88 

Choconut Centre, N.Y., 173, 174 

Christiana, 2.18 

Christiana Bridge, xi6 

Christiana Creek, 115, 116 

Christmas Day, 143 

Cilley, Joseph, at Freeman's Farm, 106, 
108; 114; at Monmouth Court House, 
12.7; 141, 149, 151, 151, 159, 174; retire- 
ment of, no 

Clark, George Rogers, 153 

Clark, John, captured at Quebec, 76 

Clarke, Francis, killed at Freeman's Farm, 

Clarkson, Matthew, sketch of, 197 

Clayes, Elijah, sketch of, 12.0; 179 

Clinton, Sir Henry, sketch of, 112.; re- 
places Howe, 115; 155, 163, 195, 198; 
embarks for Rhode Island, 199; 2.15, 
2.16, 2.18, 2.2.0, 2.2.6, 2.2.9, 2 -3° 

Clinton, James, 165, 171, 174, 177 

Clintons Brigade, 165, 177 

Coeymans, N.Y., 113 

Colburn, Andrew, killed at Freeman's 
Farm, 106; no 

Colburn, Reuben, 39 

Commissioners for peace arrive in Phila- 
delphia, 12.2. 

Commodore, ship, 38 

Conawhaw, see North Hector, N.Y. 

Concord, Mass., 37 

Conestoga Indians, 41 

Conesus, N.Y., 185 

Confederacy, frigate, 146 

Connecticut, 143 

Connecticut Company, 169 

Connecticut River, 136 

Connecticut troops, 146 

Connolly, John, 118 

Constitution Island, 107 

Continental Army, 35; at New York, 97; 
reinforces troops at Saratoga, 100; ar- 
rangement of, 1x3; distribution of, 136; 
arrangement of, 160; disposition of, 

Continental Congress, moves to Balti- 
more, 98; sets day of thanksgiving, 118; 
awards bonuses to army, 111; arranges 
the army, 113; committee of arrange- 
ment, 135; recalls Silas Deane, 143; 
reception of Spanish ambassador ru- 
mored, 146; committee on Spanish al- 
liance, 147, 148; authorizes raising of 
German regiment, i6x; 197; levies 
supplies from the states, no; retires 
depreciated currency, 2.15; rejects Brit- 
ain's peace terms, 130 

Continental Dragoons, 109 



Convent at Quebec, prisoners confined in, 


Conway, Thomas, ioz 

Cooper, Samuel, killed at Quebec, 74 

Cooper's Ferry, 12.3 

Coreorgonet, 19Z 

Cornwallis, Earl, sketch of, izz, 12.3; 195, 
103, zo8, 111, Z14, 2.15, 2.16, zzo; sur- 
render of, at Yorktown, zzi; zzz, ZZ3, 

Coryell's Ferry, 1Z3; Continental encamp- 
ment near, 1Z4 

Court-martials, of Capt. Clayes, izo; of 
Gen. St. Clair, 134; of counterfeiters, 
137; of thieves, 144; of Tories, 153, 154; 
of deserters, i6z; of Col. Hazen, zo8 

"Cowboys," see DeLancey, James 

Cowpens, S.C., 41 

Coxe's Ferry, 114 

Crab Orchard, 130 

Criehaven Island, 93 

Crompond, N.Y., Z07 

Croton Bridge, 131, Z07 

Crown Point, 36 

Cumberland, N.S., 89 

Cumberland Basin, 88 

Cummings, John, 185 

Cummins, Mr., 138 

Cumston, John, captured at Quebec, 76 

Currency, Continental, depreciation of ru- 
mored, 80; counterfeit, 137; deprecia- 
tion of, 143; "death" of, Z15 

Cushing, Thomas H., 16 

Customs House, Quebec, 70 

Cuylerville, N.Y., 187 

Damariscotta, 94 

Dana, Francis, 135 

Danbury, Conn., 8z, izo, 135, 136, 140, 
141, 14Z, 145, 148 

Darby, Samuel, 141 

Dayton, Elias, 164, 165 

Dead Arnold River, 50 

Dead River, 44, 45. 46, 47 

Deane, Silas, sketch of, 143; 197 

Dearborn, Abner, 183 

Dearborn, Dorcas Marble, Mrs. Henry, 15 

Dearborn, Godfrey, 4 

Dearborn, Henry, biographical essay on, 
3-33; ancestors, 4; practices medicine, 
4; goes to war, see below Revolutionary 
War; first wife dies, 14, 139; marries 

again, 15, 197; moves to Maine, 14; 
U.S. marshal, 15; elected to Congress, 
15; secretary of war, 15; collector of 
port of Boston, zz; takes field in War of 
i8iz, zz, Z7; marries for third time, Z7; 
minister to Portugal, Z7; accompanies 
President Monroe, Z9 

Commands, company on Quebec ex- 
pedition, 37, 66; corps of light infantry 
at Stillwater, 104; garrison at New Lon- 
don, 145; Poor's brigade, 149; flank 
guard, 170; detachment to march around 
Cayuga Lake, 190; 1st N.H. regiment, 
z 3 o 

Illnesses, 5Z, 55, 61, 80, 90, izz, Z17, 
zzz; vaccinated for smallpox, 78 

Leaves of absence, in 1778, izo; death 
of wife, 139; in 1779, x 97' m I 7^ 1 oa 
army business, zio; in 178Z on army 
business, ZZ9; in 1783, Z36 

Letters, to his first wife, 78, 1Z3; to 
his third wife, 3, z8, 3Z; to his son, 
zz-3; to Cushing, 17; to Jackson, zo; 
from Jackson, zo-z 

Promotions, major 3rd N.H., 98; 
lieutenant colonel 3rd N.H., izo; trans- 
ferred to 1st N.H., zio; appointed dep- 
uty quartermaster general, zn; secre- 
tary of war, 15; major general, zz 

Revolutionary War, at Bunker Hill, 
4-9, 36; controversy with Putnam, 5, 
6, 8; joins Quebec expedition, 35, 37; 
on Kennebec River, 39; at Great Carry- 
ing Place, 44; on Chaudiere River, 5Z; 
taken sick, 55; crosses St. Lawrence, 
6z; in assault on Quebec, 67; surren- 
ders, 69; imprisoned, 74; removes to 
Hotel Dieu, 80; paroled, 83-4; reaches 
Halifax, 86; meets Howe, 87; put on 
shore, 93; embarks at Falmouth, 95; 
arrives home, 96; exchanged, 98; at 
New York City, 97; at Baltimore, 98; 
at Ticonderoga, 98; at Saratoga, 100; 
retreats to Stillwater, 100; sent up the 
Mohawk, 101; goes to Albany, 103; 
advances to Bemis Heights, 105; in first 
battle of Freeman's Farm, 105; in sec- 
ond battle of Freeman's Farm, 108; at- 
tacks at Saratoga, no; goes to Albany, 
nz; joins Washington at White Marsh, 
114; alarmed by skirmish at Chestnut 
Hill, 116; crosses Schuylkill, 117; en- 



camps at Valley Forge, 119; marches 
with Lee, 12.3; detached under Scott, 
IZ4; attacked at Monmouth, iz6; sent 
to turn enemy wing, 12.7; goes to Mor- 
ristown, 130; encamps at White Plains, 
131; marches to Danbury, 136; marches 
to Bedford, 141; returns to Danbury, 
14Z; dispatched to New London, 145; 
attends ball, 146, 147; returns to Dan- 
bury, 148; dances, 149; marches to 
Peekskill, 150; plays ball, 150; marches 
to Easton; 15Z; marches to Wyoming, 
156; views battle field, 158, 160; goes to 
mouth of Lackawanna, i6z; begins 
march with Sullivan, 168; reaches Te- 
oga, 171; marches up Susquehanna, 
173; attacks Indians at Newtown, 177; 
marches to Kendaia, 182.; to Canan- 
daigua, 184; to the Genessee Castle, 
187; returns to Canandaigua, 189; starts 
around Cayuga Lake, 190; rejoins army, 
191; arrives at Wyoming, 193; reaches 
Easton, 194; moves to Princeton, 197; 
arrives at West Point, 1780, 198; on 
foraging expedition, zoz; encamps at 
Orange, 2.04; takes winter quarters at 
Soldiers Fortune, Z07; on foraging ex- 
pedition, zo9;senttoN.H., zio; returns 
to camp, 1781, zio; descends to Kings 
Bridge, ziz; marches southward, Z15; 
arrives at Yorktown, Z17; relates Corn- 
wallis' surrender, zzi; returns to Hud- 
son , zz8 ; takes quarters at New Windsor, 
zz8; arrives at Newburgh, ZZ9; joins 
regiment at Saratoga, Z30; builds forti- 
fications, Z30; visits springs, Z33; re- 
joins main army at Newburgh, Z35; 
takes up winter quarters, Z36; honor- 
ably discharged, Z36 
Dearborn, Henry A. S., 15, 18, zz, z6, Z7, 

Dearborn, Julia, 3, 15, Z3, z8, 3Z 
Dearborn, Mary Bartlett, Mrs. Henry, 14, 

Dearborn, Pamela, 139 
Dearborn, Sarah Bowdoin, Mrs. Henry, 

3> *7. z8 
Dearborn, Sophia, 139 
Dearborn, Mich., 17 
Deer Island, 93 

Defence, H.M.S., aground, 147 
DeLancey, James, sketch of, Z13 

Delaware Indians, 171 

Delaware River, 114; British cross, IZ3; 

15Z; allied troops embark on, Z15 
Des Barres, J. F. W., 9Z 
Deserters, 107, 108; at Saratoga, in; 

British, from Philadelphia, izz; 1Z5, 

131; American, shot, 199; zzo 
D'Estaing, Comte, at Newport, 119; at 

Delaware Bay, 131; sketch of, 13Z; 133; 

sails for Boston, 134; in Boston harbor, 

J 35; !55> J 94> *97 

De Suffren, Admiral, Z3Z 

Detroit, Mich., 17, 18, Z4, Z5, 153 

Deuxponts, William, zzo 

Devil's Rapids, 5Z 

Dickinson, Philemon, sketch of, 1Z5; 198 

Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., zoo; American de- 
fences at, zoi; American artillery at, 
zi 3 ;zi 5 

Dogon Point, 156 

Dominica, 137 

Dorchester, Baron, see Carleton, Sir Guy 

D'Orvilliers, Admiral, 137 

Dresden, Me., 39 

DuBois, Lewis, 165 

Dugan, John, sketch of, 60 

Du Loup, 55 

Duncan, Mathew, captured at Quebec, 76 

Dundee Dam, 130 

Dunmore, Lord, zi8 

Dyer, Mr., 9Z 

East Branch, 46 

East Carry Pond, 45 

East Indies, British affairs in, Z14; Z3Z 

Easton, Pa., 151, 15Z, 155, 156, 157; roads 

to, repaired, 160; 163, 175, 194 
Eghohowin, 171 

Elizabeth, N.J., see Elizabethtown 
Elizabeth River, Z14 
Elizabethtown, N.J., 130; British attempt 

to destroy, 147 
Elizabethtown Point, 198 
Elk River, head of, zi6, zz8 
Ellis Brook, 173 
Elmira, N.Y. (Kannawaloholla), 170, 

177, 180, 181, 19Z 
Englishman Bay, 9Z 
Englishtown, N.J., 1Z5 
Enos, Roger, 37, 45, 49, 50 
Esopus, N.Y., burned, nz 
Esopus Kill, nz 



Etchemin River, 56 

Eutaw Springs, S.C., battle of, zi8 

Fairfield, Conn., burned by British troops, 

Falmouth, Me., 94, 95 
Falmouth, N.S., 88 
Farnsworth, 137 
Fayette, N.Y., 190 

Febiger, Christian, captured at Quebec, 77 
Fellows, John, no 
Ferdinand IV, 148 
Ferguson, Patrick, sketch of, zo8 
feu dejoie, 130; on anniversary of Saratoga, 

138, 139; at celebration of Lincoln's 

victory, 154 
Field Point, see Horseneck Point 
Fish Creek, no, in 
Fish Kill, N.Y., nz, 113, 136; newspaper 

published in, 143; 151, 15Z 
Fishkill Creek, 99 
Flagg, Ebenezer, zio 
Flagstaff, Me., 46 
Fobes, Simon, journal of, 70 
Fort, Capt., 19 
Fort Abraham, 101 
Fort Andros, 95 
Fort Anne, 99, nz 
Fort Brunswick, 95 
Fort Chambly, 71 
Fort Cumberland, 88, 90 
Fort Dearborn, 18, 24; see also Chicago 
Fort Edward, 100, ioz 
Fort George (Pejepscot), 71 
Fort Griswold, 145, zi8 
Fort Halifax, 4Z 
Fort Meigs, 45 
Fort Mercer, 41 
Fort Pitt, 155, 175, zi8 
Fort Richmond, 39 
Fort St. George, Z09 
Fort Schuyler, see Fort Stanwix 
Fort Schuyler (Throg's Neck, N.Y.), Z13 
Fort Stanwix (Fort Schuyler), 36, 97, 

100; siege of, 101; siege raised, 103; nz, 

Fort Ticonderoga, 10, 36; described, 98; 

99, 101, 117; St. Clair commands, 134 
Fort Trumbull, 145, zi8 
Fort Washington, Z09 
Fort Wayne, Ind., Z4 
Fort Western, 40, 41 

Fort Wyoming, 157 

Forty Fort, location of, 157; 158 

Fox, Charles James, Z30, Z3Z, Z33 

France, joins colonies, 115; American 
agents to, 143; alliance of, with Spain, 

Franklin, Benjamin, American agent in 
France, 143; 197, zoo 

Fraser, Simon, 99; sketch of, 109; nz 

Frederick the Great, zoo 

Fredericksburg, N.Y., 136 

Freehold, N.J., 115; see also Monmouth 
Court House 

Freeland's Fort, 163 

Freeman's Farm, 99; first battle of, 105; 
losses at, 106; 107; second battle of, 
108, 109; see also Bemis Heights 

French fleet, arrival off Chesapeake, zi6, 
Z17, Z31 

French Grenadiers, zi6, ZZ4 

French Katereens, see Catherine's Town 

French Margaret, 171 

French troops, arrival of, rumored, 199; 
expected from Rhode Island, zn; near 
Kings Bridge, ziz; Z15; march to Balti- 
more, Z17; embark for West Indies, zzi; 
winter in Connecticut, Z35 

Frog's Neck, see Throg's Neck 

Frye, Isaac, sketch of, 104 

Fumell, Capt., 9Z 

Fundy, Bay of, 88, 90 

Gaghsconghgwa, 184 

Galvez, Conde de, Z14 

Gannets Rock, 88 

Gansevoort, Peter, 103, 165, 190 

Gardiner, Sylvester, 40 

Gardiner's Island, British transports 
aground on, 148 

Gardinerston, Me., 39 

Gaspe, Bay of, 86 

Gates, Horatio, 36, 97; sketch of, ioz; at 
Stillwater, 104; 107; surrounds Sara- 
toga, no; at Albany, 113; Dearborn 
dines with, 137; 139, 140, 164, 195, Z03; 
under arrest, Z07 

Gathtsegwarohare, 187, 189 

General Hospital, see Quebec 

Genessee, N.Y., 185, 190 

Genessee Castle, 186, 187 

Genessee River, 187, 189 

Geneva, N.Y., 183, 184 



George III, speech of, to Parliament, 146 

George's River, see St. George's River 

George's Town, 93 

Georgia, 150, 194, 197 

German Regiment, i6z, 164, 165 

Germantown, 116, 117 

Gibbs, Caleb, i6z 

Gibraltar, Z36 

Gilman, Allen, 139 

Glory Hill, 176 

Gloucester, Va., 2.21, 214, 2.2.7 

Glover, John, sketch of, 113 

Goodrich, William, 37; sketch of, 50; 51, 

53» 7i, 76 

Grand Council of America, toast to, 159 

Grand Manan Island, 91 

Grasse, Comte de, blockades the Chesa- 
peake, 2.17; Z2.3, 2.2.5, 2 - 2 -^' 2 -3° 

Graves, Capt., 91, 9Z 

Graves, Samuel, Z17, zzz, 2.Z3 

Graves, Thomas, 199 

Great Carrying Place, 41, 44, 45, 49 

Great Swamp, The, 156 

Great Tree, The, 185 

Greater Falls, 53 

Green Island, 93 

Green Mountains, 99 

Green Spring Farm, Z14 

Greene, Christopher, 37; sketch of, 41; 
44, 45, 46, 71; captured at Quebec, 76; 
killed, 2.10, zn 

Greene, Nathanael, 117, izi; sketch of, 
140; 141, 195, 198, 2.05, 2.06, 2.07, 111, 

2.14, 2.l8, Z2.Z 

Greenville, N.Y., see Minisink 
Groton, Conn., 145, 146 
Guadaloupe, Island of, 137 
Guard House, at Quebec, 74 
Guilford, Conn., 145 

Hackensack, N.J., 2.03 

Hackensack River, zoz 

Hagan, Jonas, 94 

Hale, Nathan, at Freeman's Farm, 106, 
108; 149 

Halifax, described, 86, 87; American pris- 
oners at, 87; 89, 136 

Halstead, 56 

Hamilton, Alexander, 18, zzo 

Hamilton, Henry, 153 

Hampton Roads, Va., 2.14 

Hamtramck, John F., 17, 18 

Hamtramck, Mich., 17 

Hanchett, Oliver, 37; sketch of, 48; 70; 

captured at Quebec, 76; put in irons, 81 
Hand, Edward, 164, 171, 172., 177, 186 
Hanneyaye, 185 
Hanover, Va., zi8 
Hare Island, 85 
Harper, Andrew, zoz 
Hartford, Conn., 139, 140 
Hartley, Thomas, 165, 171 
Haussegger, Nicholas, i6z 
Havana, N.Y., 181 
Hazen, Moses, 60; sketch of, 131; 148; 

marches to Springfield, 149; zoo, zoi, 

zoz; at Nelson's Point, Z07; Z17 
Heath, William, 75; commands at West 

Point, Z07; zz8 
Hemlock Lake, 185 
Hendricks, William, 37, 40; sketch of, 41; 

71; killed at Quebec, 74 
Henry, Mr., 64 

Henry, John, captured at Quebec, 76 
Hermitage, The, 187 
Hesse-Cassel, ZZ5 
Hesse-Hanau, ZZ5 
Hessians, taken at Freeman's Farm, 109; 

captured near Valley Forge, 118; at 

Newport, 135 
Height of Land, 46 
Hillier's Tavern, 156 
Hilton, Charles, 54, 6z 
Hobart, Dudley B., 139 
Hobkirk's Hill, S.C., zi6 
Holderness, 137 
Holland, Stephen, 138 
Holland, Z31 
Hollis, a spy, 137 
Honeoye Lake, 185 
Honyose, 189 
Hood, Samuel, zi6 
Hopewell, N.J., 1Z4 
Hopkins, J.B., 150 
Horseneck Point, 147 
Horse Shoe Stream, 49 
Horseshoe Pond, 49 
Hotel Dieu, Quebec, 69, 80 
Howard, Mr., 40 
Howe, Earl, 13Z, 133 
Howe, Sir William, 35; sketch of, 83; 

87; in New York, 97; nz; replaced by 

Clinton, 115; at Chestnut Hill, 116, 

117; izz 



Hubbard, Jonas, 37; sketch of, 70; 
wounded at Quebec, 75 

Hubbardton, Vt., 99, nz, 151 

Hubley, Adam, 164 

Hudson, highlands of the, 141 

Hudson River, 97, 100, 102., in, nz, 
140; British fleet in, 141; 15Z, 160; 
British blockade of, 2.01; 2.02., Z15, zz8, 
zz 9 

Hughes, Edward, Z3Z 

Hull, William, Z4, Z5, z6 

Humphrey, William, 74; captured at 
Quebec, 76 

Humphries, John, sketch of, 74 

Hunter, sloop of war, 56, 59 

Huntington, Jedediah, sketch of, 12.4 

Huntington's Brigade, in camp near Dan- 
bury, 142. 

Hurricane Falls, 46 

Hutchins, Nathaniel, sketch of, 45; 53, 
68, 69; captured at Quebec, 76; retire- 
ment Of, 2.TO 

Huts, building of, at Valley Forge, 119 

Independence, Declaration of, anniversary 

celebrated, 130, 159, 199 
Independence Hall, 116 
Indian Pond, 46 
Indian River, 91 
Indians, skirmish of, near Kings Bridge, 

134; at Newtown, 177 
Ipswich, Mass., 37 
Iroquois, 19Z 

Irvine, James, sketch of, 116 
Irvine, Matthew, 45 
Isle au Haut, 93 
Isle aux Coudres, 85 
Isle of Orleans, Quebec, 61, 85 
Isles of Shoals, 96 
Ithaca, N.Y., 19Z 

Jackson, Andrew, 18, 19, zo, zi, zz; let- 
ters from, zo, zi 
Jackson, Hall, 4 
Jackson's regiment, zo6 
Jamaica, 137, zoz, Z36 
James River, Z17 
Jamestown Ford, Va., Z14 
Jay Treaty, 15 
Jefferson, Thomas, 15, 19 
Jericho, Bay of, 93 
Jersey City, zoi 

Johnson, Sir William, ioz, 183 
Jones' Mill, in 

Kakiate, see New Hempstead, N.Y. 
Kalb, Johann, sketch of, Z03 
Kanadaseaga, 183, 189 
Kanadaseaga Creek, 183 
Kanaghsaws, 185, 187 
Kannawaloholla, see Elmira, N.Y. 
Kaskaskia, 153 

Katareen's Town, see Catherine's Town 
Katarioniecha, 171 
Kendaia, N.Y., i8z 
Kendekamack (Steenrapie), zoz 
Kennebec River, 14, 15, 35, 36, 37, 38, 46, 


Kentish Guards, 41 

Keppel, Augustus, sketch of, 137 

Kershang Creek, 184 

Killingworth, Conn., 145 

Kimball, Benjamin, 174, 175 

Kings Bridge, 134, 147, zoi, Z07, Z09, ziz, 
zi 3 

Kings Ferry, 113, 130, 131, 160; garrison 
of, taken by Wayne, i6z; 163; evacua- 
tion of, by British, 194; 196, zoo, Z05, 
zi 5 

King's Mountain, battle of, zo8 

Kingston, N.Y., nz 

Kirkland, Rev. Samuel, izi 

Knight's Tavern, 95 

Knox, Henry, Z3Z 

Kosciusko, Thaddeus, 105 

Lackawanna (Pittston, Pa.), i6z, 168 
Lafayette, Marquis de, z8, 117; sketch of, 

izi; izz; at Allentown, 1Z5, iz6; 195, 

Z14; at Williamsburg, Z17 
Lake Canandaigua, 184 
Lake Champlain, 35, 36, 98, Z31 
Lake Conesus, 185 
Lake George, Z31 

Lake Megantic, see Chaudiere Pond 
Lake Ontario, 97 
Lamb, John, sketch of, 70; wounded at 

Quebec, 75 
Lambert, Joseph, 94 
Lambert's Tavern, 94 
Lambertville, N.J., 1Z3 
Lanaudiere, Francois de, sketch of, 81 
Laurel Hill, Z09 
Lauzun, Due de, sketch of ziz; Z13 



Learned, Ebenezer, sketch of, ioo; at 
Saratoga, in 

Learned's Brigade, 135 

Learn's Tavern, 156 

Lebanon, Conn., ziz 

Lee, Arthur, agent in Spain, 143 

Lee, Charles, rumored marching to New 
York, 79; sketch of, izi; ordered to 
march, 1x3; at Monmouth Court House, 
12.6; arrested, 119; his court-martial or- 
dered, 130; his duel with Laurens, 144 

Lee, Henry, 198 

Lee, Richard H., attacked by Silas Deane, 

Lee, William, agent at Vienna and Berlin, 


Lee's Battalion, 45 

Leeward Islands, 137 

Lehigh Creek, 156 

Lehigh River, 15Z 

Lesser Falls, 53 

Levius, Mr., see Livius, Peter 

Lexington, battle of, 4, 35, 36 

Light Horse, British, 118, 119 

Light Horse, Continental, 135 

Light Infantry, on Quebec expedition, 36; 
function of, 36; 104; 105, 106, 108-13, 
114; at Kings Bridge, 134, 162.; at Wy- 
oming, 166, 167; 176, 186, 2.00, zoi, 
113; at Yorktown, 119 

Lime, Conn., 145 

Lincoln, Benjamin, 107; sketch of, 109; 
no, 153, 154, 159, 197, 198, zn 

Little Beard's Town, 187 

Little Carry Pond, 45 

Little Ferry, N.J., 150 

Livingston, Henry B., 103, 165 

Livingston, James, 60, 71 

Livingston, William, 12.4 

Livius, Peter, sketch of, 78; negotiates 
Dearborn's parole, 83, 84 

Lloyd, Richard, 148 

Lock wood, Samuel, captured at Quebec, 
76; sketch of, 81 

Lodge, Benjamin, 156, 157, 175 

Long Island, N.S., 88 

Long Island, N.Y., 136, 148, 2.09; battle 
of, 97, nz, 141 

Long Island Sound, 135, 140, 144, 145, 
147, 109 

Long Pond, 49 

Lorette, 57 

Lost Lake, 49 

Loudoun, Earl of, ioz 

Loudoun's Ferry, 102. 

Louis Philippe, 15 

Louisiana Purchase, 16 

Lower Pond, 48 

Lower Town, Quebec, 69, 70, 72., 8z 

Loyalist refugees, 2.30 

Loyalists, 119, 196, zo8, Z13 

Luzerne, Cesar de la, Z04 

Lynhaven Bay, Z17 

McCauley, Nathaniel, 179 

McCobb, Samuel, 37; sketch of, 45 

McCormick, James, 40 

McDougall, Alexander, 136, 199 

McDougall, Ronald T., sketch of, 83 

McGuyer, John, captured at Quebec, 75 

Machias, 91, 9Z 

Machias River, 91 

McKenzie, Thomas, 56 

Mackinac Island, Z3, Z5 

Macktowanunck, 173 

MacLean, Allan, 56, 81 

Macpherson, John, aide-de-camp to Mont- 
gomery, 71; killed at Quebec, 7Z; 74 

Madam Cook River, 93 

Madison, James, zz, z6 

Magdalen Islands, 86 

Maine, Carleton's map of, 9Z 

Marble, Isaac, 197 

Masons, hold feast, 149 

Matinicus Island, 93 

Maxwell, William, sketch of, 1Z5; 147, 160 

Maxwell's Brigade, 15Z, 155; regiments 
in, 164; 165; at Newtown, 177; 198 

Medford, Mass., 37 

Meigs, Return J., 37; sketch of, 4i;4z, 71; 
captured at Quebec, 76; 77, 78; moved 
to Hotel Dieu, 79; paroled, 83; ordered 
to Halifax, 84; calls on Howe, 87; 9Z, 93 

Melchoir, Jacques, in 

Mercenaries, list of British, ZZ5 

Merrimac River, 38 

Merrymeeting Bay, 39, 95 

Meshoppen, Pa., 169 

Middle Colonies, operations in, 115 

Middlebrook, N.J., Washington's camp 
at, 14Z 

Middletown, N.J., 1Z9 

Milburn Station, N.J., 130 

Milford, Conn., 145 

z 5 8 


Milford, H.M.S., 90 

Militia, 98, 100, 107, 108, no, 116, 196, 
198, 2.06; Connecticut, 104, Z13; Mas- 
sachusetts, 50, 2.00; New Jersey, 114; 
Pennsylvania, 116, 163 

Mill Creek, 185 

Miller, Lawrence, 158 

Minisink (Greenville, N.Y.), 163 

Mitcbella, herbal medicine, 61 

Moffat, Thomas, 54 

Mohawk Castle, 101, 190 

Mohawk River, 101, 102., zoo, 12.8, Z30, 
z 3 6 

Monckton, Henry, iz8 

Monmouth Court House (Freehold, N.J.), 
iz, 117; British at, 1Z5; battle of iz6-8; 
losses at iz8, 1Z9 

Monroe, James, Z7, z8, Z9, 30, 31, 3Z, 33 

Montagu, Admiral, ZZ3 

Montgomery, Richard, 35, 36; sketch of, 
58; 59, 60; sends flag to Quebec, 63; 65; 
orders attack on Quebec, 66; 68, 70; at- 
tacks Quebec, 71; killed, 7Z; 74; body 
moved, 77; interred, 78; 131 

Montour, Madame, 171 

Montreal, 35, 58; captured by Montgom- 
ery, 59; 6z, 68 

Moody, Andrew, captured at Quebec, 76 

Moose A Becky, 9Z 

Moosehead Lake, 46 

Moosehorn Pond, 49 

Moravian Village, see Mount Hope, N.J. 

Morgan, Daniel, 37; sketch of, 40; 60, 70, 
attacks Quebec, 7Z, 73; captured, 75; 
103, 104; his riflemen, 105; at Free- 
man's Farm, 106, 108, 109, no, nz, 
iz 5 

Morrisiana, N.Y., Z13 

Morristown, N.J., 114, 130, 14Z; Arnold 
tried in, 144; 197, zoz, zio 

Mortingdell, Capt., 87 

Moses Creek, 100 

Mosses Kill, see Moses Creek 

Mount Bigelow, 54 

Mount Desert Island, 91, 9Z, 93 

Mount Hope, N.J. (Moravian Village), 
i 5 z 

Mud Brook, 50 

Mumford, Mr., 146 

Murray, James, sketch of, 57 

Muscongus Bay, 93 

Mystic River, 36 

Naples, 148 

Narraganset Bay, 13Z 

Narraguagus, 9Z 

Natanis, 46 

Natanis Pond, 49 

Nelson's Point, Z07 

Netherlands, The, 131 

New Brunswick, see Brunswick, N.J. 

New England rum, price of, 89 

New England troops, winter quarters of, 

New Hampshire, recruits arrive from, 199 

New Hampshire, board of war, 144 

New Hampshire, general court of, ioz 

New Hampshire Patriots, ioz 

New Hampshire troops, 35, 101, 104, izo; 
arrangement of, 14Z; 148; march to 
Peekskill, 149; ordered to Easton, 15Z; 
at Forty Fort, 157; repair roads, 160; 
178; at West Point, 198; march to Kings 
Ferry, zoo; zo6, zio, zz8, Z35; rear- 
rangement of, Z36 

New Hampshire village, zio 

New Hampshire volunteers, 138 

New Haven, Conn., 145, 161, zi8 

New Hempstead, N.Y. (Kakiate), 131 

New Hope, Pa., 1Z3 

New Jersey, 97; British patrol in, izi; 
British march through, 1Z4; 1Z9; Tor- 
ies in, 141; Washington camps in, 14Z; 
raid on, 195 

New Jersey Gazette, king's speech printed 
in, 146 

New Jersey troops, 164, 196, zo6, Z09, 
Z17, zz8 

New London, Conn., British fleet off, 
135; defences of, 145; British threaten, 
149; reported burned, zi8 

New Meadows River, 95 

New Orleans, Z14 

New Windsor, N.Y., 151, Z09; Dearborn 
winters at, zz8; Z36 

New York, British troops at, 115; coun- 
terfeit money from, 137 

New York City, British marching to- 
wards, 1Z4; British fleet at, 135; British 
ready to evacuate, 136; British embark 
from 151; operations against, 198; zoo, 
zoz; attack on, planned, ziz 

New York Historical Society, 156 

New York troops, 70, 103, 131, zo6, Z17, 



Newark, N.J., 130 

Newark Bay, 2.01 

Newburgh, N.Y., 102., in, 109; Washing- 
ton's headquarters at, ZZ9, 2.30; 135, 

Newburyport, Mass., 38, 90 

Newcastle, Me., 94 

Newport, R.I., blockade of, 131; 140 

Newspapers, in Fishkill, N.Y., 143; New 
Jersey Gazette, 146, 147, 150; Pennsyl- 
vania Gazette, zi8; New York Gazette & 
Weekly Mercury, 2.18 

Newtown, battle of, 177, 178, 179, 183, 
190, 192. 

Niagara, 155, 188 

Nichols, Francis, captured at Quebec, 76 

Niger, H.M. frigate, 85 

Ninety-Six, S.C., zn 

Nixon, John, 136 

Nixon's regiment, 45 

Noailles, Comte de, zzo 

Norridgewock, Me., 43 

Norridgewock Falls, 44 

Norris, James, 151 

North Carolina brigade, 136 

North Hampston, N.H., 4 

North Hector, N.Y., 182. 

North, Lord, 2.30, Z32. 

North River, see Hudson River 

North Yarmouth, Me., 95 

Northern Department, 112. 

Northwest Territory, 146 

Norwalk, Conn., 145; reported burned, 
161; raid on, repulsed, i6z 

Nottingham, N.H., 4, 35, 96 

Nova Scotia, 86 

Nunnery, at Quebec, 58 

Ogden, Matthias, 164 

Olney, Christopher, Z35 

Oneida, Indians, 107, izi; guides for Sul- 
livan, 175, 189, 193 

Onondaga Indians, 151 

Orange, N.J., see Orange Town 

Orange Town, zoo, Z04; General orders 
issued from, Z05 

Oriskany, 101 

Osgood, Col., 197 

Oswald, Eleazer, captured at Quebec, 76 

Oswego, N.Y., 101 

Ottendorf's Corps, 164 

Owego, N.Y., 173, 174 

Palace Gate, Quebec, 69 

Paramus, N.J., 131 

Parker, Francis J., 8 

Parker's Flats, 39 

Paroles, of American officers at Quebec, 
84, 98 

Parsons, Samuel, sketch of, 146; 148, i6z 

Passaic River, 130 

Patterson, John, sketch of, in, 113, 199 

Patterson's brigade, 135 

Paulus Hook, see Powles Hook 

"Paxton Boys," 41 

Peace, negotiations, ZZ9; commissioners 
of, 2.31; treaty of, Z35 

Peekskill,N.Y.,ii3,i3i, 141, 149, 150, zn 

Peekskill Creek, zio 

Pencel, Henry, 161 

Pencel, John, 161 

Pennsylvania troops, Z09; mutiny of, zio 

Penobscot Bay, 93 

Pensacola, Fla., Z14 

Percy, Sir Hugh, sketch of, 87 

Petersburg, Va., zn 

Petit Passage, 88 

Philadelphia, Pa., 36, 98, 113; Howe re- 
tires to, 117, n8;izi;evacuation of, izz, 
1Z3; Arnold in command at, 144; 185; 
Washington marches through, zi6; zz8 

Phillips, William, zn 

Phillipse Manor, 198 

Pickering, Timothy, sketch of, Z04; zn 

Pigot, Gen., 13Z, 135 

Pioneers, 50; attack at Quebec, 7Z 

Piscataqua River, 3Z, 96 

Pittsburgh, Pa., zo 

Pittston, Me., 14, 15, 39 

Pittston, Pa., see Lackawanna 

Plains of Abraham, 56, 57, 6z 

Piatt, Richard, zn 

Pleasant Bay, 9Z 

Point Levis, 35, 56, 60, 80 

Pointe aux Trembles en Bas, Quebec, 58, 
59, 60, 83 

Pompton, N.J., zio 

Poor, Enoch, sketch of, 101; at Saratoga, 
in, 15Z, 159, 160, 171, 17Z, 174, 175, 177, 
199, zoo; death of, zoz; burial of, Z03 

Poor's Brigade, m; marches towards 
Fish Kill, nz; 1Z4, 131, 135, 139, 140; 
winter camp of, 14Z; 148, 149, 155; at 
Wyoming, 163; regiments in, 164, 165; 
177, 178; losses in, 179; zoo 



Port Chester, N.Y., 147 

Port Jervis, N.Y., 163 

Port Royal, 89 

Porte du Palais, 58 

Porterfield, Charles, captured at Quebec, 

Portland, Me., 32., 95; see also Falmouth, 

Portsmouth, N.H., 3, 4, 10, 30, 31, 91, 

Portsmouth, Va., Z14 
Potash, The, 70 
Poultney River, 99 
Powles Hook (Paulus Hook), zoz 
Pownalborough, Me., 39 
Pres de Ville, 70 
Prescott, William, 7 
Prevost, Augustine, 153 
Prince Edward Island, 86; see also St. 

Johns, Island of 
Prince of Wales American Volunteers, 138 
Princeton, N.J., 119, 1x4, 12.5, 197, zo6, 


Prisoners, taken at Saratoga, in; taken 
near Valley Forge, 118; American, in 
Rhode Island, 143 
Privateers, 90, 91, 92., 148, 150, zoi 
Proctor, Thomas, 155, 166, 174, 175 
Provincial Congress of New York, 58 
Pulaski, Casimir, 164; sketch of, 197 
Putnam, Israel, 6, 7, 8, 9, 31; sketch of, 

141; 14Z, 146, 148 
Putnam's Brigade, 50 
Putnam's Division, 143, 145, 147 

Quailutimack, 168 

Quebec, city of, 9, 19, Z3; expedition to, 
35, 36, 55, 56, 57; General Hospital at, 
58; 59-61; bombarded, 63, 64; attack on 
planned, 65; bombarded, 66; attacked, 
67-74; American casualties at, 75-7; 
bombarded, 80-2.; garrison captures 
American baggage, 83 

Queen Esther, 171 

Queen of France, H.M.S., 150 

Queen's Rangers, 195 

Ramapo Pass, zoz 

Ranger, H.M.S., 150 

Ransom, Pa., 168 

Rawdon, Lord, sketch of, zi6 

Rayneval, Conrad Gerard de, Z04 

Reading, Conn., 148, 149 

Redding, see Reading, Conn. 

Reed, Joseph, 135 

Reid, George, 15, 140, 149, 160, 163, 178; 

takes command of New Hampshire 

troops, Z36 
Reid, James, zo8 
Rhode Island, 13Z, 134, 140, 143, 196; 

French troops arrive in, 199 
Rhode Island, battle of, 134, 135 
Rhode Island troops, 198, zio, Z17; win- 
ter in Philadelphia, Z2.8; Z35 
Richelieu River, 35 
Richmond, Me., 39 
Rider's Tavern, 87 
Ridgefield, Conn., 136, 14Z 
Riedesel, Baron von, 99, 106, nz 
Riflemen, Continental, 109, no, in, nz, 

116, 119, 186 
Riviere du Loup, 53 
Rochambeau, Comte de, 199; sketch of, 

Z04; zn, ziz, zzi, ZZ3, Z35 
Rockaway, N.Y., 198 
Rockingham, Marquis of, Z30, Z3Z 
Rockland, Me., 93 
Rodney, George Brydges, sketch of, Z04; 

ZZ3, Z30 
Rogers, Mr., 147 
Rome, N.Y., 101 
Romulus, N.Y., 191 
Rosebury, Michael, 158 
Rouerie, Marquis de la, 164 
Route Justinienne, 55 
Row-galleys, 133 
Roxbury, Mass., Z7 
Royal River, 95 
Rush Lake, 50 
Rush River, 51 
Russia, 148 
Rutland, Vt., 140 

Sable Island, 88 

Saco River, 95 

St. Augustine, Quebec, 61 

St. Charles River, 58, 64, 70, 81 

St. Clair, Arthur, 99, nz 

St. Egan (Sartigan), 55, 61 

St. Foy, 57, 61 

St. George's River, 93 

St. Henri, 56 

St. Isodore de Lauzon, 55 

St. Johns, Island of, 86 



St. Johns, 35, 36, 71, 131 

St. John's Gate, Quebec, 62., 71 

St. Lawrence, Gulf of, 86 

St. Lawrence, 55 

St. Leger, Barry, 36, 97; sketch of, 101; 

retreat to Canada, 103 
St. Mary's (Ste. Marie de la Beauce), 


St. Mary's Bay, 88 

St. Paul's Bay, 85 

St. Rochs, Quebec, 62., 63, 64, 66, 70 

Salem, Mass., 37 

Saluda River, 2.1 1 

Sandy Hook, 12.3, 12.5, 119, 131, 135 

Sandy Point, 195 

Sandy River, 43 

Sarampus Falls, 48 

Saratoga (Schuylerville, N.Y.), n, 19; 
campaign, 97; 99, 100, 105, no, in 

Saratoga Springs, description of, 2.33-4 

Sartagan, see St. Egan 

Saugatuck River, 148 

Sault au Matelot, Quebec, 70 

Savage, Abijah, 76; sketch of, 79 

Savannah, Ga., 153, 155, 197, xi4 

Scammell, Alexander, sketch of, 98; sur- 
prised by Indians, 104; 106; at Free- 
man's Farm, 108; ixo, 149, 2.13; death 
of, 118, 2.19 

Scammon, James, 40 

Scarborough, H.M.S., 87, 91 

Schott, John Paul, 164 

Schuyler, Philip, 36, 102., 104 

Schuylerville, N.Y., see Saratoga 

Schuylkill River, 117, izi 

Scioto, Pa., 156 

Scott, Charles, sketch of, 114; 1x5; at 
Monmouth Court House, 12.6 

Scott, William, 37 

Scott, William, prisoner at Halifax, 87 

Scotts, 55 

Scranton, Pa., 152. 

Seal Island, 93 

Sebastacook River, 41, 43 

Second River, N.J., 130 

Seminary of Quebec, 74; American pris- 
oners moved to, 80; under fire. 81; 
prisoners at, 83 

Seneca Castle, 183 

Seneca Falls, N.Y., 184 

Seneca Indians, 171, 182., 183, 187 

Seneca Lake, 181, 182., 190, 191 

Senter, Isaac, sketch of, 54; 67 

Seven Mile Stream, 49 

Shades of Death, The, 156 

Shaw, Sylvanus, captured at Quebec, 76 

Shearman, Capt., see Cheeseman, Jacob 

Sheepscott River, 94 

Shelburne, Earl of, 130, 2.31, 135 

Sheldon, Elisha, 109 

Sherburne's regiment, 2.06 

Sheshekonunk, see Sheshequin, Pa. 

Sheshequin, Pa. (Sheshekonunk), 170, 


Shippen, Peggy, 36 

Shreve, Israel, 164, 175, 193 

Sicily, 147, 148 

Signals, 38 

Sillery, 57 

Silley Islands, 93 

Simcoe, John Graves, sketch of, 195; 

Sinclair Hollow Creek, 191 

Six Nations, 155, 171 

Skannayutenate, 190 

Skenesboro; N.H., 99 

Skowhegan Falls, 43 

Slate Belt Electric Railroad, 156 

Slawterdam (Sloterdam or Slaterdam), 
N.J., 130 

Slocum, Edward, captured at Quebec, 76 

Slocum, Mr., 161 

Small Point, 95 

Smallpox, epidemic in Quebec, 77; inocu- 
lations against, 78, 79, 80 

Smith Cove, 147 

Smith Creek, 114 

Smith, Joshua Hett, sketch of, 2.06 

Smith, Matthew, 37, 40; sketch of, 41; 

5 1 * 7o, 75 
Smith's Clove, N.Y., 196 
Smith's Point, Z09 
Soldier's Fortune, Z07 
Somerset Court House, 196 
Sorel River, 56 
South Amboy, N.J., 196 
South Carolina, 114 
Spain, alliance with France, 147; declares 

war on Great Britain, 189, 19Z, 114 
Spalding, Simon, 164 
Spencer, Oliver, 164 
Spotswood, N.J., ii9 
Spring, Rev. Samuel, sketch of, 65 
Springfield, N.J., 130, 198 



Sprouts, The, ioz 

Stacey, William, 141 

Stamp Act, 70 

Standing Stone, Pa., 170 

Stark, John, 4, 5, 35, 36; sketch of, ioz; 
103, 105, Z09 

Stark, William, 138 

Stark's Brigade, 198, 2.06 

Starks, Me., 43 

Staten Island, 198; attack on, rumored, 115 

Steele, Archibald, 41; sketch of, 75; cap- 
tured at Quebec, 76 

Steenrapie, see Kendekamack 

Steuben, Baron von, sketch of, zoo; zoi 

Stevens River, 95 

Stillwater, N.Y., fortifications at, 100; 
heights of fortified, 104; nz, 2.32. 

Stirling, Thomas, 147 

Stono Ferry, 153 

Stony Point, 113, 117, i6z, 2.08 

Strong, Caleb, 2.3 

Stuart, Charles, zi8 

Sucker Brook, 190 

Suffern, N.Y., 114 

Suffolk, Va., Z17 

Sullivan, John, iz, 13, 60, 101; sketch of, 
118-9; in Rhode Island, 13Z, 134; re- 
treats from Rhode Island, 135; 140, 
15Z; visits Lady Washington, 154; 155; 
toast to, 159; 160; ordered to Wyoming, 
163; illness of, 170; 171, 179, 186, 193, 

Sullivan's Hill, 177 

Sunbury, Pa., supplies from i6z, 163 

Susquehanna Company, 157 

Susquehanna River, 15Z; Indian raids 
along, 155, 157; 168, 169, 171, 173 

Sussex, N.J., 15Z 

Sussex County, N.J., 158 

Swahyawana, 191 

Swan Island, 39 

Swedes Ford, 117 

Swetland, Luke, i8z 

Symonds, Thomas, sketch of, ZZ3 

Taghanic Point (Goodwin's Point), 191 
Talleyrand, C. M. de, 15 
Tallmadge, Benjamin, sketch of, Z09 
Tannersville, Pa., 156 
Tappan Bay (Hudson River), zoo 
Tarrytown, N.Y., 131; British army at, 

Taschereau, Gabriel Elzear, 55 
Tenafly, N.J., zoi 
Tenants Harbor, 93 

Teoga (Athens, Pa.), 164, 170; Sullivan 
arrives at, 171; 174, 180, 183, 184, 189, 

J 93> !94 

Teoga Branch, 170, 171 

Teoga River, 171 

Thanksgiving Day, 118, 143 

Thayendanegea, see Brant, Joseph 

Thayer, Simeon, 37, 71, 74; captured at 
Quebec, 76; attempts escape, 81 

Thomas, Mr., 94 

Thomas, John, sketch of, 94 

Thomas, Joseph, sketch of, 47; 53, 69; 
captured at Quebec, 76 

Thomas, Joseph M., 106 

Thompson's battalion, 41, 45 

Three Rivers, 57 

Throg's Neck (Throg's Point), Z13 

Ticonderoga, see Fort Ticonderoga 

Tisdale, James, sketch of, 75 

Titcomb, Benjamin, sketch of, 179; re- 
tirement of, zio 

Tobago, Z14 

Tobyhanna Creek, 156 

Topham, John, 37; sketch of, 71; cap- 
tured at Quebec, 76 

Tories, at Cherry Valley, 141; New 
York, 150; organized by Brant and 
Butler, 155; 161, 188, 191, 196; attack 
Fort Schuyler, zoo; at Throg's Neck, 
zi 3 

Toronto, Ontario, Z7 

Towanda, 170 

Tracy, Capt., 90 

Tracy, schooner, 18 

Transports, British, 148; bound for Geor- 
gia, 150 

Trenton, N.J., 119, 140, Z15 

Tryon, William, 36, 161 

Tufin, Charles Armand, see Rouerie, Mar- 
quis de la 

Tunkhannock Creek, 156, 169 

Tuscarora Indians, izi, 189 

Twelve Mile Carry, 44 

Ulster, N.Y., 170 

United States, toast to, 159 

Upper Canada, 195 

Upper Shadagee Falls, 48 

Upper Town, Quebec, 69, 70, 71, 7Z 



Valley Creek, 119 

Valley Forge, 12., 101, 115; encampment 

described, 119; 12.0, 111, 140, 2.00 
Van Allen, Capt., 150 
Van Buren, Martin, Z5 
Van Cortlandt, Philip, 103, 159, 165 
Van Schaick, Goose, 151 
Van Voorhees, Peter, sketch of, 196 
Vanderlip's Farm, 169 
Varick, Richard, sketch of, 104 
Varnum, James, 41; sketch of, 114 
Verplank's Point, 113, 132. 
Vienna, court of, 143 
Ville de Paris, French ship lost, Z30 
Vincennes, Ind., 153 
Viomenil, Baron de, Z35 
Virginia, 140 
Virginia riflemen, 103, 105 

Waldeck, ZZ5 

Waldo, S. Putnam, 2.8 

Wallas, 91 

War of i8iz, zz-7, 2.9 

Ward, Artemus, 141 

Ward, Joseph, captured, 141 

Ward, Samuel, 37; sketch of, 71; cap- 
tured at Quebec, 76 

Warner, Seth, 103 

Warren, H.M. frigate, 150 

Warrior Run, 163 

Washington, George, 11, 12., 15, 35, 37, 
79, 97, ioz, 104, 109, no; at White 
Marsh, 114; at White Plains, 115; at 
Valley Forge, 119; Dearborn dines 
with, izo; at Coryell's Ferry, 1x4; 
marches towards Freehold, 1Z5; at 
Freehold, iz6; takes command during 
battle, 1Z7, iz8; orders arrest of Lee, 
IZ9; at White Plains, 131; plan for 
winter camp, 136; 140, 141; winter 
camp at Middlebrook, 14Z; 144, 153, 
155, 159, 185, 189, 193, 194, 195, I9 7, 
198; marches from West Point, 199; 
zoo, zoz, Z03; to meet Rochambeau, 
Z04; marches with main army, zo6; 
moves to winter quarters, Z09; holds 
conference at Wethersfield, zn; ziz; 
leads army southward, Z15; lays siege 
to Yorktown, zi8; makes terms of ca- 
pitulation at Yorktown, zzi; to winter 
in Philadelphia, zz8; orders relief of 
New Hampshire troops, Z35 

Washington, Martha, Mrs. George, at 
Easton, 154 

Washington's Guards, i6z 

Watauga, zo8 

Waterville, Me., 4Z 

Watsontown, 163 

Waverly, N.Y., 176 

Wayne, Anthony, 16, 105; sketch of, 117; 
i6z, Z14 

Weare, Richard, killed at Fort Anne, 100; 

Weare, Meshech, zio 

Webb, James, captured at Quebec, 76 

Webb's regiment, zo6 

Weisenfels, Frederick, 165 

Weltner, Ludowick, i6z, 164 

Wesawking, see Wysox Creek 

West Branch, 46 

West Carry Pond, 46 

West Florida, Z14 

West Indies, 135, 136, 137, 195, Z04, zio, 
z 3 6 

West Point, 36, 70, 140, 160, 196, 198, 
zoo; plot against, described, Z05; rein- 
forcement of, zo6; Z07, Z09, zio, ZZ9, 
z 3 z, z 35 

Wethersfield, Conn., zn 

Whistler, John, n, 18 

White Marsh, Washington camps at, 

White Plains, N.Y., 97, 115, 131, 136, ziz 

Whitehall, N.Y., see Skenesboro 

Wilbur's Basin, 105 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa., see Wyoming 

Wilkinson, James, 5, 9, 19, zi, Z7 

Williams, James, zo8 

Williams, Thomas, 37 

Williamsburg, Va., zn; action at, Z14; 

zi 7 
Wind Gap, Pa., 156 
Wingate, Joshua, Jr., z8 
Wingate, Mrs. Joshua, Sr., 3, Z3, z8 
Winslow, John, 4Z, 160 
Winter Hill, 36, 37 
Wiscasset, Pa., 156 
Wolfe's Cove, 56 
Wood Creek, 99 
Wood Island, 95 
Wooden Ball Island, 93 
Wool, Isaiah, 196 
Wooster, David, sketch of, 8z; moves 

away from Quebec, 83 



Wyalusing, Pa., old town described, 169, 

Wyoming (Wilkes-Barre, Pa.), Sullivan's 
troops ordered to, 154; 155; 156; coun- 
try around, described, 157; 163; order of 
march from, 164; 165, 166, 167, i8z, 193 

Wyoming massacre, 157; description of, 
158; anniversary of, 159; 171 

Wyoming Valley, 155 

Wysox Creek (Wesawking), 170 

Yarmouth, see Falmouth, N.S. 

Yarmouth ville, Me., 95 

Yonkers, N.Y., see Phillipse Manor 

York, Me., 95 

York River, Z17 

Yorktown, Va., summary of campaign, 
195 ; 1.00, 2.17; siege of, zi8, Z19; British 
make sortie from, zzo; British propose 
a capitulation at, zzi; allied troops 
march from, zzz 

Of this book, designed by William A. Kittredge 
three hundred fifty copies have been printed from type at 
The Lakeside Press, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co. 

3 0112 025364727